Everything you need to know about employee training. Training means imparting the knowledge, skills and aptitudes necessary to undertake the required jobs efficiently with a view to developing the worker to his fullest potential. As an organised activity, training is designed to create a change in the thinking and behaviour of people.

Training is a two-way and continuous process because there is no end to learning and secondly, a person gets to learn new technology, new patterns etc., continuously.

According to William G. Torpey, “Training is the process of developing skill, knowledge, habits and aptitudes in employees for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of employees in their present government position as well as preparing employee for future government positions.”

The aim of training is to train employee not just for the needs of tomorrow, but even for the day after. If training is to be effective, it should help the employee to re-develop his capacities-mental, moral and spiritual to instil in him a sense of dedication.


Learn about:-

1. Meaning and Definitions of Training 2. Characteristics of Training 3. Need 4. Objectives 5. Levels 6. Purpose 7. Types

8. Role of a Trainer 9. Courses 10. Methods 11. Approaches 12. Evaluation 13. Advantages 14. Ethical Issues.

Training in HRM – Meaning, Definitions, Objectives, Types, Methods, Approaches, Evaluation, Advantages and Ethical Issues


  1. Meaning and Definitions of Training
  2. Characteristics of Training
  3. Need for Training
  4. Objectives of Training
  5. Levels of Training
  6. Purpose of Training
  7. Types of Employee Training
  8. Role and Functions of a Trainer
  9. Courses of Training
  10. Training Methods
  11. Approaches to Training
  12. Training Evaluation
  13. Advantages of Training
  14. Ethical Issues in Training

Training in HRM – Meaning and Definitions Given by Flippo, Jucious, Breach, Torpey and Yoder

Training is the process through which skills, knowledge and aptitudes of the employees are increased to perform the specific job prescribed to them.


Training means imparting the knowledge, skills and aptitudes necessary to undertake the required jobs efficiently with a view to developing the worker to his fullest potential. As an organised activity, training is designed to create a change in the thinking and behaviour of people. Training is a two-way and continuous process because there is no end to learning and secondly, a person gets to learn new technology, new patterns etc., continuously.

The training acquaints the employee with the requisite skill, real life situations at the work place and helps him in the faultless accomplishment of the work. Training, thus, involves the development of the manual and mental skills that are necessary for performing a specific work, through instruction, drill and discipline.

“Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.” —Edwin B. Flippo


“Training is a process by which the attitudes, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.” —Micheal J. Jucious

“Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose.” —E. F. L. Breach

According to William G. Torpey, “Training is the process of developing skill, knowledge, habits and aptitudes in employees for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of employees in their present government position as well as preparing employee for future government positions.”

According to Dale Yoder, “Training is the process by which man-power is filled for the particular job it is to perform.”


Training is a continuous or never ending process. It prepare the employee not only for performing his present job well, but also for shouldering higher responsibilities and meeting new and complex challenges in future.

The aim of training is to train employee not just for the needs of tomorrow, but even for the day after. If training is to be effective, it should help the employee to re-develop his capacities-mental, moral and spiritual to instill in him a sense of dedication.

Training in HRM – 15 Important Characteristics

The various important characteristics of training are:

a. Training must be help to create an attitudinal change by creating awareness of the overall process.


b. Training helps to perform the role of different sections of em­ployees, the managerial responsibility and the importance of communication and participation

c. It must enhance skills in organizational and managerial areas

d. It must make orient new entrants in the organization to the dis­cipline and culture requirement of the organization

e. Proper orientation and training should be given to the new en­trants.


f. An effective training programme should process the following characteristics.

g. Training programmes should be chalked out after identifying needs or goals.

h. It should have relevance to the job requirements.

i. An effective training programme should be flexible.


j. It should make due allowance for the differences among the in­dividuals in regard to ability, aptitude, learning capacity, emo­tional make-up, etc.

k. A good training performance should prepare the trainee mentally before they are imparted any job knowledge or skills.

l. Training programmes should be conducted by well qualified and experienced trainers.

m. An effective training programme should have the support from top management.

n. Top management can gently influence the quality of training in the organization by the policies it adopts and the extent to which it supports training programmes.

o. An effective training programme should be supported by critical appraisal of the outcome of the training efforts.

