Everything you need to know about the types of training provided to employees in an organisation. Training is a short-term process of utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for definite purpose.

After the employee has been selected, placed, and introduced, he must be trained. Very few managers can escape from a heavy responsibil­ity of training. Presently no firm has a choice to train or not to train. The only choice is that of the method. Almost every employee who is to work at whatsoever kind, at whatsoever place, needs special knowledge and skill.

Some of the types of employee training are:-

1. On the Job Training 2. Vestibule Training 3. Apprenticeship 4. Internship 5. Special Courses 6. Demonstrations and Examples 7. Simulation,


8. Training by Experienced Workmen or by Supervisors 9. Classroom or Off the Job Training 10. Induction or Orientation Training 11. Refresher Training 12. Job Training 13. Promotional Training 14. Conferences 15. Role Playing.

Learn about the Types of Employee Training (With Methods)

Types of Employee Training – Top 9 Types and Methods

After the employee has been selected, placed, and introduced, he must be trained. Very few managers can escape from a heavy responsibil­ity of training. Presently no firm has a choice to train or not to train. The only choice is that of the method. Almost every employee who is to work at whatsoever kind, at whatsoever place, needs special knowledge and skill.

Various types and methods are interrelated. Each types has its own advantages and limitations and hence it is difficult to say which method is the most suitable.

The discussion of some of the types is given below:

Type # 1. On the Job Training:


It is the most commonly and widely used method. The trainee is directly placed on the job and asked to perform it. The burden and responsibility lies with the immediate supervisor may be generally foreman or departmental head. This method is particularly useful for semi-skilled and un-skilled jobs e.g. clerical jobs, selling jobs etc.


(i) The jobs are very simple and hence require no elaborate or specific training programme and hence this method can be used.

(ii) It is highly economical because the method do not requires any additional facilities e.g. class-room or other tools.


(iii) This method is simple to operate also and involves direct re­sponsibility to the immediate senior.

(iv) It is suitable to all most all the types of jobs at all the levels.

(v) It provides more practical knowledge and involves learning in actual and true environment, i.e. real life problems are set before to solve.

(vi) In this method rules, regulations and procedures are given more importance and hence this can be effective method.


(vii) It requires minimum possible time.

(viii) It provides motivation and strong desire to learn which is rather more important.


(i) Supervisors who are directly responsible for providing train­ing may be well experienced and efficient but may not be acquainted with the methods of training and hence may not be successful in providing effective training.


(ii) It is almost a trial and error method. And hence will lead to wastage of material and machinery by new employees. Break­downs in machinery and duplication of work are the most common errors.

(iii) The valuable time of supervisors will be wasted while impart­ing training. There will be a possibility of loss to the produc­tion from the point of view of quality as well as quantity.

(iv) The Supervisors may not have interest in developing their subordinates and hence programme cannot be effective.

(v) The training method will be rightly affected by subjective bias i.e. it will wholly and solely depend upon the supervisor.


(vi) It is highly discriminated and haphazard method. There re­mains no uniformity and standard procedure for doing a job effectively.

But still it is the most popular method.

Type # 2. Vestibule Training (Training at Training Centres):

It is duplication of job situated in a company classroom. Classroom teaching imparted with the help of the equipment and machines which are identical with more in use at actual work place. This method is useful for semi-skilled job, so as to train the same kind of work at the same time.

It is also helpful to provide general type of training and vestibule school is operated on a specialized endeavor by the personnel department. It usually trains for the same type of job as on the job training. When the training become too intensive, the time of the foreman will be wasted and it will also effect on the production and hence this method of training is arranged.



(i) Training is imparted through specialized officers and hence all the advantages of specialization can be achieved.

(ii) More skilled teaching is possible. It is possible to provide con­centration on training due to separate arrangement.

(iii) As the training is imparted at one and the same place and to all the trainees at one and the same time, it leads to uniformity and standardisation procedures.

(iv) Training is imparted at separate place and hence there will be no disturbance to daily activities at the place of actual job.

(v) As actual job situations are also created it leads to more effectiveness and success in the training.



(i) Splitting up of responsibilities in between trainer and foreman leads to many organizational problems.

(ii) To reproduce the job situations as they are may not be always possible and hence many a time this method has proved to be of limited use.

(iii) To create actual job situations is more expensive it requires an additional investment.

(iv) Job situations created for training are somewhat artificial and hence there will be again a problem when the trainee will be induced to actual job.

Type # 3. Apprenticeship:

It is particularly designed for higher levels of skill. It turns more for the purpose of education. The usual apprenticeship programme com­bines on the job training and experience with the classroom instruction in particular subject. It is particularly used few training crafts, trades and technical areas. It is the oldest and the most commonly used method especially when the proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training period of 2 years to 3 years for a person of superior ability and from 4-5 years for others.


The field is very wide-draughtsman, machinist, printer, die-sinker, engraver, electrician etc. A major part of the training time is spent on the job of productive work. Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to pre-determined schedule which provides for efficient training in trade skills. The certificates are given after training and these certificates are widely accepted and recognized.


(i) A skilled work force is maintained and is facilitated in number of skills.

(ii) Immediate return can be expected from the training because the trainees will be immediately absorbed to the job.

(iii) The workmanship and response will be very good.

(iv) The cost will be lower. It will also reduce the turnover and production cost.


(v) The loyalty of employees is increased and opportunities for growth are provided.


It is expensive and again ensures no guarantee about the success.

Type # 4. Internship:

It is a joint programme of training in which the technical institutions and business houses co-operate and hence perfect stress will be given on theory as well as practice. The learners are sent to actual industries when they are learning so that they can get the real practical knowledge. But the perfect co-operation in between technical institutions and business houses is essential and the same cannot be guaranteed. Numbers of industries do not intend to waste their time and resources for such trainees. Again it requires longer period also.

Type # 5. Special Courses:

Special courses may be devised for specific purposes. But such courses are more for the educative purpose rather than practical knowl­edge. Specific duration and certain definite programmes are chalked out. The training will be provided by lectures, films, conferences etc.

Type # 6. Demonstrations and Examples:

In this method, the trainer describes and displays same thing as and when he teaches an employee how to do a particular job. The information is imparted by actual performance.


It is very effective training method. It can be combined with lectures, pictures, other text materials, discussions etc.

This method is useful for skills but not for managerial perform­ances. Many a times if trainees do not provide their attention, method cannot be successful. There are chances that the trainees will be silent observers.

Type # 7. Simulation:

It is a technique which duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on a job. The vestibule training method or the business game methods are examples of business simulation. Simulation techniques have been most widely used in the aeronautical industry.

Trainee’s interest and motivation are both high in simulation. Because the actions of trainee closely duplicate real job conditions.

But it is expensive method.

Type # 8. Training by Experienced Workmen or by Supervisors:

Who will perfectly impart the knowledge about the skill? The real experience is most useful.


But there are limitations about subjective or personnel bias and scanty experience.

Type # 9. Classroom or Off the Job Methods:

Can be imparted in various ways i.e. lectures, conferences, semi­nars or team discussions, case studies, role playing, programmed instruc­tion or teaching by the machine method, T-group training etc. T-group particularly comprises association with audio-visual aids and planned relating programmes.

