Everything you need to know about the steps and process involved in an employee training programme. Training should be conducted in a systematic order in order to derive expected benefits in it.

The training system involves four steps viz.-, needs assessment, designing the training program, implementation of the training program and evaluation of the training program.

Training methods and content may not be the same for different categories of employees. As such, management has to train the employees of different categories in different areas and through different methods based on the job analysis. Training programmes are a costly affair, and a time-consuming process. Therefore, they need to be drafted very carefully.

This will further help you to learn about:


A: In most of the organisations, the following steps are considered necessary for conducting a training programme – 1. Identifying Training Needs 2. Getting Ready for the Job 3. Preparation of the Learner 4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge 5. Performance Try Out 6. Follow-Up.

B: The training system involves four steps viz – 1. Assessment of Training Needs 2. Designing the Training Programme 3. Implementation  4. Evaluation of Training Programme.

C: The training process in HRM involves – 1. Needs Assessment 2. Ensuring Employees Readiness for Training 3. Creating a Learning Environment 4. Ensuring Transfer of Training 5. Selecting Training Methods 6. Evaluating Training Programmes.

This article will also help you to get the answers of:

  1. Training Process in HRM
  2. Identification of Training Needs in HRM
  3. Training Needs Assessment
  4. Methods of Training Need Assessment
  5. Methods of Identifying Training Needs
  6. Methods of Training in HRM

Steps and Process Involved in an Employee Training in HRM: Identification of Training Needs, Assessment, Process  and Methods

Steps and Process in Training Programme – Steps, Policies, Courses and Material for Training

Training programmes are a costly affair, and a time-consuming process. Therefore, they need to be drafted very carefully.


Usually in the organisation of training programmes, the following steps are considered necessary:

Step # 1. Identifying Training Needs:

A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems.

The most important step, in the first place, is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organisation, its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “The trouble spots” where training may be needed. It should, however, be noted that training is not a cure-all.


For example, if the efficiency of an employee is low, or he cannot get the job done, it may be due to faulty raw materials and equipment or not getting their timely supplies, or a defective engineering design, or uncongenial work environment, or low wages, or tax supervision. If that is the case, these problems should be rectified.

Identification of training needs must contain three types of analyses – organisational analysis, operations analysis, and man analysis. Organisational analysis centres primarily upon the determination of the organisation’s goals, its resources, and the allocation of the resources as they relate to the organisational goals.

The analysis of the organisational goals establishes the framework in which, training needs can be defined more clearly. Operations analysis focuses on the task or job regardless of the employee doing the job. This analysis includes the determination of the worker must do – the specific worker behaviour required – if the job is to be performed effectively.

Man analysis reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills of the incumbent in each position and determines what knowledge, attitudes or skills he must acquire and what alterations in his behaviour he must make if he is to contribute satisfactorily to the attainment of organisational objectives.


William Berliner and William McLarney say that discovering training needs involves five tasks:

(A) Task Description Analysis:

1. List the duties and responsibilities or tasks of the job under consideration, using the Job Description as a guide.

2. List the standards of work performance on the job.


(B) Determining Training Needs:

3. Compare actual performance against the standards.

4. Determine what parts of the job are giving the employee trouble — where is he falling down in his performance?

5. Determine what kind of training is needed to overcome the specific difficulty or difficulties.


Numbers 1 and 2 comprise basic task description step in identifying training needs. Here, job requirements – the jobs the person does – and expected standards of performance are taken note of Numbers 3, 4 and 5 involve determining job-related training needs. Problems and performance discrepancies are noted and training goals set.

(a) Task Description Analysis:

The job or task analysis aims at determining what constitutes the job, the methods that are used on the job, and the human skills required to perform the job adequately. The job or task description that results, lays out the requirements of task in terms of actual duties to be performed. The job specification lists the human skills and knowledge required.

(b) Determining Training Needs:


Training needs may be discovered/identified for the new as well as the present employees and for solving the specific problem in the following ways:

(i) Identifying Specific Problems:

Such problem are- productivity, high costs, poor material and control, poor quality, excessive scrap and waste, excessive labour-management troubles, excessive grievances, excessive violation of rules of conduct, poor discipline, high employee turnover and transfers, excessive absenteeism, accidents, excessive fatigue, fumbling, discouragement, struggling with the job; standards of work performance not being met, bottlenecks in production, deadlines not being met, and delayed production.

Problems like these suggest that training may be necessary. For this, the task and the workers should be closely observed and the difficulties found out.

(ii) Anticipating Impending and Future Problems:

Bearing on the expansion of business, the introduction of new product, new services, new designs, new plant, and new technology and of organisational changes concerned with manpower inventory for present and future needs.


(iii) Management Requests:

The supervisors and managers may make specific request for setting training programmes. Though this method is simple and a correct evaluation of the employees’ performance deficiencies can be made, but often such recommendations may be built on faulty assumptions; and requests may not coincide with each other or organisational goals.

(iv) Interviewing and Observing the Personnel on the Job:

Interviewing personnel and direct questioning and observation of the employee by his superiors may also reveal training needs.

(v) Performance Appraisal:

An analysis of the past performance records of the perspective trainee and comparing his actual performance with the target performance may provide clues to specific interpersonal skills that may need development.


(vi) Questionnaires:

Questionnaires may be used for eliciting opinions of the employees on topics like communication, satisfaction, job characteristics, their attitude towards working conditions, pay, promotion policies etc. These will reveal much information about where an employee’s skills and knowledge are deficient.

(vii) Checklist:

The use of checklist is a useful supplement to interviews and observations. Through it, more reliable information can be obtained and the data got are quantifiable. This facilitates evaluating the training programme’s effectiveness.

(viii) Morale and Attitude Surveys:

An occasional personnel audit may be conducted to forecast future promotions, skill requirements, and merit rating, to initiate informal discussions and an examination of records and statistics regarding personnel, production, cost, rejects and wastages. All these generally reveal the potential problems to be tackled through training programmes.


(ix) In addition, tests of the interpersonal skills through handling of posed cases and incidents, may also reveal training needs.

It is interesting to note that “the determination of training needs in American industry ranges from subjective beliefs about the value of training and education to a systematic identification of problems requiring solutions. The latter seems to be the wisest course in order to ensure that training contributes to the goals of an enterprise.”

In a survey of 150 firms, it was found that the training needs of an organisation were determined generally by requests from the top management. Presumably, perception, judgement, intuition, the expressed needs of the first level and middle managers, or a desire to follow the practices of other firms were the determining factors in these requests.

The other methods which were often used were informal observations, talks with supervisors, and group discussions and conferences; used less often were analysis of various reports (such as cost, turnover, grievances, suggestions, etc.), formal training advisory committees, employee questionnaires and merit or performance rating.

In another enquiry, it was found that the development of training needs was based on supervisory commendations in 73 per cent of the firms, on the analysis of job requirements in 58 per cent and on the analysis of job performance in 32 per cent.

Suggestions by employees were a factor in 66 per cent of the firms. Organisations have several sources of information which assist them in determining their training needs; and in this determination of needs, supervisors play a major role.


In India, it was found in a survey that in all the 13 private sector companies where the survey was undertaken, the training needs were determined on the basis of supervisory recommendations, analyses of job performance and job requirements, and on the basis of employee suggestions. In the case of steel and tobacco industries, the employees themselves suggested the type of training that was needed.

Step # 2. Getting Ready for the Job:

Under this step, it is to be decided who is to be trained — the newcomer or the older employee, or the supervisory staff, or all of them selected from different departments. The trainer has to be prepared for the job, for he is the key figure in the entire programme.

Step # 3. Preparation of the Learner:

This step consists:

(i) In putting the learner at ease (so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact he is on a new job);

(ii) In stating the importance and ingredients of the job, and its relationship to work flow;

(iii) In explaining why he is being taught;


(iv) In creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs;

(v) In explaining the ‘why’ of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows;

(vi) In placing the learner as close to his normal working position as possible; and

(vii) In familiarising him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.