Training in HRM – Need of Training Employees

After employees have been selected for various positions in an organisation, training them for the specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes great importance. It is true in many organisations that before an employee is fitted into a harmonious working relationship with other employees, he is given adequate training.


Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job.

Training is needed to serve the following purposes:

1. Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively and efficiently. Instructions, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently without any wastage.

2. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher level jobs (promotion).

3. Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in the job operations. In the phase of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.


4. Instruction can help employees increase their level of performance on their present assignment. Increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit.

5. Better performing workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. Quality increases may be in relationship to a company product or services or in reference to the intangible organisational employment atmosphere.

6. Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training, the employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably.

7. Organisations that have a good internal educational programme will have to make less drastic manpower changes and adjustments in the event of sudden personnel alterations. When the need arises, organizational vacancies can be more easily staffed from internal sources, if a company initiates and maintains an adequate instructional programme for both its non- supervisory and managerial employees. So it will help company to fulfil its future personnel needs.

8. Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs.

9. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees have and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run.


10. An endless chain of positive reactions results from a well-planned training programme. Production and product quality may improve, financial incentives may then be increased, there is a boost for internal promotions, less supervisory pressure and base pay rate increases result. Increased morale may be due to many factors but one of them is current state of an organization’s educational endeavour. Thus, it will improve overall organizational climate.

11. Proper training can help to prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees. Managerial mental state would also improve if supervisors know that they can better themselves through company designed development programmes. So it improves health and safety.

12. Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age or temperament or motivation or the inability of a person to adapt him to technological changes.

13. On a personal basis employees gain individually from their exposure to educational experiences. Again management development programmes seem to give participants a wider awareness, an enlarged skill and enlightened altruistic (kindness) philosophy and enhance personal growth.

14. Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers, (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance).

Training in HRM – 8 General Objectives: To Increase Productivity of Employees, To Remain Competitive in the Market, To Change Attitude of the Workers and a Few Others

The training objectives are laid down keeping in view the company’s goals and objectives.


The general objectives of training are as follows:

Objective # 1. To Increase Productivity of Employees:

Training helps in developing the capacities and capabilities of the employees-both new and old, by upgrading their skills and knowledge so that the organization could gainfully avail their services for higher grade professional, technical, sales or production positions from within the organization. In case of new employees, training aims to provide them with basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of their specific tasks.

Objective # 2. To Remain Competitive in the Market:

To tackle the immensely growing competition in the target market, it is important for an employer to increase the productivity of its workers while reducing the cost of production of the products. Training, therefore, aims to bring about efficiency and effectiveness in an organization to enable it to remain competitive in a highly competitive market situation and for the achievement of organizational goals.

Objective # 3. To Change Attitude of the Workers:

Training not only provides new knowledge and job skills to employees, but also brings about a change in their attitude towards fellow workers, supervisor and the organization. It increases job satisfaction among employees and keeps them motivated. It gives them security at the workplace and as a result, labour turnover and absenteeism rates are reduced. It also develops in them self-consciousness and a greater awareness to recognize their responsibilities and contribute their very best to the organization.

Objective # 4. To Enable Workers to Adapt Quickly to Changes:

Technology is changing at a fast pace. Technological changes like automation and development of highly mechanized and computer oriented systems, threaten the survival of dynamic companies by creating new problems, new methods, new procedures, new equipment’s, new jobs, new skills and knowledge, new product and services etc.

In such a situation, the employees may find themselves helpless to adapt to the changes and may feel frustrated and compelled to leave their jobs. Thus, training acts as a continuous process to update the employees in the new methods and procedures and make them efficient in handling advanced technology.

Objective # 5. To Mitigate the Risk of Accidents:


Trained workers can handle the machines safely. They also know the use of various safety devices in the factory. Thus, they are less prone to industrial accidents.