Members of a professional association receive training by this method particularly in new techniques and ideas pertain­ing to their own vocations. Through a regular supply of programmed journals and informal social concerts or gatherings, members are kept informed about latest developments in their fields.

Types of Employee Training – Induction or Orientation Training, Refresher Training, Job Training and Promotional Training

Various types of training programmes are not mutually exclusive, but invariably overlap and employ many of the same techniques.

Some of the more common types of training programmes are examined below:

1. Induction or Orientation Training:

It is a training programme used to induct a new employee into the new social setting of his work. The new employee is introduced to his job situation, and to his co-employees. He is also informed about the rules, working conditions, privileges and activities of the company, what the company does, how it serves the community and other particulars pertaining to the company.

Most of the information is likely to be embodied in an employee handbook which is distributed to all employees, and in the case of a rank and file workers, the orientation may consist only of a brief explanation by a member of the personnel department or the supervisor under whom the employee will work.

Induction training can, however, be more elaborate, particularly in the case of supervisory and management employees. Some companies show movies explaining company activities, others arrange for a lecture or a series of lectures on the company and its practices. In some cases, the new employee spends anywhere from a day to several months in each department to gain first-hand experience in the various types of work and an overall view of how the activities of one department affect those of other departments.

In the new employee is an unskilled or a semi-skilled worker, For example, a machine operator, he may be asked to spend some time on the shop-floor in order to familiarize himself with the machines, equipment and working conditions.

In some companies the complete induction programme is divided into two phases. In the first phase, induction is done by the personnel department which supplies to the new employee all sorts of information relating to the company. In the second phase, induction is done by the supervisor. He has the responsibility of seeing that both the newcomer and the work team accept each other. The supervisor should follow a set induction procedure.

A ten step programme provides for:

(a) Greeting the newcomer cordially;

(b) Displaying a personal interest in the newcomer;

(c) Reviewing his terms of employment;

(d) Giving additional information;

(e) Showing the newcomer around;

(f) Explaining the importance of his job in relation to other jobs;

(g) Introducing the newcomer to the rest of the work team;

(h) Telling the newcomer his duties;

(i) Selecting a person who can assist the newcomer on the job; and

(j) Following up frequently.

The induction training not only helps personal adjustment of the new employee to his job and work group but also promotes good morale in the organization. In view of these advantages, many large companies give much importance to induction training.

2. Refresher Training:

As the name implies, the refresher training is meant for the old employees of the enterprise. The basic purpose of refresher training is to acquaint the existing workforce with the latest methods of performing their jobs and improve their efficiency further. Retraining programmes are designed to avoid personnel obsolescence. The skills with the existing employees become obsolete because of technological changes and because of the tendency of human beings to forget.

Thus, refresher training is essential because of the following factors:

(a) Rapid technological changes make even the most qualified workers obsolete in course of time because new technology is associated with new work methods and job requirements. Existing workers need to learn new work methods to use new techniques in doing their jobs.

(b) Workers require training to bring them up-to-date with the knowledge and skills and to relearn what they have forgotten.

(c) Refresher training becomes necessary because many new jobs which are created due to changes in the demand for goods and services are to be manned by the existing employees.

The existing talented employees may also be given adequate training to make them eligible for promotion to higher jobs in the organization. It is known as ‘training for promotion’. The purpose of training for promotion is to develop the existing employees to make them fit for undertaking higher job responsibilities. This serves as a motivating force to the employees.

3. Job Training:

The object of job training is to increase the knowledge of workers about the jobs with which they are concerned, so that their efficiency and skill of performance are improved. In job training, workers are enabled to learn correct methods of handling machines and equipment, avoiding accidents, removing bottlenecks, minimizing waste, etc.

4. Promotional Training:

Many concerns follow a policy of filling some of the vacancies at higher levels by promoting existing employees. This policy increases the morale of workers. They try to put up maximum efficiency so that they may be considered for promotion. When the existing employees are promoted to superior positions in the organization, they are required to shoulder new responsibilities. For this, training has to be given to them so that they may not experience any difficulty to shoulder the responsibilities of the new position to which they have been promoted.

Types of Employee Training – With Advantages and Disadvantages

Training is a short-term process of utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for definite purpose, while development is a long term educational process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conception and theoretical knowl­edge for general purpose. There are different types of training given to employees.

The following types are:

1. On the Job Training:

Numerous training methods can be used while the man is engaged in the process of productive work. On the job training methods are suitable for all levels of personnel. In this method the trainee is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform it.

The trainee learns by observing and handling the job. Therefore it can be known as learning by doing. By this method immediate feedback, permits quick correction of errors and provide extra practice when required. But it needs skilled trainers and preparation in advance.

The most widely used methods of training take place on the job. On the job training places the employees in an actual work situation and makes them appear to be employees in an actual work situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive.

It is learning by doing. For jobs that either are difficult to simulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing, on the job training makes sense.

Various methods of on the job training are as follows:

(i) Experience:

This is the oldest methods of on – the job training. Learning by experience cannot and should not be eliminated as a method of development, though as a role approach, it is a wasteful, time consuming and inefficient.

(ii) Job Instruction Training:

Company known as Job Instruction Training, this technique of training was developed during World War II. It is a four step instructional process. Job Instruction Training is basically used to teach the workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor or co-worker can act as the coach.

The four steps involved in this process are:

(a) The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.

(b) The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer demonstrates to him the right way of doing the job.

(c) The trainee is then asked to copy the trainer’s demonstration. Demonstration by the trainer and practice by the trainer are repeated till the trainee master the right way to perform the job.

(d) Finally the employee does the job independently without supervision.

(iii) Coaching:

On the job coaching by the superior, an important and potentially effective approach is superior, is properly trained and oriented. The techniques involves direct personnel instruction and guidance, usually with extensive demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction explain appropriate ways of doing things.

(a) Make clear why some actions are taken.

(b) State the observations accurately.

(c) Offer possible alternatives.

(d) Give suggestions whenever required.

(e) Follow up.

(iv) Understudy:

In this method the trainee provides assistance to the current job holder. The trainee learns by experience, observation and imitation.


The advantages of understudy are as follows:

(1) It is less time consuming and less expensive too.

(2) It is useful for jobs that are either difficult.

(3) Production work continues.

(4) The trainee learns the rules, regulations, procedures and code of conduct by observing their applicants.

(5) Line supervisors take an active part in training their subordinates in a proper manner.


The disadvantages of understudy are as follows:

(1) This method is unorganized.

(2) This method may cause damage to costly equipments and materials during the learning procedure.

(3) There is lack of motivation in training programme.

(4) Sometimes there is a misunderstanding between the trainer, trainee and the supervisors.

(v) Mentoring:

It is a somewhat different form of training method. In mentoring, senior person in the organization assumes the responsibility for training as well as grooming of a junior person. A mentor acts as a teacher, guide, counselor, philosopher, exemplar, supporter and facilitator of the junior person.

The basic objective of mentoring is to help an employee to gain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organization. Mentoring can take place both at formal and informal levels depending on the prevailing work culture and commitment from the management.