Step # 4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge:

This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job, and why each step in its performance is necessary.

Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be an emphasis on key points, and one point should be explained at a time. For this purpose, the trainer should demonstrate or make use of audiovisual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations. He should also be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job.

Step # 5. Performance Try Out:

Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected, and if necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee the first time. The trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in a right way, he is put on his own, but not abandoned.

The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated.

This is usually done by:

(a) Giving written or oral tests to trainees to ascertain how far they have learnt the techniques and principles taught to them and the scores obtained by them;

(b) Observing trainees on the job itself and administering performance tests to them;

(c) Finding out individual’s or a group’s reaction to the training programme while it is in progress and getting them to fill up evaluation sheets;

(d) Arranging structured interviews with the participants or sending them questionnaires by mail;

(e) Eliciting the opinion or judgement of the top management about the trainees’ performance;

(f) Comparing the results obtained after the training with those secured before the training programme in order to find out whether any material change has taken place in attitude, opinion, in the quality of output, in the reduction in scrap, breakage and the supplies used and in overhead costs.

(g) Study of profiles and charts of career development of the participants and related assignment techniques.

Through one or a combination of these devices, the validity of training programmes may be ascertained. If there are any errors or weaknesses, they should be corrected and instruction repeated, if necessary, till the trainer knows that the trainee has learnt whatever has been imparted to him.

Step # 6. Follow-Up:

This step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of training efforts.

This consists in:

(a) Putting a trainee “on his own.”

(b) Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed instructions; and

(c) Tapering off extra supervision and close follow-up until he is qualified to work with normal supervision.

It is worth remembering that if the learner hasn’t learnt, the teacher hasn’t taught.

Training Policy:

Every company or organisation should have well-established training policy. Such a policy represents the top management’s commitment to the training of its employees, and comprises rules and procedures governing the standard of scope of training.

A training policy is considered necessary for the following reasons:

(a) To indicate a company’s intention to develop its personnel; to provide guidance in the framing and implementation of programmes and to provide information concerning them to all concerned;

(b) To discover critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis; and

(c) To provide suitable opportunities to the employee for his own betterment.

Training Courses:

Training may range from highly specified instruction in the procedures to be adopted while performing a particular job to every general instruction concerning the economy and society.

Training courses in general areas usually aim at making an employee a rounded individual, a happier worker and a good citizen, and at training him for “larger responsibilities” and future advancement. Such training exerts a remarkable influence on production and labour.

From the producer’s point of view, output would increase with decrease in scrap, spoilage, waste and the cost of production. From the point of view of labour, the employee’s morale would improve; so would the rate of turnover, excessive absenteeism and accidents reduce. Training programmes are no doubt expensive; but their worth to a growing concern cannot be overemphasised.

Training in general areas is given in such subjects as general and home economics, basic English, instruction in better writing and report drafting, reading using gauges, the operation of machines, fire- fighting and safety devices on the job, shop practices and secretarial practices, elementary mathematics, sociology, industrial psychology, time study, personal hygiene, public speaking and public relations, selling and communication with people.

So far as women employees are concerned, they are given training in telephone etiquette, personal hygiene, good grooming, sales talk and handling of sales and courtesy.

Support Material for Training:

A variety of equipments is utilised to impart effective training.

These are:

(a) Lectures (learning by hearing supplemented by reading assignments); conferences, seminars and staff meetings (learning by participation); demonstrations (learning by seeing); and short courses, through coaching.

(b) Role-playing (learning by doing) and job rotation (learning by experience).

(c) Case or Project studies and problem-solving sessions (learning by personal investigation).

(d) Use of pamphlets, charts, brochures, booklets, handbooks, manuals, etc.

(e) Graphs, pictures, books, slides, movie projectors, film strips, tape recorders, etc.

(f) Posters, displays, notice and bulletin boards.

(g) Reading rooms and libraries where specified books and journals are maintained for reference and use.

(h) Understudy and visits to plants.

(i) Correspondence courses under which knowledge about business law, statistics, industrial management, marketing, office procedures, retailing and many other similar subjects may be imparted.

(j) Teaching machines.

(k) Membership of professional or trade associations, which offer new techniques and ideas to their members.

Training material has to be prepared with great care and distributed among the trainees so that they may come well-prepared to a session and are able to understand the operations and/or demonstrations quickly and correctly.

Training Period:

The duration of a training varies with the skill to be acquired, the complexity of the subject, a trainee’s aptitude and ability to understand, and the training media used.

Generally, a training period should not be unduly long; if it is, trainees may feel bored, uninterested. The ideal session should not go beyond 2 to 3 hours at a stretch, with a break in between two sessions. If convenient, employees may be trained for a week or a fortnight for an hour or two, every day after work hours.

The training period may extend from 3 weeks to 6 months or even more, depending upon job requirements.

The physical location of the programme should be in pleasant surroundings away from the noise and tension of the workplace.

Training for Different Employees:

Employees at different levels require training. Unskilled workers require training in improved methods of handling machines and materials to reduce the cost production and waste and to do the job in the most economical way. Such employees are given training on the job itself; and the training is imparted by their immediate superior officers, sardars or foremen. The training period ranges from 3 weeks to 6 weeks.

Semi-skilled workers require training to cope with the requirements of an industry arising out of the adoption of mechanisation, rationalisation and technical processes. These employees are given training either in their own sections or departments, or in segregated training shops where machines and other facilities are usually available.

The training is usually imparted by the more proficient workers, bosses or inspectors, and lasts for a few hours or weeks, depending upon the number of operations, and the speed and accuracy required on a job. Training methods include instruction in several semi-skilled operations because training in one operation only creates difficulties in adjustments to new conditions, lends the colour of specialisation to a job and makes work somewhat monotonous for an individual.

Skilled workers are given training through the system of apprenticeship, which varies in duration from a year to three or five years. Such training is also known as tradesmen or craftsmen training, and is particularly useful for such trades in industry which require highly sophisticated skills – as in carpentry, drilling, boring, planning and host of other industrial jobs and operations.

While the mass production in industry has considerably reduced, the proportion of employees who must be skilled tradesmen, the design, the construction and maintenance of new machines have increased to such an extent that a very high level of skill and capacity is required to become a skilled tradesman.

Any apprentice programme usually takes into consideration the facts of individual differences in abilities and capacities. Such programmes are usually conducted in training centres and industry itself.

Besides the above types of employees, others – typists, stenographers, accounts clerks, and those who handle computers – need training in their particular fields; but such training is usually provided outside an industry.

Salesmen are given training so that they may know the nature and quality of the products, and the routine involved in putting through a deal; they are trained in the art of salesmanship, and in handling customers and meeting their challenges.

The supervisory staff need training most, for they form a very important link in the chain of administration. The training programmes for supervisors must be tailor-made to fit the needs of an undertaking. Their training enables supervisors to cope with the increasing demands of the enterprise in which they are employed and to develop team spirit.

Supervisory training aims at:

(i) Helping the present supervisors to improve their performance;

(ii) Helping them to prepare for the greater responsibilities of the higher levels of management;

(iii) Building up the security and status of supervisors; and

(iv) Ensuring their technical competence with a view to enabling them to know and understand all about the processes and operations in which their workers participate.

The courses for supervisors concentrate upon those areas which are closely related to their day-to­day jobs.

Accordingly, they are generally given training in:

(a) The organisation and control of production, in maintenance and materials handling at the departmental level;

(b) Planning, allocation and control of work and personnel;

(c) Impact of methods study, time study, job evaluation, and the supervisors’ responsibilities and functions in connection therewith;

(d) Company policies and practices for the purchase of stores, the preparation of requisitions, inventories, cost analysis, cost control and shop rules and the preparation of reports and other standard operating procedures;

(e) Personnel procedures, policies and programmes;

(f) Training of subordinates and grievance handling; and techniques of disciplinary procedures.

