Some of the most commonly used advertising techniques are: 1. Media 2. Newspaper 3. Magazines 4. Electronic Media 5. Outdoor Advertising Media 6. Transit Advertising 7. Broadcast Media 8. Internet 9. Cinema.

Advertising Techniques: Media, Newspaper, Magazines, Electronic Media and Internet

Advertising Techniques (With Advantages and Demerits)

Advertising Techniques# 1. Media

“Media is a medium which delivers the advertising message. Each advertiser has to select a particular carrier or set of carrier keeping in mind the cost, efficiency and specialties of the medium or media.”

i. Advertising objectives – The choice of media largely depends upon the advertising objectives of the enterprise. The main objective is to influence the consumer’s buying behaviour favourably but specifically advertising objectives can be to have local, regional or national coverage, to create primary or secondary demands, etc.

ii. Selling message – The type of selling message also influences the choice of media. If the enterprise wants to appeal the consumers through colour advertisement, then magazines, television, bill-boards, film etc., serve the purpose. If timeliness is the objective, then newspaper, radio, posters, etc., serve the purpose.


iii. Budget – The availability of budget also plays an important role in deciding the type of media. The funds constraint decides the choice of media.

iv. Characteristics of media – The characteristics of media vary from media to media. The characteristics that help in choice of media are – coverage, cost, consumer confidence and frequency.

v. Type of product – The nature of the product also influences the choice of media. The product demanding demonstration will be seen in television advertisements and screen advertisements. Industrial product prefers print media.

vi. Distribution strategy – Distribution strategy is another factor which affects the choice of media. The enterprise will choose that media which suits their distributors strategy. For example, if a product is not distributed nationally then a national media is not chosen.


vii. Competitive advertising – The type of media chosen by the competition for a product is also an important factor in the choice of media. Along with this, meticulous evaluation of media strategy and advertising budget helps in making a better choice. However, blind copying may be misleading and disastrous.

viii. Potential market – The potential market which is targeted also influences the choice of media. The taste is to identify the potential market for the product in terms of the number of customers e.g., geographic spread, income pattern, age group, tastes, likes and dislikes etc.

ix. Media availability – The problem of media availability is of much relevance because all the required media may not be available at the opportune time.

Hence, non-availability of a medium or media poses a challenge to the media planners and advertisers. It is thus an external factor influencing the choice of media.


Print Media:

Print media includes newspapers and magazines. Print media is an ideal medium for conveying complex technical details, product benefit details and product features explaining details.

Apart from providing the news and views, the newspapers also carry advertisements. Magazines are read for a longer time and so the ad messages remain before the readers for a longer time.

Advertising Technique # 2. Newspapers:

Newspapers are considered as the backbone of advertising programme as it has continued to remain the most powerful message carrier. It contains opinion, news, and comment regarding social, economic and political, issues. They are also a media for business advertising, corporate advertising, financial advertising, legal notices and social advertising etc.


Advantages of Newspaper Advertising:

Newspapers hold a very strong position among the other Medias due to its following advantages:

i. Market penetrations – Newspapers are read by people of all income group e.g., social group and cultural group. Its readership cuts across a wide cross-section of society. Thus an ad in a newspaper reaches a wide population. If we advertise in more than one paper, we can cover the entire market.

ii. Wide coverage – Newspapers are both locally and nationwide. They cater to people of all age groups, income groups, people living in cities and rural areas.


iii. Geographical Selectivity – Newspaper advertising is possible in national newspapers or in regional newspapers, keeping in view the market for our product. Even national newspapers have zoned edition and allow advertiser to choose relevant zone.

iv. Economical – The cost of sending the message to the target audience through newspapers is comparatively lower. The cost of advertisement depends upon the reach of the newspaper and size of the advertisement.

v. Flexibility – Newspapers provide a wide range of size. The ads can also be placed in various manners. Black and white and column ads are also possible. Thus, newspapers, offer wide level of creative possibilities except sound and movement.

vi. Audience interest – Newspapers are read with interest. Then are special sections like sports, films, business, etc. Ads are therefore likely to be noticed, especially when they are placed appropriately.


Demerits of Newspapers:

The demerits of newspaper advertising are as follows:

i. Short life span – Ads in the newspapers have very short life span. The newspaper advertisement is seen briefly. To make advertising lasting, the advertiser has to repeat it which means additional cost that too with very short span of life again.

ii. Limited demographic selectivity – As newspapers are read by a wide cross section of society, they are not useful for specific targeting e.g., children, women, ethnic groups etc.


iii. Reproduction constraints – Newsprint on which newspapers are printed is a coarse paper. It does not led to high quality colour printing. This limitation may however be overcome by choosing Sunday, supplement which are printed on good quality paper and by ‘Gravure method’.

iv. Possibility of duplication – Many newspapers has morning and evening edition so sometimes the advertisements are repeated in both of them. Although there is some over-lapping that reduces the value of the advertisement.