A good mentor has to:

(a) Listen to the mentee and understand him

(b) Challenge his intellect and simulate the learning process

(c) Coach

(d) Build Self Confidence

(e) Provide wise counseling

(f) Teach by examples

(g) Act as the role model

(h) Share experiences

(i) Offer

A person can learn a lot from his mentor if he:

(a) Listens

(b) Acts on advice

(c) Shows commitment to learn

(d) Leave ego at the door

(vi) Job Rotation:

It represents an excellent method for broadening the manager or potential manager, and for turning specialists into generalists. In addition to increasing the manager’s experience and allowing the manager to absorb new information, it can reduce boredom and simulate the development of new ideas.

It can also provide opportunities for a more comprehensive and reliable evaluation of the manager by his or her supervisors.

(vii) Committee Assignments:

Assignments to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organizational problems.

When committee are of an ‘ad hoc’ or temporary nature, they often take on task force activities designed to develop into a particular problem, ascertain alternative solutions, and make a recommendation for implementing a solution. These temporary assignments can be both interesting and rewarding to the employee’s growth.

(viii) Appointment to Permanent Committees:

It increases the employee’s exposure to other members of the organization, broadens his or her understanding, and provides an opportunity to grow and make recommendations under the scrutiny of other committee members.

2. Vestibule Training:

The concept of vestibule training is that people will learn and develop skills while working in the situations similar to what they will face after they are put on the actual job. Most of the organization establishes training centers to train people for skilled work particularly in production department.

Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those which are used at the workplace.

In this method, a training centre called vestibule is set up and actual job conditions are duplicated or stimulated in it. Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those used at the work place.

This method of training is used primarily when large number of employees are trained quickly, as needed, as a result of expansion of business activities by firms or industries, although it is also helpful as a preliminary to on the job training.


The advantages of vestibule training are as follows:

(i) Trainees feel more freedom for different experiments as they are away from the actual workplace,

(ii) Proper method can be taught to the trainees by the trained instructions.

(iii) It is very efficient method of training a large number of employees at the same times.

(iv) The employees learn the job in a short time.


The disadvantages of vestibule training are as follows:

(i) Separation of training from the supervisory responsibilities may lead to problems in the organization,

(ii) The environment which is provided during training and on the actual workplace is different.

(iii) It is an expensive method.

3. Apprenticeship Training:

Apprenticeship as a method of training in crafts, trades and technical areas is one of the oldest and the most commonly used method especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a long period of training. In this method the theoretical instruction and practical learning are provided to trainees in training institutes. The main aim of this training is all round development of crafts men.

The ‘Apprenticeship’ system is perhaps the oldest and most commonly used method for training in industrial crafts, trades and technical areas. In this method, theoretical knowledge and practical learning are provided to trainees in training institutes.


The advantages of apprenticeship training are as follows:

(i) It greatly improves workmanship,

(ii) It gives theoretical as well as practical knowledge.

(iii) The main advantage of this method is that it combines theory and practice. The trainee becomes productive immediately.

(iv) This fosters a sense of belongingness and loyalty in the minds of employees and opens up opportunities for their growth and development.

(v) The trainee acquires skills which are valuable in the job market.

(vi) It ensures the maintenance of a skilled work force.

(vii) It reduced production cost as the labour turnover is low.


The disadvantages of apprenticeship training are as follows:

(i) Training leave is very long, due to this many people may leave the training in between.

(ii) It is an expensive and time consuming method.

(iii) In this regular supervision is required which is not possible all the time.

4. Classroom Training:

Under this method the training is provided in company classrooms. Lectures, case study, group discussions, and audio visual methods are adopted to make it more effective. It is a good method for problem solutions.

Some companies maintain their own training institutes. Special training programmes are provided to them and they can perform their duties in a proper manner in future course of action.

The classroom training, is the traditional way of education, which places the trainee in a classroom. Classroom training takes place either inside the organization or at some external selected sites, may be institutes, universities or professional associations, which have no connection with the company.

The main aim of classroom training is to take the man away from his working environment, to mix with men in a similar position to his own, and as a result bring about change in his attitude and point of view, capable of looking at problems differently.

Lectures, case studies, group discussions and audio-visual aids are used to explain knowledge and skills to the trainees.


The advantages of classroom training are as follows:

(i) Large number of persons can be given training under one roof.

(ii) It is simple method of giving training,

(iii) It is less expensive and time consuming.


The disadvantages of classroom training are as follows:

(i) It is difficult to get proper feedback from the trainers.

(ii) It can be a monotonous training.

(iii) There is only one way communication.

5. Internship:

It is basically a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms co-operate. Selected candidates are chosen for this method. For this purpose, technical institutions keep a proper liaison with business firms or employees. This type of method is basically used in professional courses.

It is widely used in United States to prepare supervisors in a better way. It is good for the improvement of motor skills and routine and repetitive operations.

In involves the following steps:

(i) Preparing the trainee for instruction,

(ii) Preparing the instructions that what the trainee is required to do.

(iii) Applying and trying out the instructions to judge how far trainee has understood the instructions.

This method provides immediate feedback, permits quick correction of errors and provide extra practice when required.

6. Internship Training:

In internship training, educational institutions and business firms have a joint programme of training. Selected candidates carry on regular for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills.

This method helps to provide a good balance between theory and practice. But it involves a long time period due to slow process. Internship training is used in professional courses e.g. MBBS, C.A., ICWA etc.

7. Conferences:

Many organizations have adopted guided discussion type of conferences in their training programmes, in order to escape the limitations of the lecture method. In conferences, the participants pool their ideas and experiences to arrive at improved methods of dealing with the problems which are the common subject of discussion.

Conference may include buzz sessions that divide the conferences into small groups for intensive discussion. These small groups then report back their conclusions or questions to the whole conferences. Conference method allows the trainees to look at the problems from a broader angle.

8. Role Playing:

Role playing is a method of human interactions that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. Role playing involves action, doing and practice. The trainees play the role of certain characters e.g. the different position holders in the organization. By role playing, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying different approaches/roles, while in actual practice, he often has only one role to play.

Types of Employee Training – On the Job Training and Off the Job Training (With Merits and Demerits)

Type # 1. On the Job Training:

On the job training methods are those which are given to the employees within the everyday working of a concern. It is a simple and cost-effective training method. In-proficient as well as semi- proficient employees can be well trained by using such training method. Employees are trained in actual working scenario. The motto of such training is “learning by doing.” Instances of such on-job training methods are job-rotation, coaching, temporary promotions, etc.

On-The-Job Training Methods:

(a) Job Rotation:

This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another.

The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them.

(b) Coaching:

The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden.

A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.

(c) Job Instruction:

This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee.

(d) Committee Assignments:

Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops team work.

(e) Apprenticeship:

Apprenticeship is a formalized method of training curriculum program that combines classroom education with on-the-job work under close supervision. The training curriculum is planned in advance and conducted in careful steps from day to day. Most trade apprenticeship programs have duration of three to four years before an apprentice is considered completely accomplished in that trade or profession.

This method is appropriate for training in crafts, trades and technical areas, especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training or apprenticeship period, e.g., job of a craftsman, a machinist, a printer, a tool maker, a pattern designer, a mechanic, etc.

(f) Internship:

Internship is one of the on-the-job training methods. Individuals entering industry in skilled trades like machinist, electrician and laboratory technician are provided with thorough instruction though theoretical and practical aspects.

