Everything you need to know about what is training in HRM.
Training is concerned with the teaching/learning carried on for the basic purpose of enabling the employees to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization.
The objective of training is to develop specific and useful knowledge, skills and techniques. It is intended to prepare people to carry out predetermined tasks in well-defined job contexts. Training is basically a task-oriented activity aimed at improving performance in current or future jobs.
As observed by Andrew F. Sikula, the need or the purpose of training is to ensure increase in productivity; and it is believed that “increased human performance (through instructions), often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit”.
Secondly, the purpose of training is improvement of quality since better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes.
1. Meaning of Training 2. Features of Training 3. Needs and Objectives 4. Systematic Approach 5. Methods 6. Types
7. Process 8. Inputs 9. Improving Training Effectiveness 10. Training as an Important Tool 11. Evaluation 12. Importance and Benefits.
What is Training in HRM: Features, Needs, Objectives, Methods, Types, Process, Importance and Benefits of Training
- Meaning of Training
- Features of Training
- Needs and Objectives of Training
- A Systematic Approach to Training
- Methods of Training
- Types of Training
- Process of Training
- Inputs in Training and Development
- How to Improve Effectiveness of Training Programmes by Applying Learning Principles?
- Training and Human Resource Management
- Training Evaluation
- Importance and Benefits of Training
What is Training in HRM – Meaning
Training and development of human resources has evoked a great deal of interest in recent years. Human resource management has two basic approaches- a reactive, or problem-solving approach; and a proactive, or forward-looking approach. Training is used in both. Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes of present employees to improve the match between employee characteristics and employment requirements.
At the time of hiring, no one is perfect and some training and education becomes a must. No organization has a choice of whether to develop employees or not; the only choice is that of method. If there is no organized programme, then development will be mostly self-development while learning on the job.
In the present day radical changes, organizations are striving hard to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. Obviously, employee training and development has become not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to. Training has become a big business and getting bigger.
A sad state of affairs is that inspite of good budgets, best intentions, and true needs, several training programmes fail to achieve lasting results. Nothing can succeed with vague goals. If one doesn’t know where he is going, neither can he tell if he gets there nor can he tell if he lands somewhere else.
Employee training attempts to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. Continuous growth and development of employees makes an organization viable and it adapts itself to changing environment.
New problems, new procedures and developments in technology, new knowledge and job requirements are constantly creating the need for training – thus making it a continuous process. Coping with the changes essentially involves increased emphasis on human resources development.
Development of human resources involves acquisition of new abilities with changed skills, knowledge and attitude of the employee necessary for better performance. Development includes both training to increase skill in performing a specific job and education to increase general knowledge of the total environment.
Thus, training and development activities can become meaningful when integrated with the overall human resource development strategy of an organization. They have assumed great importance with the phenomenal and unprecedented changes in the internal and external environments of today’s organizations.
Training is supposed to bring about change in the behaviour of employees so as to enable them to meet the current and future requirements of their tasks and roles.
Thus, training is concerned with the teaching/learning carried on for the basic purpose of enabling the employees to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by that organization.
What is Training in HRM – Features
I. Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job- Training bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge and behaviours.
II. Focuses attention on the current job- It is job specific and provides employees with specific skills. Training helps employees’ correct deficiencies in their performance.
III. Concentrates on individual employees- Training lays emphasis on changing what employees know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work or their interactions with their co-workers or supervisors.
IV. Narrow focus- Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns. It tries to fix current skill deficit. The goal of training is a fairly quick improvement in workers’ performance. It is a job specific and individual-oriented effort aimed at improving short term performance fairly quickly.
V. Relatively permanent change in employee behaviour- Training is actually a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in individuals that will improve their ability to perform on the job.
Development, in contrast, is considered to be more general than training and more oriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimed toward management of people.
There is more theory involved with such education and hence less concern with specific behaviour than is the case with training. Usually, the intent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding that will enable people to carry out non-technical organizational functions more effectively.
The term ‘education’ is wider in scope and more general in purpose when compared to training. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee while doing a job. It is job-oriented (skill learning). Education, on the other hand, is the process of increasing the general knowledge and understanding of employees.
It is a person-oriented, theory-based knowledge with the main purpose of improving the understanding of a particular subject or theme (conceptual learning). Its primary focus is not the job of an operative.