Objective # 6. To Reduce Wastage of Time and Resources:

Training aims at making employees efficient in handling materials, machines and equipment and thus to avoid wastage of time and resources. It also helps in imparting new skills among the workers systematically so that they may learn quickly. If the workers learn through trial and error, they will take a longer time and even then, may not be able to learn right methods of doing work.

Objective # 7. To Provide Growth Opportunities to Existing Employees:

Sometimes, it may not be possible for the management to fill in higher work positions from outside. Under such conditions, the apprenticeship programmes aiming at improving the skills of the present employees come to the aid of the company by make available their requirements of the personnel from within the organization. This reduces the need for recruiting people from outside and also improves the morale of the existing employees.

Objective # 8. To Make the Management Effective:

One of the primary objectives of training and development process is to give rise to a new and improved management which is capable of handling the planning and control without any serious problem. Knowledge and experience gathered through training enables them to handle the tough situations and confusing realities, thus opening the way for bigger and better opportunities for business. It can also be used for strengthening values, building teams, improving inter- group’s relations and quality of work life.

Training in HRM – Important Levels of Training to Unskilled Workers, Semi-Skilled Workers, Skilled Workers, Senior and Supervisory Staff and Other Staff

Just as the distribution of administration at different levels is essential for the efficient management, similarly the training program may have its own levels for effective results.

The following are some of the important levels of training of the employees:

1. Training to Unskilled Workers:

Unskilled workers require training to acquaint themselves with improved methods of handling their work to reduce the cost of production and do the job in the most economical and efficient way. Such employees are given training on the job itself and the training is imparted either by their immediate superior officers, or foremen.

2. Training to Semi-Skilled Workers:

This category of employees requires training to cope with the requirements of the industry arising out of the adoption of mechanisation and rationalisation. These employees are given training either in the section or department itself, or in segregated training shops, where machines and other facilities are easily available. The training is usually imparted by more proficient workers and it lasts for a few hours or weeks, depending upon the number of operations and speed and accuracy required.

3. Training to Skilled Workers:

Skilled workers are given training through the system of apprenticeship, varying in length up to a period of 5 years. Crafts training is imparted through training centres and the industry itself.

4. Training to Senior and Supervisory Staff:

Since the supervisors form a very important link in the chain of administration, therefore, they need advanced up-to-date training at frequent intervals. The training programmes for the supervisory staff must be specific and tailor-made to fit the need of the undertaking.

They are generally given training in:

(a) Organisation and control of production, maintenance and materials handling at the departmental levels.

(b) Planning, allocation and control of work and personnel.

(c) Planning their own work and allocation of time to their various responsibilities.

(d) Effect of industrial legislation at the departmental level.

(e) Cost factors and costs control.

(f) Accident prevention.

(g) Training of subordinates.

(h) Communication, effective instructing, report-writing.

(i) Handling and settling human/labour problems.

(j) Leadership for effective working of the undertaking.

4. Training to Other Staff:

5esides the above categories of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled workers, other employees are also required to be trained; they are computer operators, typists, stenographers, accounts clerks, etc. They need training in their field but such training is usually not provided. Salesmen are also given training about the nature of the products; routine involved in putting through the deal and art of salesmanship, along with the latest knowledge of the products being developed in the organisation.

Training in HRM – Purpose

Training is a significant management tool which helps in bringing the change. If proper opportunities are given to employee for training, no doubt, he will be one step superior in his efficiency. Therefore, the primary purpose of training is to improve worker’s productivity and the organisation’s profitability.

It is needed to serve the other following purposes:

1. To establish a social relationship between the employee and his job.

2. To prevent obsolescence of skills at all level in the organisation.

3. To make the new recruited employee not only competent and efficient but a better employee who will be able to understand organisation’s policy and channel of communication.

