After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Training 2. Importance of Training 3. Methods.

Meaning of Training:

“Training refers to the process of educating and developing selected employees so that they have the knowledge, skills, attitudes and understanding needed to manage in future position.”

Training as defined by some experts of the management as:

In the words of Dale, I. Beach, “Training is the organised procedure in which people learn knowledge and/or skill for definite purpose.”


According to Jucius, “The term training is used here to indicate only the process by which the aptitudes, skill and ability of employee to perform specific jobs is increased.”

Edwin B. Flippo defined, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.” It is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.

Importance of Training:

The importance of training is emphasized by the following factors:

1. Increased Productivity:

It improves performance. Better skilled workers increase quantity and improve quality of output. Wastages are reduced. It reduces the learning time with the resultant productivity.

2. Improvement in Employee Morale:


Training improves needed skills, which build up confidence and satisfaction. This, in turn, develops enthusiasm and pride, which are indicative of high morale.

3. Better Safety:


More accidents are caused by deficiencies in people than by deficiencies in equipment and working condition. Proper training with emphasis upon selected safety points reduces accidents.

4. Reduced Supervision:

Untrained personnel are a source of constant worry to the immediate supervisor. Once he acquires the requisite skill he is entitled to lesser close supervision.

5. Personal Growth:

The training programmes give the participants a wider awareness, a sense of self-satisfaction and fulfilment, an enlightened philosophy and a value system that are the apex to the personal growth.

6. Ensure better Placement:

Training helps in spotting out promising men and in locating mistakes in selection. Promising trainee will be discovered from his quick understanding of instructions.

7. Organizational Stability:


Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employees, which increases a sense of belonging, thus preventing manpower obsolescence. There is no greater organizational asset than that of trained and motivated personnel.

Methods of Training:

There are various methods of training. The choice of any of the methods depends upon several factors like cost of training, number of workers, depth knowledge required, background of the trainees, purpose of training and so on.


1. On-The-Job Training:

On the job training is concerned with developing employees in the present job. It involves assignment of the new employee to a specific job at a machine or workplace in the shop, office, or laboratory. The worker is trained while he is engaged in the work by utilizing the actual work situation for the purpose.

He is trained by an experienced employee, special instructor or his superior. With competent instructors, this type of training may be most effective, for rapid training of large number of unskilled and semi-skilled workers. It is a simple method, since there is no division of responsibility between the training department and the line supervisors.

a. Vestibule Training:


New workers are trained for specific jobs and special machines or equipment are provided in a separate location, near the actual place of work under practical work situation. Here more emphasis is on teaching the best method than on production. Trainees have an opportunity to get accustomed to work routine and recover from their initial nervousness before going on to the actual job.

b. Apprenticeship Training:

This method is followed in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which long period is required for gaining proficiency. It aims at providing necessary background, practical knowledge and necessary experience to the worker.

It combines classroom instructions, demonstrations and on-the-job training. A trainee has to work in direct association and under the direct supervision of his masters. Learning is by imitation and experience.


c. Coaching Training by Supervisors:

The fresh employee is trained by the supervisor, who familiarises him with the input and outputs of the work and techniques of operation of equipment etc. The supervisor guides and instructs or supervise the employee, whenever needed.

The employee has also opportunity of remaining doubts. The method develops good relationship between worker and supervisor. The method prove to be ineffective, if the supervisor is incompetent and does not take interest in the training.

d. Orientation or Induction Method:

The training is imparted by a competent and experienced executive, who provides knowledge about the work; tools, equipment, techniques and situational problems. The object of the training is to make the employee aware and believe in the ideologies of the working.

e. Under Study Method :


It is another method of ‘on the job training.’ Under this method, the worker or the new employee is imparted training by senior and experienced. The method teaches motivation, because the employee has to continue training for a long period.

f. Job Rotation Method :

It is broad-based training, wherein the employee has to rotate from one job to other, from one department to other department, from are work to other work, or from one section to other section, so that he may learn the working of various departments.

g. Assistance to Training Method:

Under this method the trainee is placed as an assistant to the senior executive of the organisation. It earlier stage, the senior executive trains him with the working jobs and guides him to perform the job. Finally, he develops his handling of the job of the senior executive in his absence.

h. Teaching Machine Method:


Under this, method slides and tapes regarding work are prepared. Workers are shown pictures and told the right technique of operating equipments. If any process is tough, it may be continued effectively.