Education is imparted through schools or colleges and the contents of such a programme generally aim at improving the talents of a person. Training is practice-based and company-specific. However, both have to be viewed as programmes that are complementary and mutually supportive. Both aim at harnessing the true potential of a person/employee.
What is Training in HRM – Needs and Objectives
Training and development function in an organization has gradually become a major activity since the continued effectiveness and efficiency of an organization depends on the ability of its employees to produce at high levels of efficiency, and keep abreast with their changing job-role demands.
The objective of training is to develop specific and useful knowledge, skills and techniques. It is intended to prepare people to carry out predetermined tasks in well-defined job contexts. Training is basically a task-oriented activity aimed at improving performance in current or future jobs.
As observed by Andrew F. Sikula, the need or the purpose of training is to ensure increase in productivity; and it is believed that “increased human performance (through instructions), often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit”. Secondly, the purpose of training is improvement of quality since better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes.
Third purpose of training is human resource planning or adequate fulfilment of an organization’s future personnel requirements since “organizational vacancies can more easily be staffed from internal sources if a company initiates and maintains an adequate instructional programme for both its non-supervisory and managerial employees.
Fourth purpose of training is enhancing employee motivation. Fifthly, improving morale. Sixth purpose is to improve organizational climate since an endless chain of positive reactions can result from a well-planned training programme. Seventh purpose is to make possible an increase in compensation indirectly through opportunities for internal promotions arising out of better knowledge, understanding and competence bringing about financial rewards. Eighty, improvement of health and safety through proper training can be achieved by prevention of accidents or creation of safer work environment.
Ninth purpose of training is prevention of obsolescence as it is pointed out that “Training and development programmes faster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower obsolescence due to age, temperament or motivation or the inability of a person to adapt himself to technological changes”.
Lastly, personal growth of individual employees resulting from “their exposure to educational experiences” including an enlightened outlook, a wider awareness and greater capacities of thought, imagination and power of analysis and decision-making.
The ultimate objective of training the employees is improvement in their performance thereby facilitating achievement of organizational goals.
Specific objectives of training are:
(i) The production of work to require standards of quality, quantity, cost and time.
(ii) The development of staff, by skill and knowledge, to meet the foreseeable needs of the organization, i.e.
a. Higher productivity
b. Increased efficiency in operation
c. A safe and harmonious working environment.
Commenting on the objective of a training programme, O. Jeff Harris, Jr observed:
“Training of any kind should have as its objective the redirection or improvement of behaviour so that the performance of the trainee becomes more useful and productive for himself and for the organization of which he is a part. Training normally concentrates on the improvement of either “operative skills”, “interpersonal skills”, “decision-making skills”, or a combination of these.”
What is Training in HRM – A Systematic Approach to Training
Systematic training has a key role to play in the quest for efficiency and for profit and this merits close attention.
Systematic approach to training involves:
1. Establishing the facts about the present and the likely future, prospective or projected manpower situation and organization’s growth and determining the gaps.
2. Planning a complete training cycle. Systematic training programme includes the following steps-
(a) Determination, review and clear understanding of organization’s goals
(b) Designing methodology and undertaking training needs survey
(c) Analysis of data collected
(d) Determining training objectives
(e) Prioritizing training objectives
(f) Setting up the training institutes
(g) Preparation of calendar of training programmes
(h) Preparation of training budgets
(i) Identification of contents of training programme
(j) Determination of sequence of sessions in training programme
(k) Selection of participants
(I) Selection of resource persons
(m) Selection of training methodology
(n) Selection of training material
(o) Implementation of training programme
(p) Evaluation of training programme
(q) Undertaking on the job evaluation
(r) Implementation of training follow up activities.
What is Training in HRM – Methods: On-The-Job Training and Off-The-Job Training
Broadly speaking, there are two methods of training, viz., on-the-job training and off-the-job training.
A. On-The-Job Training:
In this method the employee learns by doing. He is exposed to the real work situation. An experienced employee will act as the friend, philosopher and guide. The new employee follows the orders, carries out instructions and adopts the right technique while doing the job. In this way, he is able to learn the work practically.
While doing so he can ask questions, seek clarifications on various job-related matters and obtain guidance from his senior employee. Important on-the-job methods of training include, job rotation, coaching or job instruction, working as an assistant or understudy under senior employees, temporary promotions etc.
Some of the widely used on the job training methods are discussed below:
1. Job Instruction Training (JIT):
The JIT method (developed during World War II) is a four step instructional process involving preparation, presentation, performance try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current j obs. A trainer, supervisor or co-worker acts as the coach.