Apprenticeship training programmes are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities and industrial organisations to provide the opportunity to the students to gain real-life experience as well as employment. Most of the Universities and Colleges encourage students for internship as part of the curriculum as it is beneficial to all concerned.

Advantages of On-The-Job Training:

a. It is directly in the context of job

b. It is often informal

c. It is most effective because it is learning by experience

d. It is least expensive

e. Trainees are highly motivated

f. It is free from artificial classroom situations

Disadvantages of On-The-Job Training:

a. Trainer may not be experienced enough to train or he may not be so inclined.

b. It is not systematically organized

c. Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards.

Type # 2. Off the Job Training:

Off the job training methods are those in which training is provided away from the actual working condition. It is generally used in case of new employees. Instances of off the job training methods are workshops, seminars, conferences, etc. Such method is costly and is effective if and only if large number of employees have to be trained within a short time period. Off the job training is also called as vestibule training, i.e., the employees are trained in a separate area (may be a hall, entrance, reception area, etc. known as a vestibule) where the actual working conditions are duplicated.

Methods of Off the Job Training:

Off the job training refers to method of training given outside the company.

The different methods adopted in off the job training are the following:

(a) Classroom Method/Lecture Method:

The classroom method is used when a group of managers have to be trained in theoretical aspects. The training involves using lectures, audio visuals, case study, role play method, group discussions etc. The method is interactive and provides very good results. In lecture method trainers used to communicate with spoken words which they want the trainees to learn, it is primarily one way communication of learned capabilities from trainer to audience.

Lecture method is a popular training methods despite of advanced new technologies such as interactive video and computer assisted instruction, it is least expensive and least time consuming way to present large amount of information efficiently in organized manner. It can be employed with large groups of trainees, it also supports other training methods like behavior modeling and technology based techniques.


i. It can be used for large groups.

ii. Cost per trainee is low.

iii. It reinforces trainers’ credibility and authority.

iv. Information is concentrated and organised as desired.

v. Efficient and simple and lots of material can be presented within given time.

vi. Can be personalized easily.


i. Low interest of employees.

ii. It is not learning by practice.

iii. No authentic feedback mechanism.

iv. Likely to lead to boredom for employees.

v. One way communication with relatively less participation or passive participation.

vi. The attention span of listener is normally 15-20 minutes.

vii. Depends completely on trainers’ effectiveness and information.

viii. A clear and rigorous verbal presentation requires a great deal of preparation and hence time consuming preparation.

(b) Audio-Visual:

Audio visual instruction includes overheads, slides and video. Video can be used for improving communication skills and customer service skills, it can also illustrate how procedures can be followed. Video is rarely used alone, it is normally used along with lectures to show trainees real life experiences and examples.

Merits of Audio Visual Techniques:

i. Trainers can review, slow down or speed up the lesson according to expertise of trainees.

ii. It can be watched multiple times.

iii. It gives exposure of equipment, problems and events that cannot be easily demonstrated, i.e. equipment malfunctions, angry customers or emergencies.

iv. Training content is not affected by interests and goals of a particular trainer.

v. It requires minimum technical knowledge.

vi. Wide range of realistic examples, quality control possible.

Demerits of Audio Visual Techniques:

i. To much content for trainee to learn.

ii. Poor dialogue between actors.

iii. Overuse of humor or music.

iv. Important learning points of training can be confused by drama in the video.

v. One-way communication, No feedback mechanism.

vi. No flexibility for different audience.

(c) Simulation:

Simulation involves creating atmosphere which is very similar to the original work environment. The method helps to train manager handling stress, taking immediate decisions, handling pressure on the jobs etc. An actual feel of the real job environment is given here. It represents real life situations regarding trainees decisions resulting in outcomes that reflects what would happen if they were on the job.

Simulations allow trainees to see impact of their decisions in an artificial, risk free environment. It is used to teach production and process skills as well as management and interpersonal skills. Simulation closely mimics work environment. Simulators replicate the physical equipment that employees use on the job.

Merits of Simulation:

i. Trainee can concentrate on learning without involving much risk.

ii. Interest and motivation are high as real job conditions are duplicated.

iii. This method is helpful in cases where on the job training might result in a serious injury and destruction of valuable equipment and material.

Example- Aeronautical industry

Demerits of Simulation:

i. It is an expensive method.

ii. Need constant updating as new information about work environment is obtained

(d) Vestibule Training:

Mostly this method of training will, be used to train technical staff, office staff and employees who deal with tools and machines. Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor by bringing equipments or tools to certain place where training is provided, but not work place.

Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing task without real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferring learning to the job. Vestibule training is provided to employees when new or advanced equipment or tools introduced in to the organisation to do a particular job by using them. For this purpose such equipment is brought to a separate place to give demonstration and train how to use and that handle it by employees safely.

(e) Case Studies:

This method involves studying cases from all perspectives, analyzing the various options available to the company for solving problems or address issues and arriving at most suitable answers. Trainers develop a habit of looking at problems from various perspectives and hence their decisions as managers will be more realistic and based on sound study and analysis.

Merits of Case Studies:

i. It promotes analytical thinking.

ii. It encourages open mindedness.

iii. It is acceptable to everyone as it deals with detailed description of real life situations.

Demerits of Case Studies:

i. It may suppress the voice of average trainees as only those having analytical and vocal skills will dominate the sessions

ii. Preparation of cases involve expenditure and time and the outcome is not quite certain.

(f) Role Playing:

The trainees act out a given role as they would in a stage play. Role players are informed of a situation about the respective roles that they have to play. Role playing basically covers topics such as employee-employer relationships, hiring, firing, conducting a post-appraisal interview.

Merits of Role Play:

i. The outcome and feedback is known immediately.

ii. Trainees participate in entire proceedings and so they take interest and are involved.

iii. It develops skill in applying knowledge in areas of human relations.

iv. It brings about desired changes in behavior and attitudes as the trainees are motivated to think.

Demerits of Role Play:

i. Role playing may sometimes not adhere to the objectives of training program. The trainees may deviate from the subject being discussed and start giving unrelated examples and explanations.

ii. Re-enforcement of the desired behavior may be lacking unless follow-up discussion are organized to assess the impact of the session.

(g) Programmed Instructions:

This involves two essential elements:

(a) A step-by-step series of bits of knowledge, each building upon what has gone before, and

(b) A mechanism for presenting the series and checking on the trainee’s knowledge.

Questions are asked in proper sequence and indication given promptly whether the answers are correct. This programme may be carried out with a book, a manual or a teaching machine. It is primarily used for teaching factual knowledge such as Mathematics, Physics, etc.

(h) Management/Business Games:

This method involves providing a market situation to the trainee manager and asking him to provide solutions. If there are many people to be trained they can be divided into groups and each group becomes a separate team and play against each other. This method requires trainees to gather information, analyze it and make decisions.

Business games are primarily used for management skill development. Games stimulate learning because participants are actively involved and because games mimic the competitive nature of business. The type of decisions that participants make in games may include all aspects of management practice i.e. labour relations, ethics, marketing and finance.

Merits of Business Games:

i. The game helps dealer to develop skills needed for business success.

ii. Participant must work as team.

iii. Cohesive groups are developed.