(g) Communication, effective instruction, report writing;

(h) Appraisal of employees and their rating, and the maintenance of personnel records;

(i) Dealing with the problem of absenteeism, tardiness, indiscipline and subordination.

(j) The handling of human problems — i.e., maintaining good interpersonal relations and morale of the employees;

(k) Evaluating the effects of industrial legislation at the department level;

(I) Leadership qualities;

(m) Industrial law; standing orders, and trade union organisation; and

(n) Principles of administration, safety, health, and welfare regulations.

Supervisors’ training may include the supply of necessary reading material, job rotation to give them a wide in-plant experience, holding of staff meetings, visits to other industrial units, participation in the work of other departments, lectures and teaching, role-playing, case studies and conferences.

In India, such training is provided by the National Productivity Council, New Delhi and the Central Labour Institute at Mumbai and Delhi.

Steps and Process in Training Programme – Step by Step Process of Training

Training should be conducted in a systematic order in order to derive expected benefits in it. The training system involves four steps viz.-, needs assessment, designing the training program, implementation of the training program and evaluation of the training program.

Step # 1. Assessment of Training Needs:

Training needs are identified on the basis of organisational analysis, job analysis and man analysis. Training programme, training methods and course content are to be planned on  basis of training needs. Training needs are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organisation in which employee is lacking attitude/aptitude, knowledge, skill etc.

Training needs = Job and organisational requirements – Employee specifications.

Training needs can be identified through identifying the organisational needs based on:

(i) Organisational Analysis:

This includes analysis of objectives, resource utilisation, and environment scanning and organisational climate. Organisational strengths and weaknesses in different areas like accidents, excessive scrap, frequent breakage of machinery, excessive labour turn-over, market share, and other marketing areas, quality and quantity of the output production schedule, raw materials and other production areas, personnel, finance, etc.

(ii) Departmental Analysis:

Departmental strength and weakness including special problems of the department or a common problem of a group of employees like acquiring skills and knowledge in operating computer by accounting personnel.

(iii) Job/Role Analysis:

This includes study of jobs/roles, design of jobs due to changes, job enlargement, and job enrichment, etc.

(iv) Employee Analysis:

Individual strengths and weaknesses in the areas of job knowledge, skill, etc.

Assessment Methods:

The following methods are used to assess the training needs:

(i) Organisational requirements/weakness.

(ii) Departmental requirements/weaknesses.

(ii) Job specifications and employee specifications.

(iv) Identifying specific problems.

(v) Anticipating future problems.

(vi) Management’s requests.

(vii) Observation.

(viii) Interviews.

(x) Group conferences.

(x) Questionnaire surveys.

(xi) Test or examinations.

(xii) Check lists.

(xiii) Performance appraisal.

Training Content for Different Categories of Employees:

Training methods and content may not be the same for different categories of employees. As such, management has to train the employees of different categories in different areas and through different methods based on the job analysis.

Training methods and content for a few jobs are discussed hereunder with a view to giving an idea to the reader:

I. Supervisory Training:

Supervisors mostly learn to supervise under the guidance of a manager. Hence, the emphasis should be on the on-the-job training methods. These methods can be supplemented by various off-the-job training methods. Course content of training to this category include- production control, organisation methods, work/activity control, method study, time study, job evaluation, company policies and practices, personnel policies, procedures, programmes, training the subordinate, grievance handling, disciplinary procedure, communication, effective instruction, report writing, performance appraisal, personnel records, dealing with absenteeism, labour turn­over, industrial and labour laws, leadership qualities etc.

II. Sales Training:

Emphasis should be towards on-the-job as well as off-the-job training methods in training the sales personnel. Course content include job knowledge, organisational knowledge, knowledge about the company products, customers, competitors, sales administration procedures, law concerning sales, special skills like prospecting, making presentations, handling, objections, closing the sales etc., employee attitudes such as loyalty to the company and trust in the company products, understanding and tolerance with regard to potential and existing customers.

III. Clerical Training:

Emphasis may be given on the off-the-job training in training the clerical personnel. The training content includes organisation and methods, company policies, procedures and programmes background knowledge of the company, forms, reports, written communication, clerical aptitude, maintaining ledgers, records etc.

IV. Learning and Teaching Training:

The training programme will not be effective if the trainer is poorly qualified or ill-equipped with the technical aspects of the content or if he lacks aptitude for teaching and teaching skills. Training comprises of mainly learning and teaching. Training principles can be studied through the principles of learning and principles of teaching.

Step # 2. Designing the Training Programme:

After assessing the training needs, the organisation has to design the training programme that would meet the needs. The success of designing the training programme depends on the accurate training needs assessment and designing the training programme based on the needs. Design of the training programme should focus on- (i) Instructional objectives, (ii) Principles of learning and teaching, (iii) Principles of training, (iv) Characteristics of the instructor, and (v) Content of the program.

(A) Instructional Objectives:

Instructional objectives specify the skills, knowledge, talents and competency to be acquired, attitudes, values and beliefs to be changed and behaviour to be modified. Performance-centred instructional objective is widely used as it provides the skills, knowledge and behaviour required to the employee and the performance appraisal would be unbiased.

Thus, instructional objectives should be based on the intended performance objectives/results and the results expected from the instruction. Instructional objectives, in turn, help to select training material and training methods.

(B) Principles of Learning and Teaching:

Learning Principles:

Models of human learning are studied in order to find out the reasons for fast accurate learning.

The principles of learning developed by Sikula are as follows:

(a) All human beings can learn.

(b) An individual must be motivated to learn.

(c) Learning is active but not passive.

(d) Learners may acquire knowledge more rapidly with guidance. Feedback ensures improvement in speed and accuracy of learning.

(e) Appropriate material (like case studies, tools, problems, reading etc.) should be provided.

(f) Time must be provided to practice learning.

(g) Learning methods should be varied. Variety of methods should be introduced to off-set fatigue and boredom.

(h) The learner must secure satisfaction from learning. Education must fulfill human needs, desires and expectations.

(i) Learners need reinforcement of correct behaviour.

(j) Standards of performance should be set for the learner.

(k) Different levels of learning exist.

(I) Learning is an adjustment on the part of an individual.

(m) Individual differences play a large part in effectiveness of the learning process.

(n) Learning is a cumulative process.

(o) Ego involvement is widely regarded as a major factor in learning.

(p) The rate of learning decreases when complex skills are involved.

(q) Learning is closely related to attention and concentration

(r) Learning involves long-run retention and immediate acquisition of knowledge.

(s) Accuracy deserves generally more emphasis than speed.

(t) Learning should be relatively based.

(u) Learning should be a goal-oriented.

Learning Patterns:

Trainers need some understanding of the patterns in which new skills are learned. The employee is likely to find he/she unusually clumsy during the early stages of learning. This can be called discouraging stage. After the employee adjusts himself to the environment, he learns at a fast rate.

A ‘plateau’ develops after the lapse of more training time due to a loss of motivation and lack of break in training schedule and time. The trainee reaches the next stage when he is motivated by the trainer and/or some break or pause in time and training process is given. The trainee at this stage learns at a fast rate. Special repetition of the course leads the trainee to reach the stage of over-learning.

Thus, it is clear that, learning rarely takes place at a constant rate. It varies according to the difficulty of the task, ability of the individual and physical factors. However, the rate of learning varies from one individual to another.

Characteristics of Learning Process:

(1) Learning is a continuous process.

(2) People learn through their actual personal experience, simulated experience and from others experience (by using the knowledge which represents experience of others).

(3) People learn step by step, from known to unknown and simple to complex

(4) There is a need for repetition in teaching to improve skill and to learn perfectly.

(5) Practice makes a man perfect. Hence, opportunity should be created to use, transfer the skills, knowledge and abilities acquired through learning. It gives satisfaction to the learner.

(6) Conflicts in learning: Conflict in learning arises when the trainer knows or has developed some habits which are incorrect in terms of the method being learned.

Learning Problems:

The instructor should have the knowledge of the possible learning problems. He should identify the problems of trainees and take steps to solve them.

