Recruitment and selection process involves the following steps: 1. Receipt of Applications 2. Scrutiny of Applications 3. Preliminary Interview 4. Application Bank 5. Employment Tests 6. Employment Interview 7. Checking References 8. Physical/Medical Examination 9. Final Selection and Appointment Letter.
Step # 1. Receipt of Applications:
Standard application forms are designed for different jobs as the vacancy regarding a particular job is advertised. The completely filled applications are received from candidates. The application form helps the organization in getting information about age, qualifications, experience etc. of the candidates.
Step # 2. Scrutiny of Applications:
All the applications received have to be scrutinized by the human resource department in order to eliminate those applicants who do not fulfill the job requirements. For example, if the minimum qualification for a job is B.Tech, and person having B.Com degree have applied for job, then his/her application will be rejected. After the screening of applications is over, a list is prepared of candidates to be called for preliminary interview.
Step # 3. Preliminary Interview:
The basic purpose of preliminary interview is to screen out the unsuitable or unqualified candidates. The personality of the candidate can be immediately evaluated.
Step # 4. Application Blank:
Candidate, who clears the preliminary interview, has to fill an application form/blank. This form plays a very important role in selection of the candidates.
The application blank contains the following particulars:
a. Identifying information of the candidate such as name, address, sex, marital status, number of children, date of birth etc.
b. Qualification details.
c. Extra-curricular activities.
d. Any achievements.
e. Psychological factors such as reasons for living job etc.
Step # 5. Employment Tests:
Employment tests are used to get information about the candidates, which are not available from the application form. There are several types of employment tests that candidates for employment may be asked to take.
(a) Intelligence Tests:
These tests are used to judge the mental capacity of the candidates. They measure the individual learning abilities i.e., ability to understand instructions and to make decision and judgment.
(b) Aptitude Tests:
These tests are used to know whether the selected candidate will be capable of learning the job or not. These tests are designed to measure the learning capacity of the candidates.
(c) Achievements Tests:
These tests are also known as proficiency tests. These tests are designed to measure the skills already acquired by the individuals. Such skills are essential for the job being considered.
(d) Interest Tests:
These tests are designed to know the interests of the candidates in terms of his likings and disliking’s.
(e) Personality Tests:
Candidate may possess various qualities like intelligence, aptitude, interest etc., but he may lack in personality. Personality includes qualities such as emotional maturity, sentiments, conflicts, sociability etc., which are required in the organization. The communication skill and expression are must for becoming a good manager.
Step # 6. Employment Interview:
Interview is the most delicate part of the selection process. An interview is a face-to-face, observational and appraisal method of evaluating the applicant where the interviewer who is higher in status is dominating. Application blank and employment tests do not from the basis for selection or rejection of a candidate.
The main purpose of interview is to determine the suitability of the applicant for the job and of the job for applicant. Interview gives the candidate an accurate picture of the job with details of terms and conditions and some idea of organization’s policies.
Step # 7. Checking References:
The references provide information regarding behaviour of the candidate. References are usually obtained from candidate’s friends or from his previous employer. A referee is an important source of information about a candidate’s ability and personality if/she he holds a responsible position in some organization.
Step # 8. Physical/Medical Examination:
A physical examination is usually carried out to check whether a candidate possesses the required stamina, strength and tolerance of hard working conditions. The main purpose of physical examination is to place selected candidates on jobs which they can handle without injury or damage to their health.
Medical examination is carried out by a panel of doctors appointed by the employer. A proper medical examination will ensure higher standard of health and physical fitness of the employees and will reduce the rates of accident, labor turnover and absenteeism.
Step # 9. Final Selection and Appointment Letter:
After a candidate has cleared all the above said stages, he is formally appointed by issuing appointment letter. Initially the candidate is not given a regular appointment. He/she is appointed on probation of six months or more. If the candidate is not found suitable during his probation period, he/she may be given some training or transferred to some other job. Even after that, if candidate is not found suitable, he/she may be asked to leave the job.