4. To prepare employees for future high level assignments.

5. To enhance employees morale and confidence.

6. To bring down cost of production, absenteeism and labour turnover of the organization.

7. To develop healthy and constructive attitudes among employees of the organization.

8. To require refresher training to the existing employees so that they are aware about the latest developments in job operations

9. To reduce grievances and minimize accident rates.

10. To make employees more mobile and versatile.

A programme of training becomes essential for purpose of meeting the specific problems of a particular organisation arising out of the introduction of new lines of production, changes in design, the demands of competition and economy, the quality of materials processes, individual adjustments, promotions, career, development, job and personal changes and change in the volume of business. But on the other hand, training is the most neglected aspect of personal policy in Indian Industries.

Training in HRM – 6 Types of Employee Training

Type # 1. Job Training:

Such training is given to make the employees proficient in performing the operations of the job. The new entrants are trained to handle the equipment’s and raw-materials correctly and perform the job operations efficiently. Old employees are acquainted with the latest methods of executing the jobs.

Type # 2. Induction Training:

Induction or orientation training refers to the training given to the new employees. The training is imparted by a competent and experienced executive, who provides knowledge about the work, tools, equipment’s, techniques and situational problems. The object is to make the employee ware and believe in the ideologies of the working.

Type # 3. Promotional Training:

Promotions provide encouragement to employees, and in many organisation, senior posts are filled by promotions. Promotion carries with it new responsibilities for which the incumbent must be prepared. The purpose of this type of training is to meet this demand.

Type # 4. Refresher Training:

Such training is designed to revive the earlier learning and to train employees in the use of new tools and work equipment’s. Short-term refresher courses are organised for this purpose. Such training helps to avoid personnel obsolescence.

Type # 5. Safety Training:

Under this type of training, employees are familiarised with safety devices, so that accidents may be prevented. The purpose of this training is to create safety consciousness among employees.

Type # 6. Remedial Training:

This type of training is designed to correct the mistakes and shortcomings in the work behaviour and job performance of employees.

Training in HRM – Role and Functions of a Trainer

The effectiveness and success of most of the training programs mainly depend upon the trainer. The capability and competency of the trainer determines the success or failure of any training method. Conceptually, the trainer is perceived as a person, who can eliminate the mental block of trainees; and motivate them to learn and clear their all misconceptions about any concept. Thus, effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer, who analyses the current training needs in the organization; and designs and evaluates the training program.

The major competencies or skills that should be present in a trainer to make the training program effective are as follows:

i. Presentation skills

ii. Business skills, such as budgeting, negotiation, and time management

iii. Content development skills, such as skills related to graphics and layout

iv. Self-development skills, such as interpersonal skills, good listening skills, and flexibility

v. Worksheet and exercises designing skills.

The functions performed by a trainer during training can be outlined and explained as follows:

1. Identifying the Training Needs of Individuals – Constitutes the very first function of trainers, where they identify the individual training needs. Trainers require accumulating the information about the individuals’ qualifications, skills, professional degrees, previous training attended, and tenure in the organization. The information deduced from this data helps trainers to plan and select the appropriate training methods.

2. Designing the Training Programs – Involves decision about the location, schedule, and number of individuals attending the training. It also helps in deciding the training method to be used, such as orientation or induction training, apprenticeship training, and on-the-job or off-the-job training.

3. Planning and Coordinating the Required Resources – Specifies that the trainer should plan and coordinate the training resources to make training an effective tool for the organization. In this function, the trainer analyses each training method and technique that has to be followed.

4. Evaluating the Training Program – Represents the comparison of planned objectives with the achieved objectives. The trainer acts as an evaluator and finds out the shortcomings of the training.

5. Maintaining Administrative Records – Denotes the last function of a trainer that involves recording the training data, the training resources, the trainer, and the feedback from trainees.

While performing all aforesaid functions, the trainer plays various roles, such as:

i. Training and Development Manager

ii. Program Designer

iii. Media Specialist

iv. Training Needs Analyst and Strategist

v. Facilitator and Instructor.