The possible learning problems are:

(a) Lack of knowledge, skill, aptitude and favourable attitude.

(b) Knowledge and skill not being applied.

(c) Existence of anti-learning factors: Most operational situations contain a number of elements which will restrict the development of learning regardless the methods employed.

(d) Psychological problems like fear and shyness.

(e) Inability to transfer of learning to operational situation.

(f) Heavy dependence on repetition, demonstration and practice.

(g) Unwilling to change.

(h) Lack of interest about the knowledge of results.

(i) Absence of self-motivation.

(j) Negative attitude about involvement and participation.

Teaching Principles:

In addition to learning principles, teaching principles should also be taken care of for effective training.

(a) The employee must be taught to practice only the correct method of work.

(b) Job analysis and motion study techniques should be used.

(c) Job training under actual working conditions should be preferred to class room training.

(d) Emphasis should be given more on accuracy than speed.

(e) Teaching should be at different time-intervals.

(f) It should be recognised that it is easier to train young workers that old workers due to their decreasing adaptability with the increase in age.

(g) First establish the best way of doing a job — use job analysis and/or time and motion study techniques.

(h) Follow the principles of best movements in work.

(i) Job training under actual working conditions is superior to classroom and normal training.

(C) Principles of Training:

Providing training in the knowledge of different skills is a complex process. A number of principles have been evolved which can be followed as guidelines by the trainees.

Some of them are as follows:

(I) Motivation:

As the effectiveness of an employee depends on how well he is motivated by management, the effectiveness of learning also depends on motivation. In other words, the trainee will acquire a new skill or knowledge thoroughly and quickly if he or she is highly motivated.

Thus, the training must be related to the desires of the trainee such as more wages or better job, recognition, status, promotion etc. The trainer should find out the proper ways to motivate experienced employees who are already enjoying better facilities in case of re-training.

(II) Progress Information:

It has been found by various research studies that there is a relation between learning rapidly and effectively and providing right information specifically, and as such the trainer should not give excessive information or information that can be misinterpreted.

The trainee also wants to learn a new skill without much difficulty and without handing too much or receiving excessive information or wrong type of progressive information. So, the trainer has to provide only the required amount of progressive information specifically to the trainee.

(III) Reinforcement:

The effectiveness of the trainee in learning new skills or acquiring new knowledge should be reinforced by means of rewards and punishments. Examples of positive reinforcement are promotions, rise in pay, praise etc. Punishments are also called negative reinforcements. Management should take care to award the successful trainees.

The management can punish the trainees whose behaviour is undesirable. But the consequences of such punishments have their long-run ill effect on the trainer as well as on the management. Hence, the management should take much care in case of negative reinforcements.

(IV) Practice:

A trainee should actively participate in the training programmes in order to make the learning programme an effective one. Continuous and long practice is highly essential for effective learning. Jobs are broken down into elements from which the fundamental physical, sensory and mental skills are extracted. Training exercises should be provided for each skill.

(V) Full vs. Part:

It is not clear whether it is best to teach the complete job at a stretch or dividing the job into parts and teaching each part at a time. If the job is complex and requires a little too long to learn, it is better to teach part of the job separately and then put the parts together into an effective complete job.

Generally, the training process should start from the known and proceed to the unknown and from the easy to the difficult when parts are taught. However, the trainer has to teach the trainees based on his judgment on their motivation and convenience.

(VI) Individual Differences:

Individual training is costly, and group training is economically viable and advantageous to the organisation. But individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from person to person. So the trainer has to adjust the training programme to the individual abilities and aptitude. In addition, individual teaching machines and adjustments of differences should be provided.

Areas of Training:

Organisations provide training to their employees in the following areas:

(i) Company policies and procedures;

(ii) Specific skills;

(iii) Human relations;

(iv) Problem solving;

(v) Managerial and supervisory skills; and

(vi) Apprentice training.

(i) Company Policies and Procedures:

This area of training is to be provided with a view to acquainting the new employee with the Company Rules, Practices, Procedures, Tradition, Management, Organisation Structure, Environment Product/Services offered by the company etc.

This acquaintance enables the new employee to adjust himself with the changing situations, Information regarding company rules and policies creates favourable attitudes of confidence in minds of new employee about the company and its products/services, as well as it develops in him a sense of respect for the existing employees of the company and the like.

The company o provides first-hand information to the employee about the skills needed by the company, its development programmes, quality of products/services and the like. This enables the new employees to know his share of contribution to the organisation’s growth and development.

(ii) Training in Specific Skills:

This area of training is to enable the employee to be more effective on the job. The trainer trains the employee regarding various skills necessary to do the actual job. For example, the clerk in the bank should be trained in the skills of making entries correctly in the ledger and arithmetical calculations, quick comparison of figures, entries and the like. Similarly, the technical officers are to be trained in the skills of project appraisal, supervision, follow-up and the like.

(iii) Human Relations Training:

Human relations training assume greater significance in organisations as employees have to maintain human relations not only with other employees but also with their customers. Employees are to be trained in the areas of self-learning, interpersonal competence, group dynamics, perception, leadership styles, motivation, grievance redressal, disciplinary procedure, and the like. This training enables the employees for better team work, which leads to improved efficiency and productivity of the organisation.

(iv) Problem Solving Training:

Most of the organisational problems are common to the employees dealing with the same activity at different levels of the organisation. Further, some of the problems of different managers may have the same root cause. Hence, management may call together all managerial personnel to discuss common problems so as to arrive at effective solutions across the table.

This not only helps in solving the problems but also serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information that could be utilised. The trainer has to organise such meetings, train and encourage the trainees to participate actively in such meetings.

(v) Managerial and Supervisory Training:

Even the non-managers sometimes perform managerial and supervisory functions like planning, decision-making, organising, maintaining inter­personal relations, directing and controlling. Hence, management has to train the employee in managerial and supervisory skills also.

(vi) Apprentice Training:

The Apprentice Act, 1961 requires industrial units of specified industries to provide training in basic skills and knowledge in specified trades to educated unemployed/apprentices with a view to improving their employment opportunities or to enable them to start their own industry. This type of training generally ranges from one year to four years. This training is generally used for providing technical knowledge in the areas like trades, crafts etc.

(D) Characteristics of Instructors:

Implementation of the training programme to a great extent depends on the characteristics of the instructor.

Some of the traits of a successful instructor include:

i. In-depth knowledge of the subject and demonstration of the knowledge.

ii. Adaptability – Learning abilities of the trainees vary from one to another. Therefore, the phase of the instruction should match the trainees abilities.

iii. Sincerity – Trainees appreciate the sincerity of the trainer.

iv. Sense of humour – Instructor should make the learning fun.

v. Interest – The instructor should create interest in learning among the trainees.

vi. Clear instructions – The clear instructions enable the trainee to learn quickly and retain the knowledge longer.

vii. Individual assistance – Individual assistance in the training program enhances the confidence level of the trainees.

viii. Enthusiasm – A dynamic and inspirational presentation create enthusiasm to learn among trainees.

Step # 3. Implementation:

After designing the training program and making the instructor and trainees ready, the instructor has to implement the training programme. Care should be taken in choosing training methods as ‘the rubber-should-meet-the-road’ in implementing a training programme.

Training Methods:

As a result of research in the field of training, a number of programmes are available. Some of these are new methods, while others are improvements over the traditional methods. The training programmes commonly used to train operative and supervisory personnel are discussed below. These programmes are classified into on-the-job and off-the-job training programmes.

1. On the Job Training Methods:

This type of training, also known as job instruction training, is the most commonly used method. Under this method, the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving firsthand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions.

While the trainee learns how to perform a job, he is also a regular worker rendering the services for which he is paid. The problem of transfer of trainee is also minimised as the person learns on-the-job. The emphasis is placed on rendering services in the most effective manner rather than learning how to perform the job. On-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments.

