Useful notes on Management: Introduction, and Concept of Management!
Introduction to Management:
Every human being has several needs and wants.
But it is not possible for an individual to satisfy all his desires himself. Therefore, he joins hands with his fellow- beings and works in an organized group to achieve, what he cannot accomplish single handedly. There are many types of organized groups, viz., a family, a hockey team, a college, a business firm, a government, etc.
Whatever may be the nature and kind of the group, it cannot work successfully unless there is someone to manage its affairs. Management is essential, wherever group efforts are needed to be directed towards certain goals. Group efforts become productive only when they are effectively managed.
It is the management which plans, organises, co-ordinates and controls the affairs of an enterprise. Every enterprise makes use of money, machinery and manpower. Management is required to assemble and co-ordinate these resources in the best possible manner for the achievement of the objectives of the enterprise.
Concept of Management:
The word ‘management’ can be styled as—Management (i.e., manage-men- tactfully). Why manage men tactfully? This is with a view to getting the things done through others. Traditionally, management means “managing men tactfully to get the things done through others”. But the modern approach to management is much broader in scope than the traditional one. It involves all kinds of activities which determine the objectives of the organisation.
It creates an environment for the achievement of these objectives with the help of various functions. Thus, the modern concept of management is goal oriented and it creates an internal environment for attaining the goals efficiently. The term management is also used as a process, as a group, as a discipline and as an activity.
1. Management: A Process:
Management is considered as a process which includes all the activities—starting from the setting up of objectives of a business enterprise to the taking up of steps which ensure the attainment of these objectives.
The management process comprises all functions which transform resources such as men, materials, money, machines, methods, marketing and management into products and services to satisfy the consumers’ needs. These resources as a whole are termed as 7 M’s.
The functions performed during the process of transformation of resources (i.e., 7 M’s into products and services) are known as management functions. Thus the management process comprises of functions such as planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
Features of Management-as a Process:
1. Continuous Process:
The task of the manager does not finish even after performing the last function of management i.e., controls. His job again starts with the planning function and so on. So, management is a continuous process.
2. Integrating Process:
All the functions of the management viz., planning, organising, staffing, directing, controlling are performed for integrating the human and material resources for attainment the goals of the organisation. Therefore, the management is an integrating process.
3. Social Process:
Management deals with human beings. A manager directs co-ordinates and controls the activities of the human beings in order to achieve the pre-determined objectives. Thus, management deals with the human beings. So, it is also a social process.
4. Universal Process:
The principles of management are applicable to all types of enterprises whether small (like family unit) or big units such as multinational companies. Therefore, it is a universal process.
5. Interactive Process:
The functions of the management are interwoven i.e. two or more functions may be performed at a time. For example, while preparing a plan a manager also sets the standards for control.
2. Management: A Group
Management as a group refers to those who carry the activities of management. So, the management consists of all those persons who are managing the affairs of the business enterprise. Therefore, the term management represents the group of people i.e., from chairman to supervisor, because they are concerned with getting things done through others.
Now-a-days, the contribution of the proprietors/ owners in management of an enterprise has decreased considerably. They are not in position to handle the different resources themselves as per the modern requirements.
For this purpose they have to employ qualified and trained managers who are entrusted with the resources (such as men, materials, money etc.) for achieving the objectives of the enterprise.
In a company form of organisation, the shareholders who are the real owners are scattered throughout the country, and the company is managed by number of persons employed by it. Thus, managing a business enterprise has become a group activity and ail those who are performing managerial duties are termed as management.
The word ‘management’ also connotes as top management viz. Chief Executive or Chairman of Board, Board of Directors, Managing Director etc. because the real decision making authority lies with the top management. For the outsiders, the term ‘management’ is referred to as the top management as they deal with day to day business of sale, purchase or other matters.
(i) It comprises persons right from chief executive to the supervisor, who have been assigned managerial duties.
(ii) It refers to top management only.
(iii) The word management is used as a collective noun.
3. Management: A Discipline
Management has been developed as a fully fledged discipline (as a subject of study) in the due course of time. The knowledge of management is being developed by number of scholars and it is being formally taught to the students of management.
It includes the specialised functional courses viz.: Financial Management, Personnel Management, Marketing Management etc. Thus, the management has grown as a separate discipline of study.
Management has been recognised as a full-fledged discipline since it contains the following feature:
(i) It is an organised body of knowledge.
(ii) It can be learnt through teaching and training.
(iii) Its study produces qualified professionals.
(iv) Code of conduct and ethics for management personnel are being considered.
(v) Association of management, body managerial personnel is also coming into existence.
4. Management: An Activity
The functional aspect of management is to organise the human and the material resources to achieve the objectives of the enterprise. In this process, the managers have to perform many activities.
These activities are:
All the managers have to communicate with their superiors as well as subordinates either in writing or orally.
2. Decision Making:
In an enterprise a manager has to take a number of decisions, such as recruitment of workers, selection actually, all the activities of the management are regulated by decision-making process.
3. Human Relations:
Management involves the activities for getting the work done through others. Therefore, the managers maintain good relations with subordinates. The managers even develop social relation with their subordinates and look after their personal problems sympathetically.
In this way, the managers motivate the people to work hard for achieving the objectives of the enterprise. Thus, the management is an activity which helps in developing the relations among human beings.
Though used in different senses, the term management as a process is the most popular. Thus, management may be defined as the sum total of all those activities which are undertaken to plan, organise, direct and control the efforts of others to serve the interests of all. It involves the Co ordination of human efforts and physical resources towards the achievement of organizational, individual and social objectives.