Training in HRM – 2 Important Methods of Employee Training: On the Job Training Method and Off the Job Training Method

Training plays a vital part in personnel administration and if is essential for each and every employee. To perform the administrative activities higher skills, knowledge and aptitudes are required and training is the process through which aptitudes, skills and abilities of the employee are increased.

Training is provided to the employee by two methods:

1. On the job methods and

2. Off the job methods.

These two methods are interrelated. It is impossible to say which of the methods is more useful than the other-on the job training method and off the job training methods are multifaceted in scope and dimension, and each is suitable for a particular situation. The best technique for one situation may not be best for other situation. Thus, care should be taken in adopting the technique of training to the learner and the job.

An effective training required the following objectives provide motivation to the trainee to improve job performance, develop a willingness to change, provide for the trainee’s active participation in the learning process, provide a knowledge of results about attempts to improve and permit practice where appropriate.

There are a number of methods through which the trainees are trained.

The methods normally classified into “on the job” and “off the job” training method, which is discussed in the following:

A. On the Job Training Method:

In this method, the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it the trainee is placed under the guidance of his immediate boss on the job training, which is given through the following methods-

1. On Specific Job:

Here the trainee trained for a specific job. It is conducted through-

(a) Experience:

This is the oldest method of on the job training. But it is wasteful, time consuming and inefficient method.

(b) Coaching:

On the job, coaching by a superior is an important and potentially effective approach, if superior is properly trained and oriented, the supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement Often the trainee shares his thoughts, views and apprehensions about the duties and responsibilities with the boss and thus gets relief and also relieves him of his burden. But limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom of opportunity to express his own ideas.

(c) Understudy:

It makes the trainee an assistant to the current jobholder. The trainee learns by experience, observations and initiation of the style of the person he asked to work with. The trainee is informed about the policies, the methods, techniques etc. Here training is conducted in a practical and realistic situation.

2. Position Rotation:

The major objective of job rotation is the broadening of the task of the trainee in the organisation. In this type of training trainee moves from one job to another and receives the job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the operational dynamics of a variety of jobs. There are certain disadvantages of this method.

The productive work become suffer because of various changes. Rotations become less useful as few people have the technical knowledge and skills to move from one functional area to another.

3. Special Projects:

This is a very flexible training programme. Here the trainee asked to perform special assignment, thereby he learns the work procedure. Trainees not only acquire knowledge about the assignment activities, but also learn how to work with others.

4. Selective Reading:

Individuals in the organisation gather and advance their knowledge through selective reading. The reading may be professional journals and books. Various business organisations maintain libraries for their staff. Many executives become members of professional associations and they exchange their ideas with others. This is good method of assimilating knowledge.

5. Apprenticeship:

Aim of this training is to develop all round craftsmen. Generally, a stipend is paid during the training period. Thus, it is an “earn while you learn” scheme.” Today’s industrial organisations require the large number of skilled craftsmen who can be trained by this system.

Such training is either provided by the organisation or it is imparted by governmental agencies. Most states now have apprenticeship laws with supervised plans. Such training provides a mixed programme of classroom and job experience.

6. Vestibule School:

Large organisations are provided vestibule schools which is a preliminary for actual shop experience. As far as possible, shop conditions are duplicated, under the close watch of the instructors. Vestibule schools are widely used in training for clerical and office jobs as well as for factory production job. Such training is though shorter and less complex but is relatively expensive. However, the costs are justified, if the volume of training is large and high standard results are achieved.

B. Off the Job Training Methods:

Here, trainees have to leave their work place and devote their entire time in the training. In these methods development of trainees is primary and work produced during training is secondary. In this method, trainee place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing. It also provides freedom of expression to the trainees.

Off-the-job training methods are as follows:

1. Special Course and Lectures:

For development programmes special courses and lectures are organised by organisations in different ways. In the first approach, there are courses, which the organisations themselves establish to be taught by members of the organisations. Some organisations have regular instructors assigned to their training and development departments.

A second approach is to special courses and lectures is to work with universities or institutes in establishing a course of series of courses to be taught by instructors of these institutions.

