Some of the useful methods and techniques you can use for training employees are: 1. Vestibule Training 2. Role Playing 3. Lecture Method 4. Conference or Group Discussions 5. Programmed Instruction (PI) 6. Audio-Visuals 7. On-the-Job Training 8. Simulation.
These different methods can be broadly classified as:
(i) On-The-Job Training:
The training methods that are applied in the work place can be referred to as on-the- job training.
(ii) Off-The-Job Training:
The training methods that are used away from the work place can be termed as off- the-job training.
Some of the training methods are new whereas others are improvement over the traditional methods. These training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees.
The different methods of training are as follows:
1. Vestibule Training:
Here training takes place away from the work place but uses all the equipments, materials and methods that resembles the actually ones used in job performance. In this method the actual work conditions are simulated in classroom. A special space is set aside from the actual production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to the actual work place.
The advantages of this method are training process that takes place without disrupting the ongoing operations. The trainees are not pressurized by expecting them to produce while learning.
The disadvantages are—the cost involved in this method is high. Further it will not be possible to replicate the actual pressure that an employee faces during the job into this artificially created environment.
2. Role Playing:
It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situation. This method involves creation of realistic situation in which the participants assumes and plays the role of a specific personality in the situation.
This method involves action, during and practice. The main intention in this method is the development of interpersonal relations and thereby promotes better inter-personal interaction and attitudinal changes.
3. Lecture Method:
It is a direct method of instruction that involves a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. The instructor organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of talk. By motivating and creating interest among the trainees this method can be made effective.
However, when this method is used in combination with other training methods it can be very effective.
4. Conference or Group Discussions:
In this method of training, a group of people freely discuss and pose ideas, share and examine the information or idea, test and evaluate them and finally draws conclusions on various aspects that contributes towards the improvement of job performance.
The main advantage of this method is that there is the involvement of all the participants and there is two-way communication but the success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person leading the group.
5. Programmed Instruction (PI):
In this method of training there is no intervention of a trainer. The subject-matter to be learned is presented in a series of planned sequential units. After reading each part, the learner must answer a question about it for which feed back in the form of right answers is provided.
The advantages of PI are—it is self-paced, this method offers much scope for practices as the study materials are structured and self-contained.
There are a few limitations of this method. They are, though there is scope for learning through practice, the scope of learning offered by other method is much more. This method is expensive and time consuming.
Audio-visual training methods are used widely in these days. This method makes use of slides, overhead projectors, television, video-tapes, audio-tapes and films. The main advantage of this method is that the quality of the presentation will remain equal for all training groups.
Further, the impact is better compared to the other methods like lectures, seminars. But this method constitutes a one-way communication and hence there is no scope for doubt clarification for the participants. Since the presentations are standardized, it may not cater to the specific requirements of the individual audience.
7. On-the-Job Training:
Here the training is conducted at the work site and in the contact of the job. The trainer who will be an experienced worker demonstrates the job on to how various tasks are performed. This method is often used in industrial training where the workers actually work on the machine.
The advantages of this method of training are: it is less costly; the effectiveness of the training is very high as it involves actual demonstration and the trainees actually experience the job to be done. The disadvantage is that, since the training process takes place in the work spot, on the machines, it will affect the smooth functioning of the production.
In this method of training the equipment or techniques of the actual job is duplicated to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainees. The best example of this is the aircraft simulation. The pilots undergo this training. The aircraft contacts are simulated so that the pilots under training feel as though they are actually flying the aircraft.
The advantage of this training method is that the result of the decisions the trainees make are reported back to them with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually been made in the work place. This avoids costly mistakes. But this method is very expensive.