Advertising Technique # 3. Magazines:

“It is one of the oldest media of advertising. Magazines could be weekly, fort nightly, monthly, quarterly and annually. These could be general or specific. Some of the specific magazines are-business India, Femina, Industrial times etc., and general magazines are Readers Digest, India today, Frontline, etc. The advertisements at the top left and top right corners of a newspaper are called ears.”

Advantages of Magazines:

Following are advantages of magazines:

i. Demographic selectivity – Each magazine has a different audience having different demographic and psychographics characteristics. Every magazine thus helps us to target at a particular age group, gender group and income group. Special interest magazines provide a specific audience.


ii. Longevity – Magazines have a longer life span. People read magazines much slower than newspaper and there is good deal of deep reading.

iii. Visual impact – Magazines provide quality printing, excellent pictorial presentation and good colour display. This makes a deeper impact on reader’s minds thus makes advertising clear and lasting.

iv. Geographic selectivity – Some magazines have all India circulation like India today. Some are confined to a particular area like Malyalam Manor a ma. So magazines help us to target a demographic market without considerable waste.

v. Creative flexibility – High fidelity reproduction is a specialty of magazines on account of their superior quality of paper and printing. They also provide opportunities for innovative ads like pop-up ads, sample bearing ads, scented ads and Outside inserts as booklets.

Demerits of Magazines:

Following are the demerits of magazines:


i. Limited reach and frequency – Magazines have a limited reach as far as the total number of household are concerned. To reach a large audience, it is necessary to buy a lot of magazines space. As their productivity is either a month or fortnight or a week, it is difficult to have higher frequency. To overcome this drawback, a media planner uses several magazines and adds other media to supplement magazine ads.

ii. No sound and motion – Magazines rely upon the printed copy and visuals to convey the message and lack the sound of radio and TV which makes these audio-visual ads greatly effective.

iii. Costlier – Because of better quality paper, colourful presentation, design work for advertisements, the cost per reader works much higher. Also the number of subscribers are limited, thus, increasing the cost further.

Advertising Technique # 4. Electronic Media:

Electronic media includes:

1. Television, and

2. Radio.


1. Television:

In India, television was introduced on September 15, 1959 and commercial advertising started in 1976. Television is considered to be more effective as it provides scientific synchronization of sound, light, motion, colour and immediacy that no other medium does except films.

Earlier it was state owned and controlled but now private players like CNN, STAR, ATN, ZEE, etc., have also entered in to the market.

Merits of Television:

Following are the merits of television:

i. Immense impact – Television attracts attention immediately. It is an ideal medium to show products as they can easily be demonstrated. It replaces personal selling. The dimensions of vision, sound, motion and colour are accountable for creating deep impact on the minds of the audiences.


ii. Demonstration – Product benefits can be shown most effectively by TV. Benefits may accrue over a period of time. But by using the technique of time compression, product benefits can be shown even in a 10 second spot.

iii. Mass communication media – Television is a vehicle of mass communication. It is the most popular medium for wide area coverage.

iv. Animation – It is possible to show the product/logo with human qualities through animation. Animated characters do not alienate us contritely.

v. Comprehensive Technique – In TV, there is unique blend of sight, colour, movement, sound, timing, repetition and presentation in the home. Put together it has more attributes than any other medium. It, therefore, produces quick results. Only the product should be a nationally marketed consumer product.

vi. Emotional content – TV triggers off nostalgia, tenderness, generosity, kindness and such other emotions. These special effects enhance the impact on one’s thinking.

Demerits of Television:


Following are the demerits of television:

i. Time taxing – Television requires planning and deliberation. The consent for sponsorship is hard to come by. It lacks the flexibility of press and radio. If not rightly produced, the ads look very crude. But once produced as per our requirement, these ads can be repeated over a period of time.

ii. Production costs – Cost of producing a TV commercial is high as composed to cost of the print production. The paying capacity of the client, the prevailing rates in the market, nature of the product and the commercial value of the programme that accompanies the commercial determine the final production cost.

iii. Costlier – High cost of advertising on television is the biggest limitation as compared to other medias. Here the advertising message also needs to be brief.

iv. Shortest life – The commercial message has a very short life span. It does not remain a part of the household like magazines or newspapers. If the prospect misses the commercial at its exact time of presentation, the scene and message is gone forever and wasted as far as that prospect is concerted.

