Everything you need to know about – On the job training methods. On-the job methods usually involve training in the total job. These methods are typically conducted by individuals, workers, or supervisors.
The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing their work, which may minimize the training costs.
OJT is the heart and soul of all training in business and industry. OJT as it is known or sometimes called “Shop Training” is the most universal form of employee development.
This is the traditional method of learning which is designed to maximise learning while allowing the employee to perform his job under the supervision and guidance of a trained worker or instructor, providing him practical application and making principles and concepts of learning meaningful and realistic.
There are several types of on-the-job training methods. They are:-
1. Job Instruction Training 2. Job Rotation 3. Apprenticeship 4. Coaching 5. Vestibule Training 6. Mentoring 7. Internship Training
8. Understudy 9. Programmed Instruction 10. Computer-Assisted Instruction 11. Simulation 12. Training by Experienced Workmen 13. Training by Supervisors and 14. Demonstrations and Examples (Learning by Seeing).
On the Job Training Methods: Job Rotation, Apprenticeship, Coaching, Vestibule Training, Mentoring and Internship Training
On the Job Training Methods – Top 6 Methods: Job Instruction Training, Job Rotation, Apprenticeship, Coaching, Vestibule Training and Mentoring
As the name suggests, on-the job training are conducted in the real job settings. On-the job methods usually involve training in the total job. These methods are typically conducted by individuals, workers, or supervisors. The main advantage is that the trainees learn while actually performing their work, which may minimize the training costs.
They also learn in the same physical and social environment in which they will be working once the formal training period is completed. However, this method has its limitations. It does happen that sometimes supervisors and co-workers are not interested in training new employees.
This becomes a problem particularly when the trainers believe that their job security may be threatened by training new comers.
Job Instruction Training (JIT) is received directly on the job, and so it is often called “on-the-job” training. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. In this, the worker learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting this training.
Usually no special equipment or space is needed, since new employees are trained at the actual job location. The trainer may be a skilled workman. He may be the superior who breaks in the new man and then turns him over to the skilled workman who continues to guide his learning.
Job instruction training includes several steps. First, the trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose, and its desired outcomes, with an emphasis on the relevance of the training. Then the trainer demonstrates the job to give the employees a model to copy. Since the employee is shown the actions that the job requires, the training is transferable to the job.
Next the employee is allowed to mimic the trainer’s example. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the job is mastered. Repeated demonstrations and practice provide repetition and feedback. Finally the employee performs the job without supervision, although the trainer may visit the employee to see if there are any lingering questions.
This type of training has many advantages. It is easily organized, it is realistic, it stimulates high motivation, it speeds up the worker’s adjustment to his superior and fellow workers, and its apparent costs are small.
In terms of the learning principles, the method facilitates positive transfer, since the training and actual work situations are almost identical. It provides active practice and immediate knowledge of results. It is far more feasible for custodians than for brain surgeons.
It also has possible disadvantages. The assigned instructor may be a poor teacher; he may be antagonized by an additional assignment. The worker, in his haste for immediate production, may fail to learn the best way of doing the job; and the actual costs, considering the lost time of trainee and trainer, as well as the wasted material and damaged equipment, may be heavy.
It is often brief and poorly structured. Also, many established workers find teaching a new recruit to be a nuisance and the new employee may be pressured to master the task too quickly.
Before implementing effective JIT Programmes, one should take into account certain things. Firstly, the choice of trainers should be based upon their ability to teach and their desire to take on this added responsibility. Secondly, the trainers should be trained in proper methods of instructions. Thirdly, adequate evaluation of the trainer’s progress has to be made frequently and then fed off back to the trainee using reliable and valid measures.
Fourthly, trainers and trainees should be carefully paired in order to minimize differences in background, language, personality, attitudes or age that may inhibit communication. Fifthly, the trainer must be made to realize the importance of close supervision in order to avoid trainee injuries. Sixthly, JIT should be used in conjunction with other training approaches such as programmed instruction, lectures and films.
To cross-train employees in a variety of jobs, some trainers move a trainee from job to job. Each move normally is preceded by job instruction training. This is a method of training wherein workers rotate through a variety of jobs, thereby providing them a wider exposure. Trainees are placed in different jobs in different parts of the organization for a specified period of time.