The four steps followed in the JIT methods are:
(i) The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
(ii) The trainer demonstrates the job to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job.
(iii) Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.
(iv) Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision.
Merits and Demerits of Job Instruction Training:
(a) Trainee learns fast through practice and observation.
(b) It is economical as it does not require any special settings. Also, mistakes can be corrected immediately.
(c) The trainee gains confidence quickly as he does the work himself in actual settings with help from supervisor.
(d) It is most suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs where the job operations are simple; easy to explain and demonstrate within a short span of time.
(a) The trainee should be as good as the trainer. If the trainer is not good, transference of knowledge and skill will be poor.
(b) Trainee while learning may damage equipment, waste materials and cause accidents frequently.
(c) Experienced workers cannot use the machinery while it is being used for training.
2. Coaching and Mentoring:
Coaching is a one-on-one relationship between trainees and supervisors which offers workers continued guidance and feedback on how well they are handling their tasks. Mentoring is a particular form of coaching used by experienced executives to groom junior employees.
Normally, mentoring involves one-on-one coaching for a period of several years until the individual is eventually capable of replacing the mentor.
Merits and Demerits of Coaching and Mentoring:
i. There is an excellent opportunity to learn quickly through continuous interaction.
ii. Constant guidance helps the trainee to be on track, using facilities to good advantage.
i. It may create feelings of jealousy among other workers who are not able to show equally good performance.
ii. If mentors form overly strong bonds with trainees, unwarranted favouritism may result. This can have a demoralising effect on other workers, affecting their work performance in a negative way.
(3) Apprenticeship Training:
Apprenticeship training dates back to Biblical times and is frequently used to train personnel in some skilled trades such as electricians, mechanics, tailors, bricklayers, and carpenters. The period of training ranges from two to five years depending on the occupation in which the trainee is engaged.
Frankly speaking, apprenticeship refers to a combined on-the-job as well as off-the-job training approach in the sense that the trainee agrees to work for a salary below that a fully qualified employee gets, in exchange for a specified number of formal training hours in the organization.
One advantage of apprenticeship training is its success; success because apprenticeship programmes employ many of the principles of learning-such as modelling, feedback, class-room training etc., and are often quite effective.
The principal drawbacks of apprenticeship training include the period of training at which the employees are underpaid may be quite long. Also, the uniform period of training is not suitable to all people have different abilities and learn at varied rates. Those who learn fast may quit the programme in frustration.
Slow learners may require additional training time. It is also likely that in these days of rapid changes in technology, old skills (remember Java?) may get out dated quickly. Trainees. Who spend years learning specific skills may find, upon completion of their programmes that the job skills they acquired are no longer in the market place.
(4) Job Rotation:
Job rotation is also known as cross training. Job rotation is the process of training employees by rotating them through series of related tasks. In job rotation, an individual learns several different jobs within a work unit or department. He performs each for a specified time period.
The trainees, therefore, are exposed to various coaches, points of views, and task operations. Job rotation has one main advantage; it makes flexibility possible in the department. For instance, when one employee of a work unit is absent, another employee can perform his job.
Job rotation is uncommon and not useful for training technical skills such as programming and welding. Job rotation, is common for training managers. Job rotation, rather is very necessary for middle managers because through rotation managers are exposed to different operations, departments and acquire general knowledge of the company’s procedures and policies.
The principal weakness of job rotation include:
(i) It is very difficult to coordinate various assignments such as production, finance and marketing etc. (the jobs usually vary in content and the trainee might be moved from production to finance, to sales, to personnel etc.).
(ii) Some of the coaches may not be motivated to concentrate on trainees assigned only for short period.
(iii) Different coaches may espouse conflicting viewpoints of company policies and procedures.
(5) Refresher Training:
Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. By organising short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field, the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialise in a particular discipline.
(6) Orientation Training:
Orientation or induction training tries to put the new recruits at ease. Each new employee is usually taken on a formal tour of the facilities, introduced to key personnel and informed about company policies, procedures and benefits. To be effective, orientation training should be well planned and conducted within the first week of employment.
Such a pre-job training helps the recruit to familiarise 7 himself with the job and its settings. The above on the job methods are cost effective. Workers actually produce while they learn. Since immediate feedback is available, they motivate trainees to observe and learn the right way of doing things.
