Some of the methods usually employed for training employees are: 1. On-the-Job Training 2. Off the Job Training 3. Vestibule Training.

Method # 1. On-the-Job Training:

On-the-job training is considered as the most effective training method for employees. It is a type of learning process in which the worker learns in an actual work environment. This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced, and skilled employees, such as managers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled and experienced employees. The success of this type of training mainly depends on the qualified trainers.

This method enables the employees to get training under the same working conditions and with the same processes, materials and equipment that he will be using ultimately.

Some of the forms/methods of on the job training are:


(a) Coaching:

It is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub­ordinates and gives them job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes and gives suggestions for improvement.

(b) Job Rotation:

In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so that they should be able to perform all types of jobs. In case of emergency, (absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type of job.


(c) Understudy:

In this method, the superior gives training to his subordinate as his understudy. The purpose of under study is to prepare someone to fill the vacancy caused by death, retirement, promotion or transfer of the superior. This method takes a long time and the trainee loses his motivation because of uncertainty in his promotion position.

Advantages of On-the-Job Training:

a. This method is relatively cheaper and less time consuming.


b. The trainees learn the jobs in actual conditions rather than artificial conditions.

c. This method acts as a strong motivator for trainees to learn.

d. The production does not suffer under this method.

Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training:


a. The experienced trainers may not be available.

b. The supervisor may not be in a position to devote time and hence faulty training may take place.

Method # 2. Off-the-Job Training:

Off-the-job training is provided away from the employee’s usual work environment and the employee will stop their usual duties/work during the training. Off the job training may be in the same building or off site. This training may be provided by trainers working for the same employer or an outside company hired by the employer.

The popular techniques of this training are:


(a) Lectures:

These are formally organized talks by an instructor on a specific topic. This method is useful when theories, philosophy, con­cepts, attitudes and problem solving have to be discussed. The lecture can be used for a very large group to be trained in short time.

(b) Seminars and Conferences:

In the seminars, members discuss on a selected subject or theme. One or more trainee presents paper on the theme. The material of discussion is distributed in advance. In conference, mutual problems are discussed and participants share their ideas and experience in dealing with the problem.


It is a training through sharing and learning from each other. During the discussion, the participants may be divided in groups for intensive discussion. These groups report back to the whole group with their conclusion and problems. This method helps in developing conceptual knowledge and modifying trainees’ attitudes.

(c) Case studies:

Case studies present the real business problems of situations demanding solution to the group. In this method, the members of the group are trained to identify the problems presented, suggest alternatives, analyze each alternative and compare their suitability in finally finding a best solution. This method develops analytical thinking and problem solving ability.

(d) Role playing:


Role play is one of the interesting business games. Here trainees put themselves in given roles and act as they are in stage play. The trainees are given different roles in a given situation, which is explained to the group. There are no prepared dialogues and rehearsals. The role players have to quickly response to the situation that is changing and to react as they are in real role.

Advantages of Off-the-Job Training:

a. Specialists can be used to instruct the employees.

b. Employees can focus on training and are not distracted by work.

c. It can be less stressful.

Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training:


a. There may be no direct link between the training and the job.

b. It can be artificial.

c. Trainers may not know the specific conditions of the employment,

d. It is usually more expensive.

Method # 3. Vestibule Training:

Vestibule means a passage or room between the outer door and interior of a building. One must pass through the vestibule in order to reach the inner of a house. In vestibule training, workers are trained on specific jobs in a special part of the plant.

Training is given in artificial conditions which are just like the actual conditions. After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in the actual workshop. This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to get rid of initial nervousness. This method is followed when the number of persons to be trained is very large.


Advantages of Vestibule Training:

a. Specially trained instructors can be employed for imparting instructions to trainees.

b. Wastage of raw material and damage to machinery is eliminated.

c. Since the training is given off the job, trainees can concentrate on learning.

Disadvantages of Vestibule Training:

a. It is expensive method of providing training.


b. Artificial working conditions may create adjustment problems for the trainees when they return to the place of job.