They may spend several days or even years in different company locations. In this way they get an overall perspective of the organization. Besides giving workers variety in their jobs it helps the organization in vacations, absences downsizing, or resignations occur. It helps workers to sharpen their career objectives and is used to develop people for higher level positions by exposing them to a wide range of experience in a relatively short span of time.
It is used with both blue-collar production workers and white collar managers, and it has many organizational benefits. Learner participation and high job transferability are the learning advantages of job rotation. Job rotation creates flexibility, during manpower shortages, workers have the skills to step in and fill open slots.
The method also provides new and different work on a systematic basis, giving employees a variety of experiences and challenges. Employees also increase their flexibility and marketability because they can perform a wide array of tasks.
However, this method also has its limitations. The major drawback is that it is time consuming and expensive too. This method can be effective when the trainees are placed in company locations where they receive maximum feedback, reinforcement, and monitoring of their performance by competent, responsible and experienced trainers.
Due to individual differences, people are not equally suited for all jobs. It weakens a worker’s commitment to a given job. Job rotation also challenges one of the basic principles of personnel placement – that workers be assigned to jobs that best match their talents and interests.
Apprenticeship training is an ancient device. An apprentice is a worker who is learning a trade but who has not reached the state where he is competent to work without supervision. It is particularly common in the skilled trades. Organizations that employ skilled trade people, such as carpenters, plumbers, masons, printers, and sheet metal workers may develop journeymen by conducting formal apprentices programmes.
A new worker is “tutored” by an established worker for a long period of time. An apprenticeship lasts from two to five years. Classroom instructions are imparted typically in the evenings at local high schools for about 144 or more hours per year. Each apprentice is usually given a workbook consisting of reading materials, tests to be taken, and practice problems to be solved.
The apprentice serves as an assistant and learns the craft by working with a fully skilled member of the trade called a Journeyman. This training is used in such trades, crafts and technical fields in which proficiency can be acquired after a relatively long’ period of time in direct association with the work and under the direct supervision of experts. At the end of the apprenticeship programme, the person is “promoted” to journeyman. Training is intense, lengthy and usually on a one to one basis.
However, apprenticeship training has been criticized by some personnel experts that the training programmes basically discriminate and give preferential treatment for relatives and friends. There is evidence that apprentice training is declining (National Industrial Conference Board, 1948). In the face of the serious need, for graduates of such training this decline results from remedial defects.
One of the most serious is the use of time in the programme as the basis of advancement rather than demonstrated ability. This results in some skilled apprentices remaining at minimal wages, a situation which companies sometimes have exploited. The amount of time an apprenticeship lasts is predetermined by the members of the trade.
At management levels, coaching of immediate subordinates by their managers is common. Coaching is similar to apprenticeships because the coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy. It tends to be less formal than an apprenticeship programme because there are few formal classroom sessions and because it is provided when needed rather than being part of a carefully planned programme.
Coaching is almost always handled by the supervisor or manager, not by the HR department. Participation, feedback, and job transference are likely to be high in this form of learning. Coaching is likely not to be as effective as less directive approaches, such as – nondirective counselling or sensitivity training, if the trainee’s shortcomings are emotional or personal.
Coaching will be ineffective if relations between trainee and coach are ambiguous, in that the trainee cannot trust the coach.
Coaching thrives in a “climate of confidence”, a climate in which subordinates respect the integrity and capability of their superiors. And coaching can take greatest advantage of the possibilities of individualized instruction concentrating on those specific stimulus situations subordinates find hardest to deal with, those specific performances subordinates find hardest to improve and the kind and quality of feedback which can have great impact on subordinates.
To keep instruction from disrupting normal operations, some organizations use vestibule training. Vestibule Training is a type of instruction often found in production work. A vestibule consists of training equipment that is set up a short distance from the actual production line.
Trainees can practice in the vestibule without getting in the way or slowing down the production line. These special training areas are usually used for skilled and semiskilled jobs, particularly those involving technical equipment.
Mentoring is an on-going relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.
The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Mentors frequently double as executive coaches. They also serve as confidants, sounding boards, supportive listeners, guides, and tutors. Compared to an executive coach, a mentor may meet with the mentee less frequently. But mentoring sessions are normally longer and more far-ranging than coaching sessions.
Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee’s performance.
Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency.
Some key points in mentoring include attitude development, it is conducted for management level employees, it focuses on identifying the weaknesses and the areas that need improvement, it is bases on one to one interaction and it is done by an insider of the Company.