Demerits of Business Games:

Factual information cannot be taught through this training.

(i) Committee:

A committee refers to a group of people who are officially appointed to look into a problem and provide solution. Trainee managers are put in the committee to identify how they study a problem and what they earn from it.

(j) Readings:

This method involves encouraging the trainee manager to increase his reading related to his subject and then ask him to make a presentation on what he has learned. Information can be collected by trainee manager from books, magazines and internet etc.

Advantages of Off-The-Job Training:

i. Trainers are usually experienced enough to train

ii. It is systematically organized

iii. Efficiently created programs may add lot of value

Disadvantages of Off-The-Job Training:

i. It is not directly in the context of job

ii. It is often formal

iii. It may not be based on experience.

iv. It is expensive.

v. Trainees may not be much motivated

vi. It is artificial in nature.

Types of Employee Training – Provided for Management Development

Development and training activities relate not only to the new recruit but also to the existing employees at both the supervisory and non-supervisory levels. Executive training has become more important after the management revolution in World War II. There was also an increas­ing realisation of the complexity of the management job. Ownership and management has been diversified. Management has achieved the status of profession.

Management development programme must include:

1. A carefully considered plan and organisation for carrying out the plan.

2. A periodic appraisal or evaluation of each manager regarding his performance in the various stages of his development under the programme. Because development programme is the self-development.

3. A continuous appreciation and support from the top manage­ment.

4. Individual differences are bound to be there and hence uni­formity cannot be judged.

5. Development is more closely related to education than to skill and hence it is a long range process for many years.

The planning of the development programme involves following three essential factors:

1. Who will be responsible for administering the programme?

2. What main stages are required?

3. How will evaluation be affected?

Stages involved in a management development programme are:

1. Organisation planning – Organisation planning i.e. to determine company’s present and future needs.

2. Programme targeting – To focus the company’s efforts on the .most pertinent areas.

3. Ascertaining key positions requirements – To stress the basic requirement of particular managerial position.

4. Managerial Appraisal – To evaluate periodically the abilities and performance of the individual concerned, with a view to ascertain the managers indicating promise for further development and their training needs.

5. Replacement skill inventories – To indicate persons qualified for managerial replacement.

6. Planning Individual Programmes – To provide specific development programme for promoting man­agers.

7. Appraising existing programmes – To ascertain sources of improvement for incorporation in the future programmes.

Managerial Development Facilities:

Methods for providing development programmes to managers.

The methods can be classified as follows:

(A) On the job methods

(B) Off the job or away from the job.

(a) Internal facilities

(b) External facilities.

(A) On the Job Methods:

1. Experience, coaching, understanding

2. Position rotation

3. Special projects and task

4. Committee assignments

5. Selective reading.

(B) Away from the Job:

1. Special courses or classes

2. Roll playing

3. Sensitivity training

4. Structured in sight

5. Simulation

6. Conference training

7. Multiple management

8. Special meetings.

(a) Internal Facilities:

1. Delegation

2. Job rotation

3. Promotions and transfers

4. Appointment as ‘assistants to’

5. Membership of committees and junior Boards.

(b) External Facilities:

1. Management Education at University and other institutions of higher education

2. Management seminars at Management University and educa­tional institutions.

(A) On Job:

1. Experience:

Coaching and understanding, learning by experience is the most effective method. The job coaching has also got an effective approach. The emphasis is put on the managerial responsibility for training. But this method is rather wasteful and time consuming.

2. Position Rotation:

The object is to broaden the background of the trainee in the business. If the trainee is rotated from one job to another he acquires general background and gets broader experience. Managers are sent through different jobs so that they can get experience of all the depart­ments.


(i) It provides general background of the business as a whole.

(ii) It demonstrates nature and significance of management principles

(iii) Training takes place in a particular situation

(iv) Competition can be stimulated by rotation

(v) It also stimulates more co-operative attitude.


Productive works of almost all the departments suffer due to inter­ruptions in all departments.

3. Special Projects:

It is highly useful and flexible training device. The projects are valuable for training. The projects are devised from individual weak­nesses and experiences. Trainees not only acquire knowledge but also know how to work with and related to jobs.

4. Committee Assignments:

Clearly related to the special projects. There are regular ad hoc committees and assignments will be given to them while performing assignments they are provided with general information and their effi­ciency can be developed.

5. Selective Reading:

Specific time will be resumed in the daily routine for the purpose of reading only. Such reading will be helpful to advance the general knowledge and background conceptual ability will also be increased.

(B) Off the Job:

The uses of such methods require the trainee to leave his work place and devote his entire time to the development objective. Development is regarded of primary importance and the work is of secondary impor­tance.

1. Special Courses:

The firm or organisation may establish such courses or even schools, colleges or institutions will establish such courses. But such courses are usually tending towards education. Certain programmes can be arranged by the co-operation in between academic institutions and organisations.

2. Role Playing:

The purpose behind is very narrow. It is organised just to increase the trainee’s skill in dealing with other people i.e. particularly develop­ment of human relations and decision making ability conflict situation is artificially created and trainee is assigned a strategic position. The roles are assigned to trainees but no dialogues are provided. And it will be developed the tendency how to control the situation. Multiple roles playing are also much more effective.

3. Sensitivity Training:

The object is that of the development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioral patterns of oneself and others. The critical factor of this system is the absence of structure. Managerial sensitivity is increased. It involves face to face learning about original behavior within a small group that needs continually for time as long as one or two weeks. It is less artificial than role playing.

4. Structured Insight:

Traditional methods are many times ineffective and not much more useful for practical purposes. While laboratory approach is very costly. And hence this 3rd approach has been developed. Emphasis is placed upon systematic collection of the trainee’s attitude and assumptions concerning the motives, abilities and attitudes of others, particularly his subordinates. This is followed by a similar questionnaire assessment of his preferences in leadership style. Through group discussion is fol­lowed. Then there are organized presentation and discussions of such subjects as the fundamental nature of people.

5. Simulation:

It is similar to role playing. The trainee is provided with complex situation and is asked to take decision. One of the forms of simulation is in basket technique.

6. Conference Training:

Useful for conference members and leaders. As a conference member, one can learn from the others by comparing his own opinion with that of the others. He is taught to respect the view-points of others. It also develops analytical frame of mind and questioning attitude. The Conference leader also develops certain specific skills.

7. Multiple Management:

It is not possible to classify multiple management as exclusively and development method or a philosophy of management. It utilise spe­cially constituted committees.

8. Special Meetings:

Special meeting for one or two days will be conducted to discuss the matters on special subjects. It consists of a series of aspects with subse­quent question periods.

(a) Internal Training Programme:

The company must accept the responsibility to train the necessary personnel. Good companies not only decide their own programmes but also send their personnel to other Organisations.

1. Delegation – Without delegation of authority and providing with an additional responsibility, subordinates cannot achieve higher performance. The subordinates should be made to take the decisions so that leadership can be developed.

2. Job rotation

3. Promotions and Transfers – With a view to acquire further skill, transfers will also broaden the expense and thinking capacity of trainees and get them ready for promotion to higher posts.

4. Appointment on ‘assistants to’ – A much used and abused position is of ‘assistant to’. This position is that of staff responsibility and is merely and training device i.e. to learn by observing the job of superiors.