Very few problems arise in the case of transfer of training because the employees learn in the actual work environment where the skills that are learnt are actually used. On the job methods may cause disruptions in production schedules.
Experienced workers cannot use the facilities that are used in training. Poor learners may damage machinery and equipment. Finally, if the trainer does not possess teaching skills, there is very little benefit to the trainee.
B. Off-the-Job Training:
Under this methods of trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees.
Off the job training methods are as follows:
(a) Vestibule Training:
In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, files and equipment those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for electrical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from a few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.
(b) Role Playing:
It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.
(c) Lecture Methods:
The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees.
(d) Conference/Discussion Approach:
In this method, the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified. When big organizations use this method, the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as blackboards, mockups and slides; in some cases the lectures are videotaped or audio taped.
Even the trainee’s presentation can be taped for self-confrontation and self-assessment. The conference is, thus, a group-centered approach where there is a clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and standards to the trainees.
Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever specific skills are required—such as typing, shorthand, office equipment operation, filing, indexing, etc. may be provide with specific instructions to handle their respective jobs.
(e) Programmed Instruction:
In recent years this method has become popular. The subject-matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instructions. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus, expensive and time-consuming.
What is Training in HRM – Types of Training: On-the-Job Training, Vestibule Training, Apprenticeship Training and Special Courses
Training and development programmes in modern business organizations provide something for almost every individual from pre-employment preparations for the first job to pre-retirement courses for those who are about to retire. These programmes are not mutually exclusive. They invariably overlap and employ many common techniques.
Training programmes are necessary at every ‘level’ of the organization for every separate category of employees like unskilled workers, skilled workers, semiskilled workers, others like stem-typists, accounts clerks, etc., Salesmen, supervisory staff, middle level managers / executives, top level managers & chief executive officers.
The various types of training and development programmes can be broadly classified into two categories based on the purse:
(i) Training programmes for Non-managers to develop skills to perform a job
(ii) Training and educational programmes for executives to develop the ability to manage
Accordingly, they can be called as:
(i) Operative Training; and
(ii) Management/Executive Development Programmes.
Operative training calls for specific increase in skill and knowledge to perform a particular job.
For this, four different types of training programmes can be arranged:
(1) On-the-job training
(2) Vestibule training
(3) Apprenticeship training
(4) Special courses.
On-the-job training is the most common type of training for the new employee who, under the guidance of an experienced employee, learns his work and masters his job.
Vestibule training utilizes the vestibule school where the trainee uses equipment and procedures similar to those he would use in on-the-job training but the equipment is setup at a place separate from the regular workplace with the clear intention of facilitating learning and not obtaining productive input.
Apprenticeship training programme tends more towards education than merely on the vocational training. Under this, both knowledge and skills in doing a job or a series of related jobs are involved. The usual apprenticeship programmes combine on-the-job training and experience with class-room instructions in particular subjects.
This type of training is used to prepare employees for a variety of skilled occupations, trades, crafts and technical fields (like electricians, tool and die makers, engravers, welders etc) in which proficiency can be acquired only after a relatively long period of time in direct association with the work and under the direct supervision of experts.
Special courses type of operative training is more associated with knowledge than skill and therefore class-room instructions are very useful in learning concepts, attitudes, theories and problem-solving abilities.
Management/Executive Development programmes are designed to cater to the types of needs like decision-making ability, achieving interpersonal success and influence, gaining organizational knowledge, etc this type of training can be imparted only through appropriate methods.
Decision-making skills are enhanced through business games, case studies and in-basket exercises. Interpersonal skills can be promoted through role playing behaviour modelling, T-group or sensitivity training, transactional analysis, and structured insight.
Job knowledge can be acquired through experience, coaching and understudy methods, while organizational knowledge can be developed through position rotation and multiple management. In addition, one’s general educational background can be developed through special courses and committee assignments.
The various types of training and development programmes for the operatives as well as for the managers or executives depend for their success and effectiveness on the specific methods or techniques employed.
It is therefore desirable to have an overview of these methods / techniques.
What is Training in HRM – 6 Step Process: Identifying the Training Needs, Getting Ready for the Job, Preparation of the Learner and a Few Other Steps
The training programs need to be drafted carefully.