On the Job Training Methods – With Advantages and Disadvantages
OJT is the heart and soul of all training in business and industry. OJT as it is known or sometimes called “Shop Training” is the most universal form of employee development. This is the traditional method of learning which is designed to maximise learning while allowing the employee to perform his job under the supervision and guidance of a trained worker or instructor, providing him practical application and making principles and concepts of learning meaningful and realistic.
This is the most effective method of development applicable at all levels to a wide range of semi-skilled, skilled and technical jobs, as well as supervisory and management development programmes.
There are several types of on-the-job training.
This term is used to designate training in classrooms for skilled production and clerical jobs. Under this method, employees are trained in a special training centre (vestibule) within the plant. In the vestibule an attempt is made to duplicate, nearly as possible, the actual working conditions of the work-place. Qualified instructors provide the training under carefully planned and controlled learning conditions.
Expert trainers are employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with those which are used at workplace. This method of training is mainly used when large number of employees are required to be trained quickly, as a result of expansion of business activities by firms or industries. It is also helpful as a preliminary to be on-the-job training.
This method has the fundamental advantage of training number of people in a short period of time without causing any interruption or disturbance on the normal flow of work. The trainee can concentrate on learning without disturbance from the workplace noise. This method is essential where OJT might result in serious injury or a costly event. It permits the trainee to practice without the fear of being observed and as described by the supervisor.
(i) Trainees are free from the confusion and the pressure of the work situation and they can fully concentrate on the learning.
(ii) It is a less time-consuming process.
(iii) It removes the initial nervousness of the trainees.
(i) It is costly as it involves duplication of materials and equipment.
(ii) It creates adjustment problems among the trainees when they are placed on the job.
(iii) It is difficult to duplicate everything in the vestibule.
(i) When large number of employees are to be trained.
(ii) When large number of employees require training at the same time.
(iii) When large number of employees require training in the same kind of work.
In this method, the trainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision of experts for a long period and some stipend is paid to them during the training period. Trainees are imparted knowledge and skill in doing a particular craft or a series of related jobs. In India, employers in specified industries are required under the Apprenticeship Act, 1962 to train the certain number of apprentices in designated trades.
(i) Trainees receive stipend in this type of training.
(ii) They also acquire valuable skills which require high price in the labour market.
(iii) It combines practical experience with theoretical knowledge.
(i) It is an expensive and time-consuming method.
(ii) There is no guarantee that the trainee will continue the work in the same enterprise after completing the training.
(iii) It involves continuous supervision over the trainee for a long period, sometimes it becomes difficult.
(i) Jobs which require detailed and in-depth practice.
(ii) Jobs which require technical knowledge.
In this method, the trainee moves from one job to another, so that he can know how to work on all the seats. This type of training is common for the employees of general management positions. Under this method, trainee understands the problems of the other seats while working on that seat. Such movement may be for the period ranging from 6 months to 2 years before a person is established in a particular job or department.
(i) It develops a more cooperative approach to different functions in the organisation.
(ii) Managers are able to develop broader horizon and perspective.
(iii) It allows managers to understand problems of different jobs.
(i) It can create confusion in the minds of the trainee and he cannot understand the rationale behind job rotation.
(ii) Employee cannot become efficient in any of the jobs.
(iii) It is a costly method.
(i) For less number of trainees.
(ii) For the fresh or new recruits.
This training is basically provided to bring a balance between the theoretical knowledge and the practical skills required to do the job. Internship training is the combined effort of the educational institutions and business organisations. In this, theoretical knowledge is imparted by educational institutions, and practical knowledge through business organisations.
(i) Balance between theoretical and practical knowledge.
(ii) It completes the education of the trainees.
(iii) Cost of training can be shared between the educational institutions and business organisations.
(i) It is limited for technical people.
(ii) Sometimes it becomes difficult to match the objectives of imparting training of educational institutions and business organisations.
(i) It is suitable to the professional organisations.
(ii) Where practice of theoretical knowledge is necessary.
There are some other methods which are used for training:
(i) Orientation and Induction Training:
This training is given to help new entrants, for adapting themselves with the new environment. In this method, the newcomer is taken around the organisation and informed about the location of various departments and offices. The new employees are given a full description of the job they are expected to perform. Thus, orientation training helps the new employees to acquaint themselves with their immediate boss and the persons who will work under their command.