2. Radio as Advertising Media:

Radio is the real mass medium, which is technologically also so simple. It is a low cost means of communication. It is also capable of giving artistic creativity. The biggest advantage of radio is that it is mobile.

In a large country like India, the local radio operates like an evening newspaper. It is a medium for news, entertainment and advertising. Radio commercial can be produced quickly and is not so costly. It can be repeated over a period of time. Radio thus is afforded by even smaller firms.

Merits of Radio:

Following are the merits of Radio:

i. Economical – Radio advertising is economical as compared to other electronic media. In poor country like India radio sets are owned by a larger population than a TV.

ii. Human touch – Radio involves human touch as it makes use of human voice which is the most natural way of communication. It is a personal medium and the freedoms to its listener to project own the image of the programme and to involve as he likes.

iii. Mass coverage – Radio reaches almost everybody. The listeners have the advantage of doing two things at one point of time i.e., listening to the radio while doing his work e.g., driving, walking, studying etc. People can listen to radio at any time, place and tone regardless of their activities.

iv. Selectivity – Radio is a selective vehicle of mass media in the sense that advertisement can advertise in only those markets he desires. He can adapt his messages and the intensity of coverage of different market to meet local conditions.

v. Flexibility – The advertiser can broadcast any number of commercials in a given area over a period that he thinks most appropriate and opportune. Radio messages can be prepared and presented with the last minute alterations.

Demerits of Radio:

Following are the demerits of radio:

i. No durability of message – If the person is not listening to the advertising message at the time of broadcast, it is lost forever. It cannot be referred back after the time of the broadcast.

ii. No demonstration – In radio, there is no possibility of demonstrations of a product. That is why the advertisements of syrups, soaps, pastes and pills cannot be given on radio. It has not been tapped by industrial goods producers.

iii. Less time availability – Only 10 percent is earmarked for commercial broadcasting out of the total broadcasting time. Thus there is less availability of time to advertise. Once this time is sold, the relaying station cannot accommodate any more advertisements.

iv. Distortions – There are possibilities of distortion in communication. Precision of script writing is a very challenging task under this mode of advertisement.

Top 6 Types of Advertising Techniques

Advertising has evolved into a vast complex form of communication with thousands of different ways for a business to get a message to the consumer. Today’s advertiser has a vast array of choices at his or her disposal. The traditional means of advertising like Radio, TV, magazines are there coupled with the advent of modern means like online advertising, branded viral videos, sponsored websites, chat rooms and so on.

Advertising Technique # 1. Print Media:

Print advertising has been used for more than two centuries. They were the only media available to the advertisers in the olden days. With the advent of the broadcast media, particularly television, reading habits declined. But despite the competition from the broadcast media, newspapers and magazines remained important vehicles to both consumers as well as advertisers.

Advertising Technique # 2. Newspapers:

Newspapers are important as an advertising medium for hundreds of thousands of retail businesses and are often used by large national advertisers as well. They are still the primary advertising medium in terms of both ad revenue and number of advertisers. They are important part of our lives as they are the primary source of product information.

Consumers would not think of going shopping without checking from the newspaper who is having sale and who is coming out with new range of products. Newspapers are received in nearly half of any country’s household’s so they are attractive for most advertisers not only in India but also in the world. Newspapers vary interns of their characteristics and their role as advertising medium.

Types of Newspapers:

(a) Daily newspapers are published every day, are found in cities and towns across the country. They provide detailed coverage of news, events, issues concerning the local area as well as business, sports, and other relevant information and entertainment.

(b) Weekly newspapers mostly originate in small towns or suburbs where the volume of news and advertising cannot support a daily newspaper. They focus news, sports and events relevant to the local area and usually ignore the world news, sports, financial and business news. Most advertisers avoid weekly newspapers because of their duplicate circulation with daily or Sunday newspapers.

(c) National newspapers have editorial content with nationwide appeal e.g., India Today, The Times of India, and Wall Street Journal etc. They have large circulation as they have huge coverage of news, sports, business and financial events. They also have life style and entertainment for regular readers, business readers, leisure travelers etc.

(d) Special audience newspapers are published for specific groups including professional organizations, labour unions, industrialists and hobbyists. Many people working in advertising companies read ‘Advertising Age’. Some newspapers have target audience as various religious groups which compose another large class of special interest group. Many universities have newspapers published for students and faculty which offer advertisers an excellent medium for reaching college communities. Newspaper may have display advertising or classified advertising. The former is giving major revenue to the print media.