(a) Job Rotation:

This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisor or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Though this method of training is common in training managers for general management positions, trainees can also be rotated from job to job in workshop jobs. This method gives an opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them.

(b) Coaching:

The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas.

(c) Job Instruction:

This method is also known as training through step by step. Under this method, trainer explains the trainee the way of doing the jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee.

(d) Committee Assignments:

Under the committee assignment, group of trainees are given and asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The trainees solve the problem jointly. It develops team work.

2. Off-The-Job Methods:

Under this method of training, trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees.

Off-the-job training methods are as follows:

(a) Vestibule Training:

In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a class room. Material, flies and equipment those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi­skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice in this method.

(b) Role Playing:

It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters, such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.

(c) Lecture Method:

The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organises the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus, costs and time involved are reduced. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively.

(d) Conference or Discussion:

It is a method in training the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. This method involves a group of people who pose ideas, examine and share facts, ideas and data, test assumptions, and draw conclusions, all of which contribute to the improvement of job performance.

Discussion has the distinct advantage over the lecture method in that the discussion involves two-way communication and hence feedback is provided. The participants feel free to speak in small groups. The success of this method depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.

(e) Programmed Instruction:

In recent years this method has become popular. The subject- matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is expensive and time consuming.

Computer-Assisted Instruction:

With the paradigm shifts in information technology as well as computer software, detailed instruction along with follow-up tests, feedback, detailed trainees’ queries/ frequently asked questions and answers are incorporated in the computer- assisted instruction program.

The trainees can learn at the time of their convenience. Added to this on-line instructor clarifies unusual queries of the trainees at an appointed time. This program saves cost, time for training and emotional feelings of the trainer and trainee.

Audio-Visual Methods and E-Training:

Audiovisual methods are used to teach skills and knowledge in production and marketing jobs. Videotapes are used to illustrate the steps in production process. Further, CDs and DVDs provide trainees interactive capability. CD-ROM based instruction provides multimedia presentations on various aspects computer-based training and E-training.

Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) system delivers instructional materials directly through a computer terminal in an interactive format. Computers through CDs, DVDs and internet provide exercises and practices, problem solving, performing simulated jobs/tasks, gaining forms of instruction and tutorial instructions.

Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI) system is normally employed in conjunction with CAI. This uses a computer to generate and score tests and to determine the level of training proficiency. CMI system also oversees the performance of trainees and directs them to use appropriate study material. The computer with CMI, performs certain routine training tasks and allows the instructor to spare time on course development and provide ‘just-in-time’ training and ‘just-needed’ training.

E-learning provides the opportunity of learning from anywhere in the world. For example, Motorola is a high-tech firm and much of its training uses on-line multimedia technologies. Web- based/E-Learning can be revised rapidly to provide for continuous update of material. Web-based training, when combined with other communication technology like e-mail, tele-conferencing, video-conferencing and groupware provides the following facilities and advantages-

i. Self-paced learning

ii. Training comes close to the employee

iii. Interactive training

iv. New employees need not await scheduled training sessions

v. Training focuses on specific needs

vi. On-line help for trainees

vii. Easy to change/revise computer program

viii. Record-keeping is facilitated

ix. Linkage of the computer programme to the videoconferencing

x. Training is cost-effective.

Training Conduct:

One of the better personnel programmes- to come out from World War II was the Training within the Industry (TWI) programme of the War Manpower Commission. This was basically a supervisory training programme to make up for the shortage of civilian supervisory skills during the war.

One of the parts of this programme was the job instruction training course, which was concerned with how to teach? The training procedure discussed below is essentially an adoption of the job instruction training course, which has been proved to have a great value.

The important steps in training procedure are discussed below:

(a) Preparing the Instructor:

The instructor must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper time without the trainee losing plan. For each part, one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction, that is, whether a particular point is best taught by illustration, demonstration or explanation.

A serious and committed instructor must:

(i) Know the job or subject he is attempting to teach,

(ii) Have the aptitude and abilities to teach,

(iii) Have willingness towards the profession,

(iv) Have a pleasing personality and capacity for leadership,

(v) Have the knowledge of teaching principles and methods,

(vi) Be a permanent student, in the sense that he should equip himself with the latest concepts and knowledge.

(b) Preparing the Trainee:

As in interviewing, the first step in training is to attempt to place the trainee at ease. Most people are somewhat nervous when approaching an unfamiliar task. Though the instructor may have executed this training procedure, many times he or she never forgets its newness to the trainee. The quality of empathy is a mark of the good instructor.

(c) Getting Ready to Teach:

This stage of the programme is class hour teaching involving the following activities:

i. Planning the programme.

ii. Preparing the instructor’s outline.

iii. Do not try to cover too much material.

iv. Keep the session moving along logically?

v. Discuss each item in depth.

vi. Repeat, but in different words.

vii. Take the material from standardised texts when it is available.

viii. When the standardised text is not available, develop the programme and course content based on group approach. Group consists of employer, skilled employees, supervisors, trade union leaders and others familiar with job requirements. Group prepares teaching material.

ix. Teach about the standard for the trainee like quality, quantity, waste or scrap, ability to work without supervision, knowledge or procedure, safety rules, human relations, etc.

x. Remember your standard, before you teach.

xi. Take periodical progress of the trainees, and application into account.

(d) Presenting the Operation:

There are various alternative ways of presenting the operation, viz., explanation, demonstration, etc. An instructor mostly uses these methods of explanation. In addition one may illustrate various points through the use of pictures, charts, diagrams and other training aids.

The following sequence is a favourite with some instructors:

(i) Explain the sequence of the entire job.

(ii) Do the job step-by-step according to the procedure.

(iii) Explain the step that he is performing.

(iv) Have the trainee explain the entire job.

(e) Try Out the Trainee’s Performance:

As a continuation of the presentation sequence given above, the trainee should be asked to start the job or operative procedure. Some instructors prefer that the trainee explains each step before doing it, particularly if the operation involves any danger. The trainee, through repetitive practice, will acquire more skill.

(f) Follow-Up:

The final step in most training procedures is that of follow-up. When people are involved in any problem or procedure, it is unwise to assume that things are always constant. Follow-up can be adapted to a variable reinforcement schedule as suggested in the discussion of learning principles.

Advantages of Training:

The contributions of imparting training to a Company should be readily apparent.

The major values are:

(i) Increased Productivity:

An increase in skill usually results in an increment in both quality and quantity of output. However, the increasingly technical nature of modern jobs demands systematic training to make possible even minimum levels of accomplishment.

(ii) Increased Morale:

Possession of needed skills helps to meet such basic human needs as security and ego satisfaction. Collaborate personnel and human relations programmes can make a contribution toward morale, but they are hollow shells if there is no solid core of meaningful work done with knowledge, skill and pride.

(iii) Reduced Supervision:

The trained employee is one who can perform with limited supervision. Both employee and supervisor want less supervision but greater independence is not possible unless the employee is adequately trained.

(iv) Reduced Accidents:

More accidents are caused by deficiencies in people than by deficiencies in equipment and working conditions. Proper training in both job skills and safety attitudes should contribute toward a reduction in the accident rate.

(v) Increased Organisational Stability:

The ability of an organisation to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of key personnel can be developed only through creation of a reservoir of employees. Flexibility, the ability to adjust to short-run variations in the volume of work requires personnel with multiple skills to permit their transfer to jobs where the demand is highest.

Step # 4. Evaluation of Training Programme:

The specification of values forms a basis for evaluation. The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. The process of training evaluation has been defined as “any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance, and to assess the value of training in the light of that information.”

Evaluation leads to controlling and correcting the training programme. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place, viz., reactions, learning, job behaviour, organisation and ultimate value.

(i) Reactions:

Training programme is evaluated on the basis of trainee’s reactions to the usefulness of coverage of the matter, depth of the course content, method of presentation, teaching methods, etc.

(ii) Learning:

Training programme, trainer’s ability and trainee ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and learner’s ability to use or apply, the content he learned.

(iii) Job Behaviour:

This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job.