They are also informed about the policies, procedures and rules which are related to their assigned work. Some enterprises appoint a specific person who provides full information about the organisation and job to every new entrant in the firm. Further, the information regarding the organisation chart is also provided to the new entrants so that they know their position in the enterprise in relation to other employees.
(ii) Off-the-Job Training:
This type of training can be provided to employees in various ways.
It consists of the following:
(c) Group Discussions
(d) Case Studies
(e) Programme Instructions, etc.
This method is generally used by Government and public enterprises. An institution or school is established to provide training to all types of personnel. Various rules, regulations, etc. can easily be explained to employees through this method of training.
(iii) Refresher Training:
Refresher training is helpful in acquainting personnel with latest improvements in their work. The changing technological methods require fresh training to existing employees even if they are well trained and qualified. Everybody requires attending refresher courses to know the latest techniques of doing the work. Such training also helps in refreshing the memory of the employees. The introduction of new products may also necessitate fresh training of employees.
(iv) Case Study:
This method was developed by the Harvard Business School of USA. In this method, the case is assigned to the trainees. The trainees learn and develop reasoning ability by discussing the case. This method improves the ability to evaluate facts and appreciate others’ viewpoint. The trainees come to understand more than one ways to analyse the problem.
On the Job Training Methods – 4 Methods: Coaching, Understudy, Job Rotation and Vestibule Training
Under this method, the worker is given training by his immediate supervisor itself at the workplace. In other words, the worker learns in the actual work environment. It is based on the principle of “learning by doing”. On the job training is considered to be the most effective method of training the operative personnel.
On the job training is suitable for imparting skills that can be learnt in a relatively short time. It has the chief advantage of strongly motivating the trainee to learn. It permits the trainee to learn on the equipment and in the work environment. It is not located in an artificial situation. This method is relatively cheaper and less time consuming. Here supervisors play an important part in training subordinates.
There are four methods of on-the-job training:
Under this method, the supervisor imparts job knowledge and skills to the subordinate. The emphasis is coaching or instructing the subordinate is on learning by doing. This method is very effective if the superior has sufficient time to provide coaching to his subordinates.
The superior gives training to his subordinate as his understudy or assistant. The subordinate learns through experience and observation. This technique prepares the subordinates to assume the responsibilities of the superior’s job in case the superior is absent or if he leaves the organisation.
(c) Job Rotation:
The trainee is systematically transferred from one job to another so that he may get experience of different jobs. Rotation of an employee from one job to another should not be done frequently. He should be allowed to stay on a job for sufficient time so that he may acquire the full knowledge of the job. This broadens the horizon and capacity to do a variety of jobs.
Job rotation is used by many organisations to develop all-round workers. The employees learn new skills and gain experience in handling different kind of jobs. They also come to know the interrelationship between different jobs. Job rotation is also used to place workers on the right job and prepare them to handle other jobs in case of need.
(d) Vestibule Training:
Vestibule training is an attempt to duplicate as nearly as possible the actual conditions of the workplace. The learning conditions are carefully controlled. The trainees can concentrate on training because they are not under any pressure of work. Their activities do not interfere with the regular process of production.
Thus, vestibule training is very much suitable where a large number of persons are to be trained and where mistakes are likely to occur which will disturb the production schedules. The main emphasis is on learning rather than on production. It is also known as simulation or artificial training. Best examples of vestibule training are the training given to the pilots. They are given training in the similar environment so that they can do good practice and become expert.
On the Job Training Methods – 4 Broad Methods: Programmed Instruction, Computer-Assisted Instruction, Apprenticeship Training and Simulation
By far, the most common method used for training non-managerial employees is on the job training (OJT). In fact, one estimate suggests that organizations spend three to six times more on OJT than on classroom training.
‘On the job training places the employees in an actual work situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive.’ On the job training methods embrace development through performance on the job, where organizational strength and constraints, human behaviour and technological systems have full and free play.
OJT has the advantage of providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions and an opportunity for the trainers to build good relationships with new employees.
Although it is used by all types of organizations, OJT is often one of the most poorly implemented training methods.
Three common drawbacks include:
a. The lack of a well-structured training environment.
b. Poor training skills of managers, and
c. The absence of well-defined job performance criteria.