Usually in the organization of training programs, the following steps are necessary:
1. Identifying the Training Needs:
Attaining program should be established to assist in the solution of specific operational problems and improve performance of the trainee. Identification of training needs must contain three types of analyses-
(a) Organizational Analysis:
Organizational analysis is a systematic effort to understand exactly where training effort needs to be emphasized in an organization involving a detailed analysis of the organization structure, objectives, human resources and future plans, and an understanding of its culture milieu. An in-depth analysis of these factors would facilitate an understanding of deficiencies that need to be rectified.
(b) Operational Analysis:
Operational analysis involves a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and the conditions under which it has to be performed. This analysis focuses on the “task” itself, rather than on the individual and the training required to perform it. Analysis of the operation and its various components will indicate the skills and training needed to perform at the job at the required standard.
(c) Man Analysis:
Man analysis focuses on the individual employee, his abilities, skills and the inputs required for job performance, or individual growth and development in terms of career planning. Man analysis identifies individual employee’s training needs.
William Berliner and William McLarney say that discovering training needs involves five tasks.
i. List the duties and responsibilities or tasks of the job under consideration, using the job description as a guide.
ii. List the standard of work performance on the job.
iii. Compare actual performance against the standards.
iv. Determine what parts of the job are giving the employee trouble – where is he falling down in his performance?
v. Determine what kind of training is needed to overcome the specific difficulty or difficulties.
2. Getting Ready for the Job:
Having identified the needs for training, the next step is to decide who is to be trained – the newcomer or the existing employee, or the supervisory staff, some or all of them selected from different departments.
3. Preparation of the Learner:
The next step requires that the learner remains prepared for learning.
This step involves-
i. Putting the learner at ease so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact that he is on a new job;
ii. State the importance and ingredients of the job, and its relationship to work flow;
iii. Explain the learner reasons why he is being taught;
iv. Create interest and encourage questions to find out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs;
v. Explain the ‘why’ of the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows;
vi. Place the learner as close to his normal working position as possible;
vii. Familiarize him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.
4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge:
The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job, and why each step in its performance is necessary. Instruction should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be an emphasis on key points, and one point should be explained at a time.
For this purpose, the trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations. He should also be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understand the job.
5. Performance Try-Out:
Under this step, the trainee is required to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are rectified, and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee the first time. The trainee is asked to do the job gradually building up skill and speed.
As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in a right way, he is put on his own, but not abandoned. Then the trainee is put to test and the effectiveness of a training program evaluated.
6. Follow-Up and Evaluation of the Program:
The evaluation is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts. This step can be accomplished by putting a trainee ‘on his own’, checking frequently to be sure that the trainee has followed instructions and tapering off extra supervision and close follow up until he is qualified to work with normal supervision.
What is Training in HRM – Inputs in Training and Development: Skills, Education, Development, Ethics, Attitudinal Changes and Decision Making and Problem Solving Skills
A training and development program must contain inputs that enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future. Additionally, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities.
Training imparts skills to employees that they need to operate machines, and use other equipment with least damage and wastage (basic skills). Without basic skills the operator will not be able to function. Then the worker also needs motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities and involve learning to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli.
In addition to basic and motor skills, employees at supervisory and executive level need interpersonal skills to understand themselves and others better, and act accordingly. Listening, persuading and showing an understanding of others’ feelings are examples of interpersonal skills.
The aim of education is to impart theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. HR managers well understand that any training and development program must contain an element of education.
Development is less skill-oriented but emphasizes on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis are useful for better management of a company.
A training and development must also contain an element of ethical orientation. There is no debate about the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices are prevalent in marketing, finance and production function in any organization.
Attitudes are feelings and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitudes affect motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes should be changed into positive ones. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because employees refuse to change and they have prior commitments and information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient.
Nevertheless, attitudes must be changed to enhance the commitment of employees to the organization and motivate them for better performance.
6. Decision Making and Problem Solving Skills:
Decision making and problem solving skills emphasize on methods and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work- related problems. These skills seek to improve employees’ abilities to define and structure problems, collect and analyze information, generate alternative solutions and make an optimal decision among several alternatives.
What is Training in HRM – How to Improve Effectiveness of Training Programmes by Applying Learning Principles?
In order to increase effectiveness of training programmes, the learning principles can be applied in the following manner:
i. Focus on “real world” problems
ii. Provide for learner’s active participation
iii. Allow debate and challenge of ideas
iv. Encourage the learners to share resources with each other
v. Relate the material to their past experience
vi. Provide the learners with Knowledge of Results (KR) about his attempts to improve
vii. Emphasize on how they can apply the knowledge. Skill or attitude and transfer from training to the job
viii. Provide for practice and reception when needed
ix. Listen to and respect the opinions of learners
x. Motivate them to improve performance
xi. Assist them in their willingness to change
xii. Treat everyone in adult-like manner.