(iv) Organisation:

This evaluation measures the use of training, learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organisation in the form of increased productivity, quality, morale, sales turnover and the like.

(v) Ultimate Value:

It is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the Company goals like survival, growth, profitability, etc., and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximising social benefit.

Kirkpatrick and Pecuniary Utility Models of Training Effectiveness:

Donald Kirkpatrick developed a model to measure training effectiveness in the late 1950s. According to this model training effectiveness is measured at four levels viz.-


How did participants react to the program is measured at this level. Trainee’s reaction is measured at this level in the form of completion of participant feedback questionnaire, providing informal comments about the training program.


To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training are measured at this level using pre and post test scores, on-the-job assessments and supervisor’s reports.


To what extent did participants change their behaviour back in the workplace as a result of the training is measured at this level using completed self-assessment questionnaire, on- the-job observation, and reports from customers, peers and participants’ manager.


What organisational benefits resulted from the training are measured at this level using financial reports, quality inspections, and interviews with the managers concerned.

Steps and Process in Training Programme – Training Process in HRM

Training design process is a systematic approach for developing training programmes. The two models generally adopted are ISD (Instructional System Design) and ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation).

Noe et al (2008) advocated a six-step process which includes all the facets of a training programme, namely, needs assessment, ensuring employees’ readiness for training, creating a learning environment, ensuring transfer of learning, selecting selection methods and evaluating training programmes.

The training processes are as follows:

Process # 1. Needs Assessment:

Needs assessment refers to the process used to determine whether training is necessary. There are many factors or compelling reasons to suggest that training necessary. The factors or reasons include performance problems, new technology, requests for training, job redesign, new legislation, changes in customer preferences, new products, employees’ lack of skill etc. Needs assessment generally involves organizational analysis person analysis and task analysis.

(a) Organizational Analysis:

This involves determining the business appro­priateness of training compared to the company’s business strategy, its available resources for training and support by managers and peers for training activities.

(b) Person Analysis:

Person analysis helps identify who needs training.

This involves:

(i) Determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skills or ability or from a motivational or work-design problem.

(ii) Identifying who needs training and finding out the employees’, readiness for training.

(c) Task Analysis:

This includes identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill and behaviours that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks.

A task is a statement of an employee’s work activity in a specific job.

Steps involved in task analysis are:

(i) Selecting the job(s) to be analysed.

(ii) Developing a list of tasks performed on the job by interviewing and observing expert employees/managers and discussing with those who have performed a task analysis.

(iii) Validating or confirming the list of tasks with subject matter specialists.

(iv) Identifying the knowledge, skills or abilities necessary to perform’ each task. The information can be collected through interviews and questionnaires.

Process # 2. Ensuring Employees Readiness for Training:

Readiness for training refers to whether:

(i) The employees have the personal characteristics such as ability, attitudes, beliefs and motivation necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job, and

(ii) The work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance.

Managers play an important role in influencing employees’ readiness for training. They need to ensure that employees’ motivation to learn is as high as possible.

This is achieved by:

(i) Ensuring employees’ self-efficacy,

(ii) Making the employees to understand the benefits and consequences of training,

(iii) Creating the awareness of training needs, career interests and goals, and

(iv) Helping the employees to know about the work environment characteristics.

Further, the motivation to learn is also influenced by basic skills (reading, writing and communication skills) needed to understand the content of a training programme and cognitive ability which includes three dimensions viz., verbal comprehension, quantitative ability and reasoning ability.

Process # 3. Creating a Learning Environment:

To acquire knowledge and skills in the training programme and apply the same in the jobs, the training programme must include certain learning principles.

Those are:

(i) Employees Need to Know Why they should Learn?

The trainees must understand the purpose or objectives of the training programme.

(ii) Employees Need Meaningful Training Content:

Training content includes linking of training with the current job experiences/tasks, using of concepts, terms and examples familiar to trainees and making sure that training context such as physical, intellectual and emotional environment merge with the work environment.

(iii) Employees Need Opportunities to Practice:

Unless opportunities are created for the trained employees to practice what they learnt, training becomes a futile exercise. Practice involves making the employee demonstrate the learned capability emphasized in the training. Effective practice involves repeated practice, taking appropriate time period and adequate unit of learning (amount of material). Practice must be relevant to the training objectives.

(iv) Employees Need Feedback:

Feedback helps trainees in understanding to what extent they learnt. To be effective feedback must be specific and provided without loss of time. It is advisable to praise the employees for positive behaviour. Videotape is quite powerful for giving feedback.

(v) Employees Learn by Observing, Experience and Interacting with Others:

Social learning theory tells that people learn by observing and imitating the actions of role models. For social learning to be effective, the models should have appreciable traits. Further, trainees should have the opportunity to practice the skills/behaviour of the models. In social learning, communities of practice play an important role. Communities of practice are groups of employees who work together, learn from each other and develop a common understanding of how to get the work done.

(vi) Employees Need to Memorize the Training Contents:

Trainers can teach keywords, a procedure or a sequence of a visual image to make the trainees remember the training contents. Creating a link between what the trainees already know and what has been taught in the training makes things easy to remember.

(vii) Employees Need the Training Programme to be Properly Coordinated and Arranged:

Training administration, which refers to coordinating activities before, during and after the programme is an important aspect in making training effective.

Good coordination ensures the following:

(i) Trainees are not distracted by events such as poor ventilation, uncomfortable seats, inadequate/inappropriate materials that could interfere with learning.

(ii) Communicating to the trainees the purpose of the training, exact place/time, name(s) of person(s) to contact in the event of any doubt and any assignment to be completed.

(iii) Preparation of books, speakers, hand-outs, videotapes etc.

(iv) Allocation of rooms with needed equipment’s.

(v) Avoiding distraction such as phone calls.

(vi) Adequate time to provide feedback about the programme.

Process # 4. Ensuring Transfer of Training:

Learning is influenced by the learning environment such as meaningfulness of the material and opportunities for practice/feedback and employees’ readiness for training with self-efficacy and basic skill level. Transfer of training occurs only when learning occurs. When no learning has taken place due to one factor or the other, the question of transfer of learning does not arise. Transfer of training means the use of knowledge, skills and behaviours learned in training on the job.

Transfer of training is influenced by Climate for transfer (technological support).Climate for transfer refers to training perceptions about the characteristics of work environment such as social support, opportunity to use the learned skill consequences for employing the learned capabilities etc. That may facilitate or inhibit the transfer of training.

Factors influencing the climate for transfer are:

(i) Manager support

(ii) Peer support

(iii) Self-management skills

(iv) Opportunity to use learned skills

Manager support refers to the degree to which the trainees’ managers emphasize the importance of attending training programmes and stress the need for applying what has been learned to the job.

(i) The greater the level of manager support the more likely that transfer of training will occur.

(ii) The basic level of support that a manager should provide it allowing trainees to attend training and the highest level is to participate in training as an instructor.

(iii) Managers, who serve as instructors are likely to reinforce use of newly learned capabilities, discuss? Progress with trainees and provide opportunities to practice.

Managers can also facilitate transfer of training through the use of action plans, An action plan is a written document that includes the steps that the trainee and manager will take to ensure that training is transferred to the job. The action plan includes identifying and use of training contents, resources needed, getting feedback and expected outcome. The action plan includes time schedule also.

Peer support is a support network among the trainees. Croup of two or more trainees agree to meet and discuss their progress in using the learned capabilities on the job.

This is accomplished through:

(i) Face-to-face meetings or communications via email. EPSSs are computer,

(ii) Sharing successful experiences in using training content on the job applications that can provide skills training,

(iii) Discussing how they obtained resources needed to use training content information access, and

(iv) Communicating how they coped with a work environment that expert advice on re- interfered with the use of training content quest.

Technical support is provided through electronic performance support systems (EPSS). EPSSs are computer applications that can provide skills training, information access and expert advice on request. EPSSs may be used to enhance transfer of training by providing trainees an electronic information source that can be referred to as and when needed by the trainee.