Training experts suggest the following measures to overcome these problems:
a. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each OJT area.
b. Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and feedback.
c. Help managers to establish a non-threatening atmosphere conducive to learning.
d. Conduct periodic evaluation, after training is completed, to prevent regression.
Broadly on the job methods include:
I. Programmed Instruction
II. Computer-Assisted Instruction
III. Apprenticeship Training and
I. Programmed Instruction:
Programmed instruction is a method where training is given without the intervention of a trainer. Information is given to the trainee either in a book form or through a teaching machine. After reading each block of material, the trainee must answer a question about it. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response.
The programmed instruction consists of presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner, allowing the learner to respond, giving feedback on the accuracy of his responses. If the responses are correct, the learner goes to the next block. If not, he repeats the same. The programmed instruction is self-paced as the learner can progress through the programs at their own speed.
The learner receives strong motivation to repeat learning. Material is also structured and self-contained offering enough scope for practice. However, in this method the scope for learning is less as compared to other methods of training. Costs of preparing books, manuals and machinery are also considerably high.
II. Computer-Assisted Instruction:
This method is an extension of the programmed instruction method. The speed, memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit greater utilization of basic PI concepts.
The computer aided instruction offers three advantages:
a. Provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each learner’s progress and needs.
b. The training program can be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained.
c. This method is more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, and get training whenever they prefer.
But this method suffers from the disadvantage of high cost. But repeated use may justify the cost.
III. Apprenticeship Training:
Apprenticeship training is an extension of on the job training. With this method, individuals entering industry, particularly in the skilled trades such as machinist, laboratory technician, or electrician, are given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.
Typically, the programmes involve cooperation between organizations and their labor unions, between industry and government, or between organizations and local school systems. Although employee wages are typically less while the trainees are completing their apprenticeships, the method provides compensation while individuals learn their trade.
Sometimes it is either impractical or unwise to train employees on the actual equipment used on the job. A simulation is a technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. An obvious example is training employees to operate aircraft, spacecraft, and other highly technical and expensive equipment.
The simulation method emphasizes realism in equipment and its operation at minimum cost and maximum safety. For example, CAE Electronics worked closely with Boeing to develop flight simulators in parallel with the development of the 777 aircraft.
The more widely held simulation exercises are case study, role playing and vestibule training.
They are explained as below:
(a) Case Studies:
The case method was first developed in the 1800s by Christopher Langdell at the Harvard Law School to help students learn for themselves by independent thinking and by discovering the ever tangled skein of human affairs, principles and ideas which have lasting validity and general applicability. A collateral object is to help them develop skills in using their knowledge. The case method is based upon the belief that managerial competence can best be attained through the study, contemplation, and discussion of concrete cases.
The case is an actual situation written for discussion purposes. Analysis would need problem identification, analysis of the situation and of its causes. Trainees study the cases to determine problems, analyze causes, develop alternative solutions, select the best one, and implement it. There could be several solutions to the problem, and each of these alternatives and their implications needs to be examined.
Case study can provide simulating discussions among participants, as well as excellent opportunities to individuals to defend their analytical and judgmental abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data.
The role play method requires participants to enact roles on the basis of a written script or an oral description of a particular situation. The enactment process provides an insight and understanding of the demands and situations of the assigned role.
Role play focuses on emotional issues rather than actual ones. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation and then have the trainees assume the part of specific personalities in the situation. The consequence is a better understanding among individuals. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relations and attitudinal change.
(c) Vestibule Training:
Vestibule training uses equipment that closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment.
A special area is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those in the actual production area. The trainee is then allowed to learn under simulated conditions, without disturbing actual production operations. The vestibule training relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The focus is on learning skills the job requires.
This method provides an opportunity to create an environment identical to real situations. However, the cost of creating duplicate facilities and a special trainer is a major disadvantage. Also it is difficult to simulate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making on the job. It is also found that individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in a simulated exercise.
On the Job Training Methods – Job Instruction Training, Vestibule Training, Training by Experienced Workmen, Training by Supervisors and a Few Other Methods
Under this method, skilled co-workers or supervisors instruct employees and they learn the job by personal observation and practice. Sometimes they even handle the job by themselves and thus this method is also known as ‘learning by doing’. ‘Coaching, apprenticeship, job rotation, and special assignments’ are some of the types of on-the-job training.