What is Training in HRM – Training as an Important Tool of HRM
The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activities is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money.
Now-a-days, training is investment because the departments such as, marketing and sales, HR, production, finance, etc. depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM.
Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concept of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education.
Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to monitor the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.
What is Training in HRM – Training Evaluation (With Behavioural Skills and Profile of a Trainer)
Hamblin defines evaluation of training as, “any attempt to obtain information (feedback) on the effects of a training program and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information”. Evaluation of the training process is a difficult task, and different circumstances require different method for evaluation according to the objectives aimed at.
McGhee and Thayer gave several reasons for the necessity of evaluating a training programme:
1. It enables the effectiveness of an investment in training to be appraised.
2. Reassures management about the effectiveness of a particular method of instruction, the relations between training costs and improved productivity, and the general efficiency and effectiveness of a course.
3. Lead to “considerable future savings in time and costs”.
Evaluation helps management to answer the following questions:
2. Is the choice of areas of training correct in the context of its contribution to the organization’s effectiveness?
3. Should the money continue to be spent on training programmes?
4. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the training programme?
The outcomes of the evaluation can be used as a base for the improvement of programs. An evaluation of a training method must also take into account the suitability of objectives.
Evaluation has its problems. Tracey describes some of the pitfalls of evaluation as poor planning, lack of objectivity, evaluation errors (error of central tendency, i.e., reluctance to assign very high or very low ratings, error of standards, error of logic and the halo effect), improper interpretation of data, and inappropriate use of results.
Evaluation of the training program must be based on the following principles:
1. There must be clarity about the goals and purposes of evaluation.
2. There must be continuity in the evaluation.
3. Evaluation must be specific.
4. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products.
5. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards.
6. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. A sense of urgency must be developed, but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation.
Evaluation of training programmes should not be just a one-time activity like concluding ceremony; it should be rather a systematic process to elicit and analyse feedback from the trainees. Such a process proves helpful to build up and strengthen future programmes and it is also useful to reflect and consolidate upon present learning. Evaluation of effectiveness of training programmes is important for management in assessing whether the training was worthwhile and how it can be made more worthwhile in future.
A complete evaluation essentially covers such aspects as:
i. The relevance of the training objectives
a. Whether the objectives are realistic and meaningful for the particular group of trainees?
ii. The accomplishment of objectives
b. Whether the training objectives have been achieved during the training programme?
iii. The appropriateness of the training methodology
a. whether the training methods were interesting and effective? Could they create the environment conducive to learning?
iv. The impact of learning
a. Whether the trainees have acquired relevant knowledge, skills or attitudes?
b. Whether the training has created observable behavioural changes?
Thus, evaluation is the mechanism to seek information on the relevance and impact of training. In most cases, it is common experience that immediately after the training programme, participants express favourable opinions about the worth of the training experience.
A sounder approach would be to do the evaluation daily; mid-term that is during the training; immediately at the end of the training; and also at specified intervals after the training.
Evaluation of training programme is done by participants, staff or outside evaluators and it essentially includes the performance of the trainers, the effectiveness of the training programme content, the perceptions of participants benefits and the attainment of the performance objectives.
Evaluation done at different intervals of time – both during the process of training as well as after the completion of training – essentially aims at assessing the various components of a training programme including the trainees, the trainers, training contents, training methods, training facilities, group processes, learning materials, etc.
Evaluation done systematically helps in identifying whether the training has brought about any changes in the attitudes and values of the trainees; whether the trainees perceive certain significant changes in their perception and orientation to people, work, self, etc. It also helps in noticing any behavioural changes amongst the trainees. Moreover, it is useful in recognizing any distinct changes in the functioning of the trainees for improved performance.
Uses of evaluation findings must be done well. Sometimes evaluations are done but the results are not adequately utilized. Evaluations should never be done as a ritual. The purpose of evaluating a course is to determine its value or to identify ways for its improvement. Careful evaluation of training programmes not only improves the future programmes but also promotes the value of training.