Systems of On-The-Job Training:

Under this method following systems may be included:

(i) Training by Supervisor:

Supervisor in-charge is responsible for the training to the operative staff under this system. The supervisor supervises and instructs the employee while on work. Sometimes, he demonstrates the system of working to the employee. It enables the supervisor and the employee to understand each other better.

(ii) Under-Study System:


Under this system, senior and experienced workman is assigned the job of teaching the new employee as his under-study. The trainee under this system loses his motivation and morale, because the person under whom he is working does not take interest in him.

A common version of such training is “three position plan”. Under it, a man learns from the man above him and teaches the man below him. This system is more suitable in circumstances where the trainer requires an assistant.

(iii) Position Rotation

Under this system, the employee is periodically rotated from one job to another instead of sticking to one job just to acquire the general background and knowledge of the functioning of the job. Its major objective is to broaden the background of the trainee in various positions of the job.

2. Off- The- Job Training:


1. Conference/Lecture and Seminar Method:

The top level of management holds conference and shows his views with the employees. He informs to the employee about the future development in the Field and new ideas. He also gives the ideal measure to solve all the problems. This is an easy method and is adopted at levels of training.

2. Internship Training:

Here the technical institutions and business houses co­operate. Such training will bring about a balance between theory and practice. Students may be sent to factories for practical training under this system. Reputed training institutes provide meaningful training.

3. Classroom Method:

Where concepts, attitudes, theories and problem-solving abilities are to be learnt, the classroom instruction is the most useful device. In other words it is more associated with knowledge rather than skill. Orientation about organization; safety training or refresher training can be accomplished most effectively in the classroom.


There may be different methods of instruction such as:

(i) Formal Lecture:

Formal Lectures are arranged by the organization and delivered by the lecturer presumed to be a master of the subject at hand. The lecture method may be used for a large group and therefore, cost per trainee is low. Trainee should be permitted to ask questions.

(ii) Conference and Seminar:

The seminars and conference may be arranged to achieve the training purpose. Under this method, a particular topic is followed by discussion and exchange of view under a chairman, who sums up the discussion by his fruitful advices and comments.

(iii) Case Study:

It is a practical problem faced by an industrial unit which is discussed at large in the group, possibly to find an optimum solution. The supervisor reviews the solutions and discusses it with the trainees.

(iv) Role-playing:

Under this system, the trainees play their assigned role under an instructor who prepares them and assigns different rules for the play.

4. Case Study Method:

In order to solve many problems in the management the social, economic and technical aspects of the problem is to be studied. If the worker is struggling with the problem, he must be briefed about it and it has to be rectified with the solution.

5. Role Playing:

Under this method of training practical Knowledge of the work is imparted through assigning notes of manager, supervisor, worker, customer etc. The employee learns how to deal with the complexities of interdependence and interaction involved in different roles.

6. Management Institutions:

Training is arranged in different training colleges, universities and management institutions. Desirous candidates and employees of business establishment, Join these courses and gain Knowledge in the specific Field.

7. Brain Storming:

Through collective analysis process we can solve all the business problem. A group of people from various fields are invited to put forward their ideas, Knowledge, and experience. In other words, the training is imported by pooling of collective Knowledge and experience of trainees.

8. Sensitivity Training:

It is to encourage the trainees to act as a group and observe their interaction skills.

The various other methods of training are:

(i) On-the-job training.

(ii) Vestibule training.

(iii) Classroom method

(iv) Apprenticeship training.

(v) Internship training.