In public sector organizations such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), and private organizations such as Tata Steel (TISCO), etc. recruit apprentice trainees in technical areas from technical institutes and train the young individuals for a period ranging from six months to one year and also pay stipend during the period.
During the apprenticeship period, the trainees/apprentices are exposed to different sections of the department and thereby gain practical experience and exposure to the industry, which ultimately helps them in getting the job on completion of their courses.
a. The trainee will know the actual production conditions and requirements since he works in the real environment with actual equipment.
b. This type of training is very economical as there are no additional personnel or facilities.
c. The trainee acquires full knowledge of the rules, regulations, and procedures by watching and doing.
d. Companies with adequate jobs and employees can easily adopt this type of training.
e. This type of training is very convenient where the jobs are difficult to simulate or the skills can be learned quickly.
a. Instructions may not be properly comprehended at times in this type of training.
b. Learners are often distracted by the noise at the office or workplace.
c. This may cause low productivity if the employee fails to develop adequate skills during the training.
This method is also known as ‘training through step-by-step learning’ as it involves all necessary steps in the job, each in proper sequence, which are as follows-
a. Preparation of the trainees for instruction.
b. Presentation of trainees for instruction.
c. Performance of the job by the trainee.
d. Motivating the trainee to follow up the job regularly.
This method provides immediate feedback on results, quick correction of errors, and opportunity for additional practice when required. New recruits in banks are provided with job cards, which provide step-by-step instructions to perform various tasks in various departments such as general banking, clearing, credit, etc.
In this method, the trainee is exposed to an artificial working environment wherein on-the-job situations are duplicated in a company classroom. Equipment and machines, which are identical with those in use in the place of work, are utilized to impart the training.
Here, theoretical training is given in the classroom while the practical work is conducted on the production line. It is very useful to train semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of work at the same time. Lectures, conferences, case studies, role-playing, and discussion are some forms of vestibule training.
a. Trainees are less distracted as the training is imparted in a separate room.
b. Effective utilization of a trained instructor is possible.
c. Learners can learn correct methods that will not interrupt the production.
d. Trainees are given ample freedom to practice what they have learnt since there is no constant supervision of the supervisors.
a. Since the responsibilities are distributed, it may lead to organizational problems.
b. It is not so economical, as an additional investment in equipment is necessary.
c. This method is of limited value for the jobs that utilize non-duplicable equipment.
d. The training environment is mostly artificial.
iii. Training by Experienced Workmen:
In this method, experienced workers impart training to the trainees, especially when they need helpers. This type of training is more useful for departments in which workmen advance through successive jobs to perform a series of operations. The apprentices during the period of apprenticeship are assigned to one of the senior workmen, who are assigned with the responsibility of training and coaching them.
In this type of training, the training is imparted on the job by the worker’s immediate supervisors. Thus, it provides opportunities to the trainees to develop good rapport with their superiors and also by which the supervisors can assess the abilities of the trainees based on their performance. The supervisors guide the trainees on the skills required for the job and the skills include technical and behavioural skills etc.
v. Demonstrations and Examples (Learning by Seeing):
As the name implies, in this method the trainer uses several examples and demonstrates the job to the trainee by performing it himself or herself. These are often used with lectures, pictures, text materials, discussions, etc. However, their usefulness is limited when it comes to training management personnel.
It is the technique wherein the actual conditions are duplicated which is normally in a specific job. The vestibule training method is a good example of simulation. This type of training is mostly used in the aeronautical industry.
a. Creates interest in the trainees and motivates them.
b. This type of training is very useful to avoid any costly errors or the destruction of valuable materials or resources.
This type of training usually involves huge costs.
This is the oldest and most common method of training, wherein most of the training time is spent on on-the-job productive work. In this method, each apprentice or trainee is given a programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule, which enhances an efficient training for improving the skills of the trainees.
a. This type of training brings out a skilled workforce.
b. Training gives immediate returns.
c. It provides for an efficient workmanship.
d. Lower production costs and a reduced turnover make this training less expensive.
e. Employees develop loyalty towards the job and thereby the growth prospects are high.
On the Job Training Methods – With Merits and Demerits
It is the oldest and most prevalent method of training. Training is given to the workers on the job by experienced and skilled workers or supervisors. The aim of on-the-job training is to acquaint the workers with the actual environment and conditions of work. A skilled supervisor teaches the correct method of work.
