The steps involved in the process of executive development are:-
1. Identifying Development Programmes 2. Appraisal of Current Pool of Management 3. Defining Parameters 4. Inventory of Executives Manpower 5. Developing Executive Development Programmes 6. Conducting Development Programmes 7. Programme Evaluation.
Executive Development: Process, Stages and Steps
Process of Executive Development – 7 Step Process
1. Identifying Development Programmes:
First, an organization has to critically examine the organization’s developmental needs, present as well as future. Then, it should decide on what types of managers/executives are needed to achieve such needs. An examination of the organizational structure in the light of future plans helps the organization know what the organization requires in terms of functions, departments and executive positions.
Having got this information, it can prepare job description and job specification for all managerial positions. Then, it should compare the existing pool of talent available in-house as well as the strength of potential employees who can be nurtured with the total talent needed to meet the projected needs of the organization. This comparison will help the top management to shape a policy on internal promotion and external hiring of executives.
2. Appraisal of Current Pool of Management Talent:
The performance appraisal of present executives shows the respective performance of each executive in the current position. This discloses the strength and weakness of the existing executives. Besides, the organization should conduct a potential appraisal either formally or through feedback provided by superiors, peers and the HR department. Thus both the current as well as potential appraisal indicates the type of development exposure needed for an executive.
3. Defining Parameters:
Parameters for development needs to be identified in the light of overall developmental needs. These parameters need to be defined in terms of various skills required at different levels of the career for a manager.
4. Inventory of Executives Manpower:
Inventory of executive’s age, education, experience, health record, psychological test result and performance appraisal data has to be prepared. An analysis of the inventory discloses the strength and weakness of executives in certain functions relative to the future needs of the organization. This step gives vital input for developing programmes for executives.
5. Developing Executive Development Programmes:
This programmes should be tailored to address the deficiency of executives. The individual differences like age, physique, emotional intelligence, intelligence quotients, etc., should be factored in designing the programme.
6. Conducting Development Programmes:
The organization has to choose appropriate programmes like leadership courses, soft-skill development, sensitivity training, team building, problem-solving, management games and so on to address the needs of the executives relative to the current and future needs of the organization.
7. Programme Evaluation:
Since the management programme involves investment of money, time and energy resources, top management intends to measure the impact of the programme. The pre and post programme survey would help in measuring its effectiveness and on deciding the continuity of various programmes.
Process of Executive Development – 3 Main Stages
The training and development needs of an employee cannot be looked at in isolation; any proactive organization has to view the individual training needs in the overall organizational context. The training and development processes are no longer adjunct to other departments but have become a part of organizational strategy and one of the key corporate objectives.
The process of arriving at the developmental needs of the managers can be comprehensively viewed through the process discussed below:
At the macro level, that is, stage I, the three key parameters to be considered are the competitive environment, organizational strategy, and organizational objectives. The analysis of the competitive environment helps the organization to decide on its competitive positioning in the marketplace, based on which the organizational strategy is drawn out in an attempt to transform or reposition the organization.
The macro view is broken down into specific organizational objectives for further dissemination to functional/departmental, group, and individual levels.
The second stage is the most critical aspect in the process of analysis where three key parameters—competency mapping, identification of competency gaps, and career planning—are to be analysed.
The first step in Stage II, that is, competency mapping tries to capture the competencies of all the human resources in the organization, including that of the management and in the second step, the competency gaps, that is, the organizational requirements vis-a-vis the available competency baskets are analysed.
In the third step, that is, career planning, the organizational needs vis-a-vis the individual growth needs are examined, which provides information regarding the developmental needs of the managers. Each of these three parameters is mutually interactive and integrated.
Any strategy/action plan is of little relevance if it is not translated into action or implemented effectively. The third stage—the implementation stage—is three tired. The first tier involves the assessment of the training needs, collectively and individually, of all the employees, based on which the annual training plan (ATP) is drawn out. Based on the ATP, the employees are either brought into the corporate training system, in case of internal training programmes, or nominated to external organizations.
While deciding on the location and nature of training programmes, the HR departments and the learning facilitators look at various issues such as the number of managers to be trained, cost factors involved in conducting internal programmes vis-a-vis outsourcing, availability of technical/required expertise in the organizations, etc.
Further, in case of organizational-development- related exercises, normally, a combination of initial external facilitation followed by internal programmes is planned by the organizations.
One of the important aspects is the ownership of the executive development initiatives in the organizations. The top management has a decisive say in the entire process, and the HR department and the training system share the efforts. In short, it is more of a collective phenomenon, which is primarily led by the motives and initiatives of the top management.