Newspapers are advantageous because of their extensive penetration, flexibility, reader involvement and acceptance. They offer information to advertiser as well as other readers about market conditions and economic environment in the country/countries of the world.

Advertising Technique # 3. Magazines:

Magazines are a print media which has grown rapidly to serve the educational, informational and entertainment needs of a wide range of readers in both the consumer and business markets. They are most specialized of all advertising media. While some magazines like Reader’s Digest, TIME are general, mass appeal publications, most are targeted towards a special audience e.g., Femina for females, Champak for school going children and Sports World for sports lovers.

There are consumer magazines for general information and entertainment. They are best suited to marketers interested in reaching general consumers of the products and services well as to companies trying to reach a specific target market. Most frequently advertised category in consumer magazines are automotives, telecommunications, direct response, toiletries and cosmetics, computers etc.

Farm Publications are magazines directly for farmers and their families. They are tailor made for farmers and have latest information about seeds, equipment, cattle raising techniques, specialized knowledge about poultry etc. Farms historically were not perceived as business but how they are the most important business in any part of the world.

Business Publications are those magazines or trade journals published for specific business, industries or occupations. There is a magazine for architects called ‘Architectural Forum’ for lawyers there is ‘National Law Review’ etc. These reach specific types of professionals with particular interests and give them information relevant to their trade or industry. Much marketing happens at the trade and business-to-business level, where one company sells its product/services directly to another. Thus, business publications are useful for advertisers for reaching out to their target audience.

Directories like yellow pages are after referred to as directional medium because the ads do not create awareness or demand products rather once the consumer has decided to buy, the directory points them in the direction where their purchases can be made. They have wide availability, low cost and are frequently used by consumers. They are non-intrusive as consumer choose to use them and are not forced to use them. They though lack creativity and are meant for localized audience with specific offering. They are printed only once a year and become outdated within a short period.

Advertising Technique # 4. Outdoor Advertising Media:

It is the most pervasive forms of advertising when one lives in an urban or suburban area. Billboards, transit signs, digital outdoor like videos, networks that appear in offices, stores, theaters, health clubs, roadsides etc., are examples of outdoor advertising. They have the ability to attract attention and engage customer.

Ariel advertising where aeroplanes pull banners, sky writing also constitute outdoor advertising. Mobile billboards are another introduction in this category. They are an affordable medium and research indicates that they lead to high degree of impressions, high degree of recall and readership and are more likely to have impact on sales than other media.

Advertising Technique # 5. Transit Advertising:

It is another form of out of home advertising using print media. Millions of consumers are exposed to commercial transportation facilities like buses, taxis, commuter trains, trolleys, subways, airplanes etc. Advertisers have great interest in this media as the increased number of women work force also gets attracted while traveling to work place daily. This is the easiest way to reach target audience en-route to their destination rather than going to their homes.

Advertising Technique # 6. Broadcast Media:

The success of marketing in the broadcast media has been remarkable. Two broadcast are available to marketers i.e., TV and Radio. Direct marketing in the broadcast industry involves both direct response advertising and support advertising.

Direct response encompasses a number of media including:

a. TV,

b. Radio,

c. Online,

d. Direct mail, and

e. Mobile advertising.

a. TV:

Direct response commercials are sent on television for products like drugs, toiletries, household products, video supplies and so on. The cost of commercial advertisement depends on the usage of space and time on the broadcast media. It has a reach and is very effective due to its visual effects. Advertisers can use national broadcast networks for convenience and efficiency as the messages reach many prospects simultaneously from all affiliate stations throughout the country.

The commercials can be fit into any program and run at any length desired by the advertiser. There could also be spot announcements between programs as they are less expensive. These could also be concentrated to specific regions if target audience is in that region also when the budget of advertiser is small.

b. Radio:

The oldest broadcast media is the Radio which has capabilities of reaching the farthest and fastest like TV. It has maximum reach and frequency potential. TV is a passive medium that people simply watch but Radio actively involves people wherever they are. They listen to their favourite personalities, they call in to make requests, participate in contests contribute to discussions; use their ears and imagination to fill in the what they cannot see.

People listen to Radio more faithfully with two to three stations in mind for different programs. Advertisers can use this medium to establish an immediate, intimate relationship with consumers and other stake holders. It is ideal for integrated market communication. Radio is mobile, retailers can reach prospects just before they purchase. They can tailor the ads to the needs of local as well as national customers. Radio campaigns have greater reach, consistency and are less expensive than TV.

c. Online Media (Interactive Media):

We are in media revolution these days, brought by incredible achievements in communication technology. Internet is the fastest growing medium in the history. The sands are shifting across the advertising landscape with interactivity which has major impact on commercial viewership. Instead of watching commercials, people go to channel surfing. Internet is a global network of computers that communicate with one another through protocols, which are common rules for linking and sharing information.

