The manufacturing processes can be classified as: 1. Forming Processes 2. Moulding Processes 3. Machining Processes 4. Assembly Processes 5. Finishing Processes.

1. Forming Processes:

In the metal industry, some of the primary forming operations may take place such as the rolling of basic shapes in steel, aluminium etc. Some of the common shapes so obtained from these processes are bars, sheets, billets, I-beams etc. Which are stan­dard shapes. These shapes can be used for further processing. Other forming processes may be drop-forging, stamping, extrusion, press work, punching, drawing etc.

2. Moulding Processes:

Some products require moulding processes such as sand casting, die-casting etc. to get basic shape or form which may or may not require further processing. The selection of the particular process will depend upon to size of the job, quantity to be produced, accuracy, and complexity desired and economy.

3. Machining Processes:

Metal machining is accomplished through basic machine tool processes which involve the generation of cylindrical surfaces, flat surfaces, complex curves and holes. The machine tools selected to accomplish this task depend on the size and shape of the part to be machined, the quality of finish required and production rate required.


The examples of such processes are: turning, shaping, drilling, boring, grinding etc. In these machining opera­tions metal is removed from the part in the form of small chips by the cutting action of tool. The cutting action is accomplished by either rotating or reciprocating action of the tool relating to the part.

4. Assembly Processes:

These processes assemble the parts and materials using welding, riveting, soldering, brazing, mechanical fastening and adhesive joining etc.

5. Finishing Processes:

These processes are carried out for the aesthetic aspects, to achieve accuracy, surface finish or to increase life of the product. Such processes include cleaning, blast­ing, deburring, puffing, honing, lapping, polishing, painting etc.