5. Membership of committees and junior boards – Committees compiling of managers of descent development can be formed. It can constitute a training ground for developing broader insight in the managers who are the members of such committees.

(b) External Facilities:

i.e. mainly educational facilities by associations and universities.

In India many Universities have established departments for man­agement studies. While some specialized institutions have also estab­lished e.g. Indian Institute of Management at Calcutta, Ahmedabad, and Bangalore etc. And because of which Management as a career or provision is becoming more and more popular.

With a view to give the knowledge of unfamiliar section of management, seminars and workshops are arranged. There exists number of local management associations at Bombay, Delhi, and Madras etc. They are loosely tied together into federation namely All India Management Association which provides nationwide programmes, such activities also encourage a cross fertilisation of ideas.

Whatsoever may be facilities utilised or methods applied, the following preconditions must be observed:

1. A desire must be created among the executives to be trained and developed.

2. The programmes must be designed properly and should have support from top management

3. The training should be devised on preferential basis.

4. The programmes must be a skillful blending of theory and practice requiring the use of academicians and practicing managers on the faculty.

5. The training programmes must be in terms of training needs of the managers concerned.

6. The training methods should be in terms of the skill sought to be developed.

Types of Employee Training – Induction Training, Job Training, Training for Promotion and Refresher Training (For Specific Purposes)

The important types of training based on different specific purposes are given below:

1. Induction Training

2. Job Training

3. Training for Promotion

4. Refresher Training

Type # 1. Induction Training:

Induction training is the initial training to be given to the new employees. The aim of induction training is to introduce the new employees to the organisation and familiarize them with it. When the number of new employees is large, the programme of induction training includes tour of the whole plant, supply of a hand book giving information about the employer, main products of the firm, rules, regulations and privileges concerning the employees etc.

Type # 2. Job Training:

Job training refers to the training of workers for a particular job. It is the most common of formal in-plant training programme, it is provided to the workers with a view to increase their knowledge about their jobs and make them more proficient in handling machines, equipments and materials so that operations are smooth and faultless and accidents are avoided.

Type # 3. Training for Promotion:

In most of the organisations in these days, some of the vacancies are filled up through promotion from amongst the existing employees. When an employee is promoted, he will be called upon to discharge higher duties and shoulder higher responsibilities. In order to enable such employees to shoulder higher responsibilities, some training will have to be provided to them.

Type # 4. Refresher Training:

Though workers are given initial training when they are newly employed, they require further training in course of time; because with the passage of time, they are likely to forget or lose sight of various methods and instructions and become out-dated.

Refresher training is designed to avoid this personnel obsolescence in the organisation. The need for refresher training also arises because of technological changes in the processes of production, changes in the products etc.

Training for Different Levels:

The training system has to adapt itself to the needs of employees at various levels. Typically, training programmes in manufacturing organizations can be categorized broadly into four levels, i.e., induction, supervisory, technical, and management development.

The purpose of induction training has been explained above. Supervisory training is aimed at improving the supervisory skills of the supervisors. Technical training focuses on improving the technical skills or knowledge of the employee.

In the case of Bharat Dynamics Limited, the employees working in various missile divisions are trained about technical nuances. Depending on the requirements/exigencies, two types of training can be clubbed together. The supervisors can also be trained in supervisory and technical skills simultaneously. The training needs of the managers are addressed through management development programmes.

Types of Employee Training – Informational and Experiential Methods (For Enhancing Knowledge)

There are multiple ways of organizing training to enhance knowledge. The most commonly used methods are lecture method, talks, discussions, in-basket (in-tray), business games, role playing, case study, sensitivity training (group dynamics), conferences and seminars, programmed instructions, computer-based training, exercises, projects, simulations and games, remote telecommunication live teaching, laboratory training, managerial grid sessions, distance learning, etc.

Each of these has its own advantages and application areas to achieve the objectives.

Broadly, the methods are grouped in two categories, namely:

1. Informational and

2. Experiential.

Method # 1. Informational:

This method is primarily informational or transmittal in nature and principally uses one-way communication to transmit the information to learners/trainees. Examples include discussions, lecture methods, audio-visuals, independent study, programmed instruction, and e-learning.

The programmed instruction method facilitates pre-training preparation to ensure that all trainees have similar backgrounds. The e-learning method, an informational method, uses electronic technology to deliver, support, and enhance teaching and learning.

Method # 2. Experiential:

In this method, learners get the opportunity to interact with the faculty, which is distinctly different from academic learning. The faculty may, however, be replaced by a computer or simulator, customers, or other trainees. Experiential learning is the process of learning from direct experience.

This is highly suited for the acquisition of practical skills, where trial and error, and the opportunity to practice practical techniques related to real tasks is essential. In many countries, experiential learning is integral to vocational education. This learning method is focused on the communicative relationship and exchange of information between the teacher and learner.

On-the-job training, equipment simulators, games and simulation, case study and analysis, role playing, behavioural modelling, and sensitivity training are a few examples of the experiential methods.

Some of these are as follows:

i. Application Project:

Teachers are always seen to advice students to administer exercises at the end of almost every topic. These exercises ensure students to have a thorough understanding of the topics. Similarly, in application projects, students get a greater opportunity to display initiative and creative ideas.

During these projects, teachers lay down the task to be accomplished whereas the students decide the lines of actions to achieve them. These projects are usually pursued out by a single student or by a group of students. The project reports help in providing feedback on a range of personal qualities of the trainees as well as their range of knowledge and attitude to the assigned task.

The trainees must be motivated by the trainer stating that they are to pursue the project seriously in their own interest. The project topic and objectives must be relevant to their needs. If the trainees feel that they have failed to pursue the project, there will be severe loss of confidence on their part.

This might even result in antagonism towards the trainer. The trainer must be meticulous in saving the confidence of the trainees in his and trainees’ interest. It is evidenced that trainees are generally hypersensitive to criticism of project work in which he/she has invested adequate efforts.

ii. Apprenticeship:

One important component of HRD is upgrading knowledge and skills. Development of human resource is crucial for the industrial development of any nation. Training institutions alone are not sufficient for acquisition of skills and need to be supplemented by training in the actual workplace.

Apprenticeship is a system of training to impart knowledge, help acquire skills, and gain competencies to meet the demand for skilled craftsmen. The apprentice scheme includes on-the-job training in addition to theoretical classes.

The government enacted the Apprentices Act, 1961 with the objectives of regulating the programme of training of apprentices in the industry, keeping in mind the syllabi, period of training, etc., as laid down by the central apprenticeship council. This helped to utilize the facilities available in industry fully by imparting practical training with a view to meet the requirements of skilled manpower for industry.

In India, the department of education in the ministry of HRD is responsible for implementation of this Act with respect to graduate, technician, and technician (vocational) apprentices. The ministry monitors this through four boards of apprenticeship training located at Kanpur, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Chennai.

iii. Behavioural Modelling:

This is alternatively known as behaviour simulation games and is used to impart knowledge on interpersonal skills, ways of working in a team, and cognitive teaching/training skills. Behavioural simulation games focus primarily on the processes of interpersonal relations, on how decisions are made, and with what consequences, rather than on the substance of the decisions. The games are used to having set rules and predictable results.