In order to ensure the effectiveness of training programme, the trainer plays vital role. In the conventional training methodology, the profile and behavioural skills of a trainer were never emphasized, and the only expectation was the trainer needs to be an expert on the content. However, in addition to the cognitive development the trainer’s emotional development or the total self-development is much in focus now-a-days.
This factor becomes extremely important especially in the participatory training methodology. It has several advantages. Trainers own understanding of himself creates the basis for understanding others. Similarly, if the trainer accepts himself as he is with his strengths and weaknesses, qualities and complexes, then only he can accept others as they are. It helps him into value others’ experience, to use it and to respect it.
Trainer must also be able to know how he grows and learns so that he can understand how others grow and learn. He must know his development tasks and roles then he can appreciate how others can define their tasks and roles and decide what they need to learn next.
In participatory methods, two most crucial elements are trust and openness in the learning environment. Trainer can use himself as a model in participatory method for which he must be flexible and open. The trainer has to develop not only cognitively, acquire new concepts and information, but also emotionally, develop sensitivity to other’s reactions, needs and expectations.
Trainer must have empathy i.e. the ability to put himself in the shoes of others. It enables him to recognize fears and uncertainties in the minds of trainees. Empathy also enables him to point out personal difficulties encountered by him in similar learning situations so as to put the trainees at ease.
In addition to this the trainer must be an effective good listener throughout. He should also show patience through his willingness to compliment slow progress and refrain from anger when mistakes are make. Trainer should also command respect of his colleagues in the organizations.
What is Training in HRM – Importance and Benefits
The importance of training as a means of improving productivity is increasingly recognized. Changing technology and patterns of work mean that training must be a continuous process throughout a working life. Skills acquired for one job may also be transferred, modified and supplemented for other jobs. Training makes the employees more effective and productive.
Employee training has become necessary and increasingly important as jobs have become more sophisticated and influenced by technological changes. Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has increased.
Training may mean changing what an employee knows, how he works, and his attitudes towards his work or his interactions with his co-workers or his supervisors. Training is concerned with helping people to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to do the work for which they are employed. It must create changed behaviour. Training today has become an integral part of any organization’s operations.
Training, allied to other human resource functions within management, ensures a pool of manpower of the require levels of expertise at the right time. Training plays a crucial role in human resource development. Today no organization can ignore the training and educational or developmental needs of its employees for a long time without seriously hampering their effective performance.
Training and development of human resources will return values to the organization in terms of increased productivity, heightened morale, reduced costs, and greater organizational stability and flexibility to adapt to changing external requirements.
Training and development efforts are also helpful in achieving high standards of quality, building up satisfactory organization structure, reducing employee dissatisfaction, eliminating the need for constant supervision, and equipping them with capabilities for promotion of cordial and healthy industrial relations through better handling of complaints and grievances.
From the standpoint of employees, training serves as an important means for the developments of effective or productive work habits, methods of work, and in consequence it improves job performance, It prepares individuals for modified jobs, avoids unnecessary absenteeism, turnover arising out of faulty selection or placement and it also prevents chances of accidents.
It does not only mean increased remuneration of the employees but it also increases their loyalty to the organization by providing them a broader outlook on life emerging from the spirit of self-reliance, dignity and self-esteem that develops out of it. It enables employees to develop and rise within the organization with full confidence.
As pointed out by Michael J. Jucius, “Viewed positively, the values of training are:
(1) Training serves to improve employee skill which in turn increases the quantity and quality of output;
(2) The relative amount of equipment and material required to produce a unit of output is decreased;
(3) Executive effort will tend to shift from the disagreeable need of correcting mistakes to the more pleasant tasks of planning work and of encouraging expert employees; and
(4) The various increases in productivity should find reflection in increased returns to both employer and employees.”
The importance of training can be studied under the following heads:
Benefits to the Business:
1. Trained workers are more efficient.
2. In case of industry, training improves safety, as it imparts knowledge on the proper use of machines and equipment with due regard to safety and possible hazards.
3. Trained workers show superior performance.
4. Training makes employees more loyal and they will be less inclined to leave the unit where there are growth opportunities.
Benefits to the Employees:
1. Training makes an employee more skilled.
2. Internal growth opportunities improve, as the employee acquires new skills. Training also helps an employee to move to another organization and pursue career goals actively.
3. Trained employees can avoid mistakes or accidents on the job. They are confident, more satisfied and high on morale.
4. Training enables employees to cope with organizational, social and technological changes. Effective training is an invaluable investment in the human resources of an organization.