Self-management skills are the ability of the trainees to use the new skills and behaviour learned on the job.

(i) Trainees should set goals for using skills/behaviour on the job.

(ii) Identifying conditions which are not conducive to use the training learned on the job. Content.

(iii) Finding out the positive and negative consequences of using training content.

(iv) Monitoring the use of training content.

(v) Preparing to meet any failure.

(vi) Creating their own reward system and asking for feedback from managers.

Opportunity to use learned capabilities or opportunity to perform refers to the extent to which the trainee is provided with opportunity to use the newly learned knowledge, skills or behaviour.

Opportunity to perform is influenced by:

(i) Work environment such as assigned problems/tasks.

(ii) Trainee motivation, that is, the degree to which trainees take personal responsibility to actively seek out assignments that allow them to use newly acquired capabilities.

Process # 5. Selecting Training Methods:

As the success or failure of a training programme is often related to certain principles of learning, it is to be understood that different training methods vary in the extent to which they utilize these principles. Training programmes are likely to be more effective if the principles of learning are followed.

Selection of appropriate training programme depends on the following principles of learning:

a. Goal Setting:

When trainers take time to set goals and objectives to trainees or when trainees are encouraged to set goals on their own, the level of interest, understanding and efforts put in are likely to increase.

b. Meaningfulness of Presentation:

The material to be learned must be presented in as meaningful a manner as possible. Trainees are able to learn new information if they connect it with things which are already familiar to them.

For Effective Presentation:

(i) Colourful examples are to be used.

(ii) Examples must make the material meaningful.

(iii) Materials are to be arranged in such a way that experience builds on preceding ones.

(iv) Trainees must be able to integrate the experiences into a usable pattern of knowledge and skills.

c. Modeling:

Modeling increases the salience of behavioural training. People learn easily by watching. Modelling can take many forms such as real-life demonstrations, videotapes, pictures, drawings etc. Modeling demonstrates the desired behaviour or method to be learned.

d. Individual Differences:

People learn in different rates and in different ways. Some learn quickly, some take considerable time. Some do things awkwardly in large groups but excel in small groups. To the extent possible training programmes should try to accommodate the individual differences to facilitate each person’s style and rate of learning.

e. Active Practice and Repetition:

Trainees should be given frequent opportunities to practice what they learn. For example, the individual who is being taught how to operate equipment must be given opportunity to practice on it.

f. Whole-vs-Part Learning:

Most jobs/tasks can be broken down into smaller parts for analysis. Determining the most effective manner for completing each part provides a basis for giving specific instruction. In evaluating whole- vs.-part learning, it is necessary to consider the nature of the task to be learned. If the task can be broken down conveniently, it should be broken down to facilitate learning; otherwise it should be taught as a whole.

g. Distributed Learning:

It has been found in most cases that spacing out the training will result in faster learning and longer retention, (e.g., Giving 10- hour training in five two-hour sessions than in two five-hour sessions). However, the efficiency of the distribution will vary with the type and complexity of the task.

h. Feedback:

Feedback from self-monitoring or from trainers, fellow trainees, observers and others serves two purposes, namely, knowledge of results and 1 motivation. Feedback helps individuals to understand whether they are doing the right things or the wrong things.

That is, it serves ‘shaping’ role in helping individuals approach the training objectives. Feedback always motivates people. Negative feedback makes the individual to do the right thing appropriately. Positive feedback encourages doing better.

Training Methods for Non-Managerial Employees:

There are many methods available for training employees at all levels from old methods to advanced computer aided techniques. The methods can be generally grouped into two categories, on-the-job training and off-the-job training.

(A) On-the-Job Training (OJT):

I. Hands-on Methods:

It is a method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer.

(i) It is the most common method used for training non-managerial employees.

(ii) It has the advantage of providing hands on experience under normal working conditions.

(iii) It provides an opportunity for the trainer (manager or senior employee) to build relationships with new employees.

(iv) It is considered to be potentially the most effective means of learning in the workplace as time is a critical resource.

Common Drawbacks:

Though used by all types of organizations, it is one of the most poorly implemented training methods.

Three common drawbacks are:

(i) Lack of a well-structured training environment.

(ii) Poor training skills of managers.

(iii) Absence of well-defined job performance criteria.

To overcome the above drawbacks experts suggest the following:

(i) Developing realistic goals and/or measures for each OJT area.

(ii) Planning a specific training schedule-for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and feedback.

(iii) Helping managers to establish a non-threatening atmosphere conducive to learning.

(iv) Conducting periodic evaluations after training is completed to prevent regression.

Snell and Bohlander (2007) proposed a ‘PROPER’ (Preparation, Reassurance, Orientation, Performance, Evaluation and Reinforcement/Review) way for effective OJT.

1. Preparation- Deciding what employees need to be taught, identifying the best sequence or steps of the training and deciding how best to demonstrate these steps keeping the materials, resources and equipment ready.

2. Reassurance- Putting each employee at ease, learning about the employees’ prior experience and adjusting accordingly and trying to get the employee interested, relaxed and motivated to learn.

3. Orientation- Showing the employee the correct way to do the job, explaining why it is done in a particular way, discussing how it relates to other jobs and letting the employee ask lots of questions.

4. Performance- Letting the employees try the jobs themselves when they are ready, giving them an opportunity to practice the job and guiding them whenever there are problems and providing help and assistance initially and withdrawing gradually.

5. Evaluation- Checking the employees’ performance and questioning them on how, why, when and where they should do something, correcting errors and repeating instructions.

6. Reinforcement and Review- Providing praise and encouragement and giving feedback about how the employee is doing, continuing the conversation and expressing confidence in the employee doing the job.

II. Apprenticeship Training:

It is an extension of on- the-job training.

It is a system of training in which a worker entering a skilled job is given thorough instructions and experience both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the job.

An apprentice gets a certain percentage of the worker’s wage or a fixed amount during the apprenticeship period. After successful completion of the apprenticeship, the employee will start getting full wages.

Apprenticeships are a good way to train employees, especially in skilled- trade industries (machinist, laboratory technician, electrician and others).

III. Internship Programmes:

These are programmes jointly sponsored by colleges, universities and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in their organizations. Organizations benefit by getting student-employees with new ideas, energy and eagerness to accomplish their assignments.

(B) Off-the-Job Training Methods or Presentation Methods:

Off-the-job training methods include the traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, audio-visual techniques etc. In presentation methods, the trainees are passive recipients of information.

I. Classroom Instruction:

(i) Classroom training enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors.

(ii) This method is suitable for ‘blended’ learning where lectures and demonstrations are combined with films, DVDs, videotapes or computer instruction.

(iii) It typically involves having the trainer lecture a group.

(iv) In many cases the lecture is supplemented with question-and- answer sessions, discussion or case studies.

(v) It is one of the least time-consuming ways to present information on a specific topic to many trainees.

II. Distance Learning:

It is used by geographically dispersed companies to provide information about new products, policies or procedures as well as skills training and expert lectures to field locations-

(a) Distance learning features two-way communication between people.

(b) Distance learning currently involves two types of technology viz., teleconferencing and individualized, personal- computer-based training.

III. Teleconferencing:

It refers to synchronous exchange of audio, video and/or text between two or more individuals or groups at two or more locations.

Trainees attend training programmes in training facilities in which they can communicate with trainers (who are at another location) and other trainees using the telephone or personal computers.

In the personal-computer-based training the employees participate in training anywhere they have access to a personal computer. This type may involve multimedia training methods such as web based training. Course material and assignments can be distributed using the company’s intranet, video or CDROM. Trainers and trainees interact through e- mail, bulletin boards and conferencing systems.

(i) A major advantage of distance learning is that the company can save on travel costs. It also allows employees in different locations to receive training from experts who are unable to visit each location.

(ii) The major disadvantage of distance learning is the lack of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. The positive feature of training, i.e., face-to-face interaction is missing in distance learning which uses the technology to broadcast a lecture to geographically dispersed employees.