Instructors use such games to highlight a particular behavioural process appropriate for a particular situation and to dramatize the effect. Although it is important to note that the same games should not be repeated with the same group as it will then become a meaningless attempt. Structured exercises are particular types of simulation that can be repeated until learning is assured. Thus, exercises provide scope for improvisation, adaptation, and redesigning according to personal and situational needs.

iv. Business Games:

Business games or management games are suitable for giving trainee managers practice in dealing with management problems during the induction phase. Trainees are presented with detailed information about a company, its financial position, product range, customers, suppliers, markets, business status, competitors, etc.

They are given different management roles to perform. One group may be concerned with production, whereas others may be concerned with maintenance, quality control, planning, purchase, marketing, sales, storage, and so on. These groups then virtually run the company during the training sessions. They take decisions, plan actions, and compute probable results in terms of profitability.

This simulation of real life situation aids the transfer of learning. This is necessary because if a trainee manager, after completion of his training, applies for only broad theoretical knowledge to the work situation, it could cause major problems. This is a valuable way of assessing the performance of a trainee through his potential and decision-making ability.

The main difficulty is in assessing the probable results of the decisions taken. Computers are nowadays used for this purpose. The trainees may reject the decisions if they feel the assessment of the probable outcome of their decisions is unrealistic.

v. Career Counselling:

Career counselling helps employees to discover their true potential and interest in various tasks in order to help them to progress in their career. Experienced employees help the trainees, new recruits, and other employees to identify the areas of improvement and guide them on how to advance in their professional career.

Similarly, in academic institutions, career counselling helps students to discover their true potential and interest in various subjects in order to help them choose the right career.

Several institutes including schools and colleges today offer career counselling using a series of aptitude tests. The tests usually have multiple-choice questions, which do not need to be prepared for in any way. Thereafter, the employee or the student, as the case may be, has a face-to-face interview with a career guidance counsellor.

The interview provides the employee or the student with the opportunity to clear any doubts or queries he/she may have regarding career progression and career options. It also allows the counsellor to further judge the aptitude of the employee.

vi. Case Study:

A case is a written description of an actual business situation. Case studies fall into two broad categories in which the trainees- (a) diagnose the causes of a problem and (b) set out to solve a particular problem. A case may illustrate diverse situations in an organization.

These situations could be based on any financial position, market position, emerging competitors, planning of new technology, diversity management problems, human related issues, and so forth. The trainees need to examine the events, consider the business scenario, contemplate organizational culture, and devise a solution for implementation. It is important for the trainer to give proper instructions to the trainees before they go ahead with analysing a case.

The case must reflect the exact work situation otherwise the trainees may get a wrong impression of the real work situation. They should not feel that the decisions taken by them are only for practice in the classroom. A teacher’s skill lies in convincing students that the decisions are applicable in live situations also.

The case study method enhances power of realistic analysis, problem solving ability, capacity of exploration, decision-making skills, and analytical skills. The trainees should preferably be asked to present their findings to adjudge the communication skills. The trainer must be involved in the process and be psychologically close to the trainees.

vii. Coaching:

The purpose of coaching is developing a person to fit in a role. Coaching is a collaborative, solution-focused, and result-oriented method. It is a systematic process in which the coach facilitates the enhancement of work performance, life experience, self-directed learning, and, personal and professional growth of the learners.

The trainee gets close attention, continuous feedback, and learns various methods of skill development. In an industrial organization, the master craftsman coaches his juniors or the trainees attached to him.

viii. Computer Based Training (CBT):

CBT is usually conducted in classrooms with the facility of networked computers. An individual undergoes this training in a self-paced format. With the advent and advancement of computer facilities and networking, there can be an almost limitless interplay between instructor-led and individual-based computer training. Computer-based training is a unique approach to classroom training, a principal example of today’s self-paced training approaches.

Computers and networking have produced an enormous impact on the delivery of training in organizations today. Interactive compact discs on educational topics provide the added advantages.

Today, it is estimated that 55 per cent of organizations use computer-based training via CD-ROM in their training programmes, with other multimedia-based efforts pushing the number of computer- based approaches much higher. Microcomputers and the rapid increase of their capabilities have further influenced the growth of CBT.

ix. Conferences and Seminars:

In conferences and seminars on selected themes and sub-themes, delegates present papers and the organizing committee publishes the proceedings, either on hard copy or on CD, or both. The committee prepares a schedule of lectures based on the sub-themes.

The delegates present their papers and freely interchange knowledge, ideas, opinions, and findings on any of the sub-themes. They deliver the latest information citing examples from national and international businesses. Attending a seminar broadens, stimulates, and widens the spectrum of knowledge on the seminar theme and sub-themes.

x. Professional Courses:

Universities, academic institutes, and other professional institutes organize course programmes relating to specific organizational needs. The objective of these programmes is to enhance the enabling capacities of the personnel to perform specific activities or work packages. Such courses are generally of short durations.

xi. Discussion:

When using this method, the teacher freely shares his knowledge, experience, opinion, and ideas on a particular subject with his students. This method manifests its importance when dissemination of information, attitudinal change, and behavioural modification is imperative.

The teacher elucidates the aftermath of an incident due to the attitude of a person in a particular situation, particularly if the attitude is non-conducive to organizational effectiveness. This narration can impact the trainee’s subconscious mind. This realization may result in attitudinal change and behavioural modification. The teacher, as a manager of learning, should have the flair to offer positive direction in order to yield only positive result. The discussion has to be motivational as well as appealing.

xii. Distance Learning:

This is different from learning in a conventional classroom. Most distance learners study in open universities after having some experience in the conventional face-to-face education system. Distance learning uses a variety of media and technology, where the learners primarily learn independently, from a distance.

The students are expected to read material supplied to them on their own. They are supposed to self-study at home and do not readily get the opportunity of having their doubts and confusions clarified as in the conventional learning system. Such universities operate study centers in dispersed locations. Isolation from peer groups and irregular contact at the study center sometimes also becomes a major hindrance in learning.

Experience shows that learners need to develop effective learning strategies and discipline to succeed in distance learning. The pioneer provider of distance learning in India is Indira Gandhi National Open University. IGNOU provides reading material to the students and supplies them with a handbook to empower them in the learning process, and prepare them to make the best use of facilities provided by the university.

The handbook describes the steps that distance learners should follow to be effective learners. In management programmes, IGNOU generally gives three assignments including two tutor-marked and one computer-marked. Attempting the assignments ensures the students’ involvement with the subject. The weightage is 30 per cent for the assignments and 70 per cent for the term-end examinations.

xiii. E-Learning:

Learning today has moved from the classroom onto the desktop and now into pocket computers. Many companies are seen to be switching to e-learning. The e-learning method is not only flexible, fast, and convenient, but it also saves time, money, and resources.

E-learning also relates to knowledge management. The key to success is dissemination of knowledge from the people who have it to the people who need it. The knowledge transfer process delivers measurable and tangible results. E-learning has broadened the avenue to sharpen skills or develop oneself.

Access, information, and speed occupy the driver’s seat and characterize today’s world. These days, organizations want to make their employees aware of new information and technology. Learners, too, want a fast and suitable way to learn new skills and information. E-learning is a way to satisfy the individual and organizational needs.

xiv. Induction:

Induction refers to the introduction of an employee to the job and the organization. The primary purpose is to ‘sell’ the company to the new recruit so that he may feel proud of being an employee of the company.