The third approach is to send personnel to programmes organised by the universities, institutes and other bodies. Such courses are organised for a short period ranging from 2-3 days to a few weeks.

2. Conferences:

This is an old but still a favourite training method. Many organisations have adopted discussion type or conferences in their training programmes. In this method, the participants with their full ideas and experiences deal with the problems, which are common subject of the discussion. Conferences may include buzz sessions that divide conferences into small groups of four or five for intensive discussion. These small groups then report back to the whole conference with their conclusions.

3. Case Studies:

This technique was developed and popularised by the Harvard Business School in USA Here a case is written account of trained reporter to describe an actual situation. Cases are widely used in a variety of programmes. This method increases the trainee’s power of observation. It helps him to ask better questions and to look for a broader range of problems.

4. Brainstorming:

This method stimulates creative thinking of the trainees. It was developed by Alex Osborn to reduce prohibiting forces by providing for a maximum of group participation and a minimum of criticism Here a problem is posed and ideas are sought. Quantity rather than quality is the primary objective. Ideas are encouraged and criticism of any idea is discouraged. Chain reaction from idea to idea is often developed. Later these ideas are critically examined.

5. Laboratory Training:

Laboratory training change individual behaviour and attitude. It is generally more successful in changing job performance than conventional training methods.

There are two methods of laboratory training, namely simulation and sensitivity training as explained below:

(a) Simulation:

Simulation is the presentation of real situation of organisation in the training session. It covers situations of varying complexities and roles for the participants. It creates a whole field organisation, relates participants through key roles in it, and asks them to deal with specific situations of a kind they encounter in real life. There are two common simulation methods of training role playing is one and business game is the other.

i. Role Playing:

Role-playing is a laboratory method. It is supplement to conventional training methods. Its purpose is to increase the trainee’s skill in dealing with other people. By this method, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying different approaches. Role-playing also has some limitations. It is time-consuming and expensive. It requires experienced trainers because it can easily turn over- without effective direction.

ii. Gaming:

Gaming has simulated the problems of a company or even a particular department. It has been used for a variety of training purpose, from investment strategy, collective bargaining techniques to the morale of clerical personnel. It has been used from the top executive’s level to the production supervisor’s level.

It is a laboratory method in which role-playing exists in different way. It forces attention on administrative problems, while role-playing emphasise mostly on interaction. Gaining involves several teams in which each teams operate for a specified period.

Generally, this period is for short time, it may be one year. In each period, each team makes decisions on various matters such as fixation of price, level of production, inventory level, and so forth. Since each team is competing with others, each firm’s decision will affect the results of others.

All the firm decisions are fed into a computer, which is programmed to behave somewhat like a real market. The computer provides the results and the winner is the team, which has accumulated largest profit In the light of such results, strengths and weaknesses of decisions are analysed.

(b) Sensitivity Training:

It is the most controversial laboratory training method. Many of its advocates have religious zeal in their enhancement with the training group experience. Some of its critics match this favour in their attacks on the technique. As a result of criticism and experience, a somewhat revised approach, often described as “team development” training has appeared.

National Training Laboratories at Bethal, USA, first used it. The training groups are called T-Group. It is a small group, which requires people, to become sensitive, to one another’s feeling in order to develop reasonable group activity.

Training in HRM – 8 Important Approaches: Educational Approach, Problem-Centred Approach, Action Learning Approach, Analytical Approach and a Few Others

The approaches are some operating view points and develops conceptual framework towards the training programme.

Generally there are eight important approaches are studying here:

1. The Educational Approach:

The learning environment are absolutely based on this approach. It is more conceptual than operational. The contents for training are planned with educational contents and involved a large part of people with typically substantial and usually leads to specific qualification.

2. The ‘Problem-Centred’ Approach:

The learning needs are determined by the operational problems of individuals or groups in organisations. This approach is predominantly short-term and ad hoc in nature as well as highly acceptable throughout the organisation. It seems to serve real work problem, it produces results quickly and it is usually believed to problem solving approach.