IV. Audiovisual Techniques:

Audiovisual instruction includes overheads, slides, and video.

(i) Video is one of the most popular instruc­tional methods.

(ii) Video is used for improving communication skills, interviewing skills and customer- service skills.

(iii) It is usually used in conjunction with lectures to show trainees real-life experi­ences and examples.

(iv) It is a major component of behaviour modelling.

Advantages of Video:

(i) The trainer can review, slow down or speed up the lesson, which permits flexibility in customizing the session depending on trainees’ expertise.

(ii) Trainees can be exposed to equipment, problems and events that cannot be easily demonstrated (e.g., malfunctioning of equipments, angry customers or emergencies).

(iii) Trainees get consistent instruction as programme content is not affected by the interests and objectives of a particular trainer.

(iv) Video graphing trainees allow them to see and hear their own performance without the interpretation of the trainer. This helps the trainees understand that their poor performance is not due to external evaluators or trainers.

Inspite of many advantages, video is plagued by many problems such as too much content for the trainee to learn, poor dialogue between the actors which hampers the credibility and clarity of message, overuse of humour, music or drama that makes it confusing for the trainee to understand the important learning points emphasized in the video.

V. Simulation:

It is a training method which represents a real-life situation, allowing trainees to see the outcomes of their decisions in an artificial environment. It is a technique in which trainees learn on the actual or simulated equipment they will use on the job but receive their training off the job.

(i) Simulation aims to obtain the advantages of on-the-job training without actually putting the trainee on job.

(ii) Simulation training is a necessity when it is too costly and dangerous to train employees on the job.

(iii) Simulations need to have identical elements to those found in the work environment.

(iv) Hence, simulators are expensive to develop and need constant updating as new information about the work environment is obtained.

(v) A recent development in simulations is the use of virtual reality technology.

Virtual reality is a computer-based technology that provides trainees with a three-dimensional learning experience. Trainees operate in a simulated environment that responds to their behaviours and reactions.

(i) It is a common training method for new assembly-line workers.

(ii) For pilots, simulated training may be the only practical alternative.

VI. Vestibule Training:

It is a simulated training which takes place in a separate room with the equipment’s the trainees will actually use on the job. Other off-the-job training methods are self-directed learning, business games and case studies, behaviour modelling, interactive video, e-learning, blended learning, learning portals, adventure learning, team training, action learning, group methods and six sigma training.

Training for Special Purposes:

Today, training does more than just prepare employees to perform their jobs efficiently and effectively. Training for special purposes is also the need of the hour.

i. Literacy Training Techniques:

Functional illiteracy, that is, the inability to handle basic reading, writing and arithmetic, is a serious problem at shop-floor in many under-developed as well as developing countries. In developed countries also many companies face this problem with immigrant workforce. Teamwork and quality require employees to have a level of analytical skills which is impossible to attain without the ability to adequately read, write and understand numbers.

Employers take various steps to teach literacy and other basic skills. In life skills programme employees are grouped into 3 or 4 categories and each category is given separate training. Some companies use their supervisors to teach basic skills through writing and speaking exercises. Another approach is to bring in outside professionals such as school teachers to teach reading and writing. Another option is having the employees attend adult education.

ii. Values Training:

Nowadays, organizations are aiming at educating employees about the most cherished values and convincing the employees that the organization’s values should be the values of individual employee.

Values training is included in the orientation programme.

First Two Days- Discussion on benefits, safety and security and the production process such as just-in-time delivery, materials management etc.

Third and Fourth Days- Values training- The employees are briefed on the vision, mission and value system of the organization which includes teamwork, trust, respect for individuals and quality.

iii. Diversity Training:

It refers to techniques for creating better cross-cultural sensitivity among supervisors and workers with the aim of creating more harmonious working relationships among the employees.

(i) Consequent to increase in diverse workforce many firms have implemented diversity training.

(ii) Firms are trying to create a better sensitivity among the supervisors about the issues and challenges women and minorities face in their careers.

(iii) Diversity training combines lectures, video and employee role- playing to emphasize sensitivity to race and religion.

(iv) A poorly conceived program can backfire. There are chances for discomfort when stereotypical beliefs are blurted out during ‘awareness raising’ sessions.

(v) To counteract potential problems associated with a diverse workforce, the sessions may concentrate on improving interpersonal skills, understanding/valuing cultural differences, enhancing technical skills, socializing into corporate culture, reducing stress, indoctrinating into the company’s work ethics, mentoring, improving communication/language proficiency etc.

Process # 6. Evaluating Training Programmes:

Examining the outcomes of a training programme helps in evaluating its effectiveness.

According to Noe et al (2008), Training outcomes are categorized as return on investment cognitive outcomes, skill-based outcomes, affective outcomes, results and return on investment.

These are measured as follows:

Cognitive Outcomes- Acquisition of knowledge by pencil-and-paper tests and work sample.

Skill-based Outcomes- Behaviour and skills by observation, work sample and ratings.

Affective Outcomes- Motivation, reaction to programs and attitudes through interviews, focus groups, attitude surveys and observation.

Results- Company payoff by data from information system or performance records.

Return on Investment- Economic value of training by identification and comparison of costs and benefits of the training programme.

Dessler (2008) identified reaction, learning behaviour and results as the important outcomes.

Reaction- How did the trainees react to the training programme? Did they like the programme? Did they think it worthwhile?

Learning- This is to find out to what extent the trainees learned the principles, skills and fads they were supposed to learn.

Behaviour- Is there any change in the behaviour of the trainee because of the training?

Results- Ultimately what are the results of the training programme? Did the programme achieve all the objectives set forth? Did the number of customer complaints drop? Did the reject rate improve? Did scrappage cost reduce? Was turnover decreased? How much did quality improve? How much it contributed to profits? How much has productivity increased? By how much have costs been reduced?

Training managers are under pressure to show the training programmes produce ‘bottom-line’ results. Most organizations measure their training in terms of ROI (Return on Investment). A company’s ROI in training refers to the benefits derived from training relative to the costs incurred.

The benefits include higher revenues generated, increased productivity, better quality, lower costs, more satisfied customers, higher job satisfaction and lower employee turnover.

The costs include direct costs of the programme such as materials, travel, meeting site, meals, equipment, trainer salary etc. as well as the indirect costs such as participants’ salaries, productivity lost while attending the programme etc.

ROI = Results/Costs

If the ROI ratio is >1, the benefits of the training exceed the cost of the programme, i.e., the training is effective. If the ROI ratio is < 1, i.e., the costs of the training exceed the benefits the training is ineffective.

Steps to Calculate ROI:

(i) Identification of outcomes such as quality, accidents, absenteeism etc.

(ii) Placing a value on the outcomes.

(iii) Determining the changes in performance after eliminating other potential influences on training results.

(iv) Obtaining an annual amount of benefits (operation results) from training by comparing results after training to results before training.

(v) Determining training costs (A total of direct costs, indirect costs, development costs, overhead costs and trainers’ salary/compensation).

(vi) Calculating the total savings by subtracting the training costs from benefits.

(vii) Calculating the ROI by dividing benefits by costs.

Reasons for Evaluating Training:

As firms invest considerable amounts in training programmes it is quite logical that the managements would like to know to what extent the programmes are effective.

(i) To identify the programme’s strengths and weaknesses which cover the extent of accomplishment of the objectives quality of learning environment and transfer of training.

(ii) To know whether the content, organization and administration of the programme (including the schedule, accommodations, trainers and materials) contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job.

(iii) To assess which trainees benefited most or least from the programme.

(iv) To collect data from the participants about the usefulness of the programme, their level of satisfaction with the programme and the reason for their attending the programme.

(v) To calculate the financial benefits and costs of the programme.

(vi) To compare the costs and benefits of the programme to non-training investments such as work redesign, better recruitment, selection, promotional activities etc.

(vii) To analyse the costs and benefits of various programmes to choose the best one.