Another important aspect in the last stage is the analysis of the efficacy and effectiveness of training and development, because of the sheer fact that training and development has become prohibitively expensive and it is imperative for organizations to assess the return on investment (RoI).
Process of Executive Development – Analysis of Development Needs, Appraisal of Present Managerial Talent, Inventory of Executive Manpower and a Few Others
Following essential steps are followed in the process of executive development:
Step # 1. Analysis of Development Needs:
In the first step the present and future developmental needs of the organisation are ascertained. It becomes important to determine that how many and what type of executives required for meeting the present and future needs of the organisation.
Following procedure is followed in determining the development needs in the business organisation:
(i) Analysing the organizational structure for the purpose of determining what the organisation needs in the terms of departments and key executive positions.
(ii) Preparing the job descriptions and specifications for all key executive positions.
(iii) Determining the type of knowledge and skills required for performing the job on each key executive position.
Step # 2. Appraisal of Present Managerial Talent:
In this step the qualitative assessment of the existing executives is done for determining the type of executive talent available within the organisation.
Following steps are followed for the appraisal of present managerial talent:
(i) The actual performance of the present executives is compared with the standard performance.
(ii) Personal traits of the executives are also studied for estimating their potential for the development.
Step # 3. Inventory of Executive Manpower:
In this step an inventory of qualified executive personnel is prepared so that the information about each executive on each position can be obtained easily. A card is prepared for each member of the executive team listing the name, age, education, experience, and health record, length of service, results and performance appraisal data. This information is then used for selecting the executives for the development programme as per their background.
Step # 4. Planning Individual Development Programme:
The strengths and weaknesses of each executive are identified on the basis of their performance appraisal. On the basis of this information the special executive development programmes are developed which suit the interest and needs of the executives.
Step # 5. Establishment of Training and Development Programme:
In this step the comprehensive and well-conceived programmes are prepared by the human resource department. After identifying the development needs, the department launches special courses in the fields of leadership, decision making, and human relation.
The human resource department also recommends the names of the executives for the special executive development programmes and on the basis of their recommendations the top management nominates the executives who then participate in the special executive development programmes.
Step # 6. Evaluation of the Development Programme:
The huge amount of money, time and efforts are incurred on designing the executive development programmes, so it becomes necessary to find out to what extent the programme objectives have been achieved. The evaluation of the programmes will reveal the relevance of the development programmes and further changes that should be made to make these programmes more useful for the organisation.
Process of Executive Development – 7 Stages Involved in the Process of Executive Development
According to Dooher and Marquis, the stages involved in a management development programme are:
1. Organisational planning, to determine the company’s present and future needs.
2. Programme targeting, to focus the company’s efforts on the most pertinent areas.
3. Ascertaining key positions requirements, to stress the basic requirements of particular managerial positions.
4. Managerial appraisal, to evaluate periodically the abilities and performance of individuals with a view to identifying managers showing a promise of further development and meeting their training needs.
5. Replacement of skills inventories, to indicate persons qualified for managerial replacements.
6. Planning individual development programmes, to provide specific development programmes for promising managers.
7. Appraising existing programmes, to ascertain areas of improvement to be incorporated in future programmes.
Management development cannot take place unless a favourable climate for it is created at the top which extends down through each level of the organisation. It may come to a standstill if encouragement is not available to the persons concerned.
If the growth stops at the middle management, it is impeded at that level; and then the first line management and non-supervisory employees, too, suffer. Therefore, the creation of a proper organisational climate is a “must” for the success of any development programme.
In order that a proper development climate is created, it must be borne in mind that:
1. First, development is a learning rather than a teaching process; the burden for final growth rests on the individual.
2. Second, growth takes place through a striving process in which sights (objectives) are set high and tasks involve “stretching”.
3. Third, development takes place largely by building on the strength of the people rather than by a concentration on the elimination of weakness.
4. Fourth, a feeling of confidence in, and approval of, the process of development must be generated among those who are to be affected by it. This is seldom possible when the superior has a negatively critical point of view.
5. Fifth, at all levels, a genuine faith in development is necessary, a belief that people can and will, with proper goals and encouragement, do better.
6. Finally, all concerned must, with an open heart and mind, be willing to welcome and accept any change in a point of view.
To develop a proper management climate, it is vital to pay a vigorous and constant attention to the administration of a development programme. There must be a comprehensive and co-ordinated planning, and the plan should apply first to the top so that management at that level may, by its own efforts, set an example for personnel development.