The effectiveness of this approach revolves around the identification of causative problems and availability of experts to solve such problems.

3. The ‘Action Learning’ Approach:

‘Action learning’ is basically the study of real-life problems and their resolution within a real-life environment. Its justification as an approach to (mainly management) training is twofold – it offers a challenge, which is turn provides all-important motivation, and it tries to manage all problematic parts and finding out some opportunities. The learning aspects are based on real life problems and try to maintain some feelings of achievement and confidence in the people.

4. The System Approach:

Though organisation as a whole denotes as a system and training programme and its operational activities with their inter-relationship are part of a system. A system approach may equally address and involved the training system and its evaluating and control of such a system may be assessed on the basis of training process.

5. The Analytical Approach:

The needs and requirements of training programme may be analysed and followed by detailed analysis of skills, knowledge and attitudes required for each job. This approach emphasises to find out the learning gap as arising out of the differences between training needs and employee’s performance.

6. The Training ‘Process’ Approach:

It is the operating approach that training programme is a process that is the part of personnel department. This process have the stages as identifying training needs, designing training plans, implementing the plans and evaluating the results.

7. Strategic Approach:

During the last few years a competitive objective based criteria has emerged. It needs to strengthen the link between business strategy and HRD programme. More attention may be given to organisational strategies to make new and competitive means of training.

8. Human Capital Approach:

It is based on the concept that training as an investment in human capital that gives returns in the form of increased efficiency and productivity. By means of training, the skills and competencies can be appeared more superior as compared to the competitors. It is based on human capital as part of investment.

Training in HRMTraining Evaluation

Any training evaluation begins with the criteria, which depend on the training objectives. Some of these criteria could be the reaction of the trainees, their learning, behavioural changes, and impact on organizational changes. Thus, one may be required to evaluate the reaction of trainees to be aware of whether they liked or disliked the training programme. Check the learning by examining whether the trainee could assimilate the concepts, ideas, and principles of the training.

Training and development programmes are necessary for improving the quality of performance. One of the important criteria for the evaluation of training incorporates behavioural changes, that is, whether the training has caused any alteration in the behaviour or not. Similarly, impact on organizational changes indicates if the modified behaviour has caused any positive results, such as increased output, and improved quality, supported by cost reduction.

The trainer can even group the criteria discussed as being subjective or objective. Subjective criteria can rely on the participants’ verbal opinions—they are asked about their impressions of the training modality and effectiveness, on the concluding day of the training, whereas objec­tive criteria relate to the effects of the training through measuring the specific outcomes, which can determine the quantity produced, number of rejections, time taken to produce a component, etc.

The training evaluation process encompasses a systematic collection of data relevant to the training need identification, selection of training methodology, adoption of training aids, or modification of workplace learning activities.

Despite organizations expending a great deal of effort and financial resources in setting up training and developing programmes, comparatively little attention is paid to evaluating their effectiveness. Organizations must be instrumental to evaluate the training programmes and in demanding cases, must initiate remedial measures.

Evaluation of training is ‘any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that information for improving further training’.

Training in HRM – 7 Main Advantages: Improvement in Production and Productivity, Lesser Supervision, Maximum Utilisation of Materials and Machines and a Few Others

Training is useful for both employers and employees. A well-trained employee is an asset to the enterprise. Training enables the employee to get job security, higher earnings and promotion. It increases the productivity of the workers and the output for the organisation.

The main advantages of training are as follows:

Advantage # 1. Improvement in Production and Productivity:

Training helps to improve the efficiency and productivity of employees. Well-trained employees make better use of materials and machinery. Wastage is reduced and as a result quality and quantity of production becomes higher.

Advantage # 2. Lesser Supervision:

Well-trained employees have the knowledge about their jobs and equipment’s and can do their work efficiently. Thus, the training reduces the need of supervision to bare minimum.