An employee has to work with fellow employees, comply with the policies and practices, work in teams, integrate with team members, and know them. Hence, it is always better to give an idea of the entire work frame to the newly employed. Further, inadequate induction may lead to higher manpower turnover, confusion and misunderstanding, wastage of time, and expenditure.

In an induction programme, the evolution of the company, its principal products, technology of production and major operations, organization structure, functions of the departments in brief, and the employee’s own department, company policy and objectives, service conditions, employee welfare measures, working hours and overtime, reporting relationship, grievance and discipline handling mechanism, recreational facilities, career planning and promotion, and the like are discussed.

xv. Internships:

Management and technical institutes depute their students to organizations in order to familiarize them with real-life situations and gain experience. These organizations allot certain assignments to these interns to develop them. The duration for these internships is generally from two to four months. Some institutes call it a Summer Internship Programme (SIP).

xvi. Intranet-Based Training (IBT):

Organizations have started using intranet for internal communication. HRD professionals are also seen to be using intranet to communicate with learners, identify training needs, impart training, transmit reading material, administer exercises and case studies, organize multimedia programmes, and miscellaneous other administration activities. Conducting assessment tests through intranet is another very common feature.

In case of multinational companies with branches in multiple countries, their geographical locations and dispersion are never a problem with IBT. Indian Society for Training & Development (ISTD) is conducting diploma courses on training having eight papers. The paper 7 is on ‘Electronic Enabled Training Systems’ and paper 8 is on ‘Electronic Enabled Training Office and Administration’.

The objectives of the subjects are (a) to help the participants understand the concept, application, and evaluation of electronic enabled training systems and (b) to help the participants understand the concept, practice, and management of electronic enabled training office and administration.

Many employed people including senior executives from organizations are pursuing the diploma programme to gain and utilize the knowledge in respective organizations.

xvii. Job Assignments:

In this method, employees are assigned particular tasks that are completely new to them. After completion, they are asked to prepare a short report highlighting their observations, the difficulties encountered, their competency required in the process, the scope of improvement in the process, a quality plan relating to the particular task, etc. These methods greatly help in discovering the credibility and inner potential of employees and eventually help the employees develop their potential.

xviii. Managerial Grid Sessions:

Rapidly growing large companies are choosing this method of training requiring considerable investment and time. Managerial grid sessions are generally five- or six- phased programmes extending over three to five years.

The sessions start with upgrading managerial skills, developing interpersonal relations, cultivating group dynamics, and several other managerial competencies, and move toward corporate planning, strategic management, gaining visionary skills, business environment study and analysis, developing and designing implementation methods, etc. The programme ends with an evaluation phase.

xix. Programmed Instructions:

Programmed instructions are the name of a technology to improve quality of teaching. It refers to self-teaching with the support of a specialized text book or a teaching machine or software. The device presents study material in a logical sequence.

Programmed instructions encompass two essential elements (a) a step-by-step series of bits of knowledge to build upon what has been done previously and (b) a mechanism for presenting reviews and checking on the knowledge gained by the trainee.

xx. Remote Telecommunication (TC) Live Teaching:

The faculty delivers lectures to groups of students in remote classrooms. The facility includes two-way voice communications where the students can address questions to the faculty. Through this teaching, the locations can be widely dispersed, say, the faculty located in the US and students in India, Pakistan, China, or elsewhere.

The students or participants may be from branches in different countries of a multinational company. Experienced and highly-skilled faculty members are assigned the responsibility of lecturing so that the topic content is delivered in a logical sequence with minimal gaps.

This reduces the number of questions by the participants, trimming down the time and economizing the session. Some faculty members use overhead or LCD projectors too. The popularity of this method is ever increasing. Experts from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Business School, or London School of Economics share their knowledge, experience, and research findings through this technology-backed method.

xxi. Role Play:

In role playing, participants are assigned specific roles of characters that may have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. For example, after selecting a group, one trainee may be asked to play the role of marketing manager, the second trainee the role of finance manager, the third trainee the role of chairman and managing director, and so on.

They may be asked to interpret their roles and discuss among themselves, leading to decision-making for a given problem in a hypothetical situation. Role play is used for changing attitudes, practicing skills, and analysing interpersonal problems.

xxii. Sensitivity (or T Group) Training:

This methodology is widely used to enhance self-awareness to facilitate trainees to see how others see them. It is an experience of interpersonal relationships. This training encompasses learning and unlearning of certain things.

A situation is created and the trainees are virtually put into the situations in which the behaviour of each individual in the group is examined along with the comments of other trainees. Generally, the group of trainees is unstructured. This is a vivid way for the trainee to learn the effect of his/her behaviour on other people and the effect of their behaviour upon him/her.

Difficulties can arise if what the trainee learns about himself is distasteful to him. Occasionally, a participant may indulge in arguments when the facilitator will have to handle the situation. Others’ comments must be taken sportingly as this is the only scope of being aware about one’s own shortcomings and weaknesses.

The trainer acts as a catalyst or a facilitator throughout. Generally, the group of trainees is unstructured. Having been given a task, the group members are motivated to express their feelings, which are analysed and dealt with by the trainer spontaneously. The behaviour of the group or groups as a whole gets examined.

The trainer or facilitator should be a trained person having industrial experience or a psychological background. He has to analyse the behaviour and offer his comments in a way acceptable to the participants. This enables one to understand why people behave as they do. It promotes communication skills, improves interpersonal relations, synergy, and working in a team.

xxiii. Simulations of Real Life:

Training in the field is a major venture and effective roles for participants can take time to be established and performed. In order to reduce the associated costs and to provide practice of roles in a variety of situations, the training designer can move one step ahead towards real life by incorporating simulation. Simulation can range from simple to more elaborate methods. Simulation includes role playing, games, and in-basket exercises.

Lynton and Pareek (2007) have emphasized that talking about people and talking with people are different things. Role playing is a very flexible training method and can be very real in these situations. To provide practice of in-basket exercises, you are required to rotate the participants through key roles.

Management trainees are given the opportunity to work at an office desk with ringing telephones, reading reports and giving comments, giving decisions, marking letters specifying action plans, and dealing with whatever comes to the in-tray.

Fundamental researches have established that (a) simulations and games are more effective at transferring learning to students than case studies, (b) students with non-convergent learning styles enjoy simulations more than those with convergent learning styles, (c) senior managers, say over 40 years of age, prefer simulations that use real industry data over games that used fabricated data, and (d) younger managers who have used computer games in their childhood, enjoy simulations and games more than case studies.

This method is useful for group projects to enhance decision-making skills and requires integration of many factors. The method inspires salespersons, marketing personnel, and public relation officials. The subject should neither be too complex nor too simple. As such, only experienced trainers are engaged in simulation exercises. The student’s motivation must be strong enough to carry out a self-development programme.

Simulations and games on action plan, action replay, adult learning, building a great business, card sorting experiment, characteristic admired leaders, assertive communication, concern for customers, concern for employees, diversity management, conflict management, faster problem solving, influencing colleagues without authority, ice breaking, time management, goal setting, creativity, etc., are practiced.