Thereafter, the worker is straight away put on the work. Usually, new worker learns the job while watching other workers doing the same job. In this way, the worker learns the job and also produces goods. If during the course of work, the learner experiences any difficulty he approaches the supervisor for assistance. Thus, it is a practical training.
(i) It is a simple method of training
(ii) Trainee’s interest in learning the job is sustained.
(iii) Trainee learns to work under actual conditions of work.
(iv) Trainee earns wages along with for work. It serves as an incentive.
(v) Where managers are unable to provide suitable training to the trainee, then this method proves suitable.
(vi) Organisations where different kinds of works are done there this kind of training is not suitable.
(i) Progress of work is hindered due to on-the-job training.
(ii) Since training is not well-planned, trainees take long to learn the niceties of the work.
(iii) Wages paid to the trainees are more than the work done by them.
(iv) Supervisor or trainer does not get any extra remuneration for imparting training. As such he does not take interest in teaching the work to the employees with dedication.
Method # 1. Vestibule Training:
Under this method, training is imparted in a special training centre called vestibule training. In this special vestibule, efforts are made to create factory-like atmosphere and working condition. Training is imparted under a well-organized programme. Training is given by experienced and skilled trainers.
This training is imparted away from the venue of the factory in a special training cell by experienced trainers according to a well-planned programme. Training centre is well-equipped with machines, tools and equipments as in the factory. On completion of training, employee-trainee is put on the specific job. Such a training method is quite competent to render the trainee more efficient. Ordinarily, this method is used by large organisations alone.
This method has many advantages:
(i) Training is definite and planned.
(ii) No hindrance in factory work because training is imparted at a separate place.
(iii) Under this method, many trainees are given training simultaneously.
(iv) Training is imparted by skilled and experienced trainees / experts.
This method has the following demerits:
(i) It is an expensive method because separate set of machines and equipment is provided in the vestibule for training purposes. It requires additional expenditure.
(ii) It is difficult to create conditions like the factory in a vestibule.
Method # 2. Apprenticeship Training:
This training method is necessary and especially suitable for those vocations which require a long period of practice to acquire complete efficiency. Students learn the job as a disciple under the supervision of the experts. The experts make the students perfect in all the intricacies and niceties of the vocation. Students acquire vocational skill by working under the guidance of the experts for a long time. The objective of this training is to develop all round skill among the workers.
Under this method, the trainee is called apprentice. The period of training may extend from two to five years. It is a very expensive method of training. During the period of training, the apprentice-trainee gets remuneration from the employer.
This method has many advantages, such as:
(i) Full knowledge of the job is acquired.
(ii) Training is imparted in a well-planned manner according to a pre-determined plan.
(iii) Trainee gets remuneration during training period. Thus his interest in the training is sustained.
This method has its demerits as well:
(i) It is an expensive method of training.
(ii) Even on completion of the training, the trainee is not sure of placement in the organisation.
Method # 3. Training by Experienced Workmen:
Training is imparted under this method by experienced workers. This kind of training is of special advantage in that case where experienced workers need helping hands. It is also suitable for those departments having series of jobs and the work proceeds in a well-planned order.
Method # 4. Training by Supervisors:
In this method, training is imparted by supervisors. Trainees get opportunity to acquaint themselves with their supervisors. Similarly, supervisors also get opportunity to evaluate the ability and potentialities of the trainees with regard to their work-performance. On the basis of this assessment, the supervisor can know their training requirements.
Method # 5. Training at Training Centre:
Special training centres are set up. These are also called Technical Training Centres. Different trades have different training centres. These centres impart both theoretical and technical training. More emphasis is laid on technical than theoretical training. Under this training system, both old and new employees get training of special trades and jobs. Objective of these training centres is to impart technical education relating to special trade.
This training method has the following merits:
(i) No hindrance in the progress of the work
(ii) Both theoretical and technical trainings are imparted.
(iii) Training has the advantage of specialization.
This training method has the following demerits:
(i) It is an expensive method.
(ii) In case the number of trainees is large, proper training cannot be imparted.
Method # 6. Internship Training:
Main aim of this training is to impart theoretical and practical training. Under this method, both technical and professional education institutions jointly impart training to their members. A balance is struck between theoretical and practical knowledge in this type of training. This kind of training is essential for professions like management, legal practitioners and medical practitioners.