Advantage # 3. Maximum Utilisation of Materials and Machines:

Training teaches the employees the method of doing their job in the best possible manner. They have knowledge of operating machines and equipment’s and handles them properly and methodically. As a result of it, they make the best possible utilisation of materials and machines.

Advantage # 4. Better Safety:

Human error or negligence is the major cause of accidents in the industry. Due to the operational efficiency of the trained workers and the complete knowledge about the working of the plants and machines, chances of accidents are reduced.

Advantage # 5. High Morale:

Effective training improves the self-confidence and job satisfaction of employees. Well-trained employees take greater interest in their job and derive a sense of security. By boosting the morale of employees, training helps to reduce absenteeism and improve labour turnover.

Advantage # 6. Better Chances of Promotion:

As the trained employees have the requisite qualifi­cation and training, they can be promoted to higher grades and position more easily than untrained workers.

Advantage # 7. Stability and Flexibility in the Organisation:

An enterprise, where trained personnel’s are available, can expand and grow easily. Its survival is not threatened when a few key personnel’s are lost because proper replacements are available. Well- trained employees can be transferred from one job to another in order to meet the requirements of other departments. Thus, training also lends flexibility to the organisation.

Training in HRM – 16 Ethical Issues: Atmosphere, Codes of Conduct, Compliance with Legislation, Copyright, Financial Probity, Honesty and a Few Others

Ethical conduct refers to the behaviour, attitudes and judgments recognized as appropriate to a particular domain. In relation to training, as Harrison (2005) has pointed out, ‘. . . ethical practice lies at the heart of true professionalism so we must confront at least some of the basic issues’. Trainers must conduct themselves in an ethical manner when they deal with trainees, clients and fellow professionals.

Some of the key considerations that need to be kept in mind by the trainers are:

i. Atmosphere – Not creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive training environment, and not indulging in behaviour that is designed to ridicule or abuse trainees or contacts.

ii. Codes of Conduct – Establishing clear codes of conduct at the outset of and during the course of a training event or assignment and adhering to these codes.

iii. Compliance with Legislation – Complying with relevant legislation on equal opportunities, human rights and how these relate to training.

iv. Confidentiality – Not disclosing details of client organizations of trainees to other parties, internal or external, unless there is a legal obligation to do so or legitimate authority has been given.

v. Copyright – Mentioning the training materials taken from different sources along with their originators not take credit for ideas produced by others and not plagiarize or neglect to acknowledge the work or contribution of others.

vi. Financial Probity – Managing financial matters honestly and not gaining any advantage through the training or consultancy activity undertaken by offering trainees or clients financial inducements in order, to obtain future work or favours.

vii. Honesty – Providing accurate information about self, qualifications and experience; not making claims about their expertise that are unjustified.

viii. Line Management – Resisting pressure from line management to make assessments on trainees’ performance unless this is an agreed and integral part of the programme developed by the management and clearly understood by trainees.

ix. Objectivity – Giving trainees honest and objective feedback about training performance at appropriate times and in a manner that respects their integrity and sensitivities. Focusing on the behavior of the trainees and not on their personal attributes.

x. Provide Value for Money – Using appropriate resources and, unless there are sound professional or economic reasons, not showing favor to particular providers, locations, etc.

xi. Realism – Not raising unrealistic expectations about what a training course or programme can achieve with trainees or clients.

xii. Record Keeping – Maintaining and collecting accurate records consistent with professional purposes and legal requirements related to training.

xiii. Relationships with Trainees – Not establishing intimate or personal relationships with trainees, clients or colleagues during the course of a training programme or assignment as this may adversely affect outcomes and relationships.

xiv. Research Authenticity – Reporting accurately research results that inform or impinge on training activities and not hiding the results in part or in full.

xv. Safety – Ensuring safety measures are in place when carrying out training exercises that are potentially risky and not to put trainees through exercises that might harm them.

xvi. Sensitivity – Being responsive to a trainee’s needs, abilities, disabilities and difficulties, and to cultural and ethnic differences that the trainees may face during the course of training.