People began going online in the 1990’s to access a particular part of the internet known as World Wide Web (www). The web is a distributed network of content providers and users, communicating through a protocol is known as Hypertext makeup language (HTML). HTML allows easy creation of displays called webpages that can be easily linked to all kinds of content, including other webpages or sites. Advertisers use these pages for promoting their products. The population of internet users is on an increase every minute.

Europe has 61.3% penetration of internet users and North America has maximum 78.6% penetration. Australia has 67.5% internet penetration whereas Asia has 26% internet penetration. It is increasing everyday so online advertisements are the best means to target customers and prospects in the cheapest and fastest way. The advertising impressions are more in this media as the advertiser can check the click rate of prospects and change his promotional campaign to make it more and more useful.

d. Direct Mail:

Direct mail allows graphics, videos and audio to be included in the e-mail message. When one opens the rich e-mail, the e-mail client automatically calls up your internet connection and launches an HTML page in your e-mail window. E-mail clients that are offline will invite customers to click on link when internet connection is on. More audios and animation is integrated into these ads as improving technology accommodates them. This is a better means to target at a lower price than TV or Radio.

e. Mobile Advertising:

Smart phones and i-phones have revolutionized the mobile phone business and the way customers interact with their phones. People using i-phones are 12 times more likely to use them for videos and mobile TV as has been researched. People down load applications and games, surf the web and send multimedia messages. All this presents opportunity to advertisers.

These applications which are available on most smart phones connect periodically to the network to check for updates, identify a person’s location and for games can connect one user with another. Advertisers are happy with this device as phone is the only real portable and personally identifiable medium. Also banner ads can be placed into applications that have been downloaded to a user’s phone, and can be swapped as those applications reconnect with the network.

The other form of advertising and the one that represents the largest inventory is sponsored SMS (short message system). Companies offer news, horoscopes, sports news, among other things, for free to users via SMS and advertisers sponsor these messages. Mobile coupons, QR codes and video present other opportunities, but are still not readily available to the masses as each phone needs to have software/application that will allow it to interact and use these emerging technologies.

Territory Type:

a. Retail/Local Advertising:

When ads are placed by local business in a particular city or country targeting customers in their geographical area it is called local advertising. Local advertising is sometimes called retail advertising because retail stores account for much of local advertising. But retail advertising is not always local. Many businesses besides retail stores use local advertising e.g., banks, real estate developers, movie theaters, auto mechanics, plumbers, Radio and TV stations, museums etc., to name a few.

McDonald’s franchises engage in local advertising too. Since many franchises are locally owned and operated, they are good examples of small businesses that use advertising to achieve marketing objectives. Local advertising can be product related advertising, regular price line advertising, institutional advertising or classified advertising.

b. Regional and National Advertising:

Regional advertising operates in one part of the country e.g., Southern region, Northern region, Central region etc. It may be in one or several states exclusively within that region. Where products are advertised throughout the country as they are sold throughout the country the campaign taken up by marketers is called national advertising.

Firms like Procter & Gamble and Johnson & Johnson are advertising their products nationwide as they have a huge range of products for all kinds of customers at all times. They have huge resources for national level advertisements. The focus of national level advertiser is different from local advertisers. National campaigns are long-run which reach every customer every week whether they are local, regional or spread anywhere in the country.

c. Transnational Advertisements:

Companies advertising abroad typically face markets with different value systems, environments and languages. Their customers have different purchasing power, habits and motivation. Companies, therefore, need different advertising strategies when they advertise their products or services in other parts of the globe.

Multinational Corporations like P&G, Johnson & Johnson, Coke, Pepsi etc. which deal with global markets have a standardized approach to marketing and advertising in all countries but they have brand managers who oversee their brand group and direct their in-house advertising group or ad agency to create brand with changes in some dimensions so as to fit into a different nation’s systems and environment. There can be no ideal structure for a transnational advertising, in fact most companies blend aspects of centralized and decentralized structures to fit their own needs.

Advertising Techniques: Product Advertising, Institutional Advertising and Classified Advertising

The ads placed in the local media are product, instrumental or classified advertising. Each has a different purpose to serve for the marketer.

Advertising Technique # 1. Product Advertising:

Product advertising promotes a specific product or service and stimulates short term action while building awareness of the business. Local advertisers use three major types of product ads – Regular price line, sale and clearance. Regular price line advertising informs customers about merchandize offered at regular price.

To increase the store traffic, local shop keepers often use sale advertising where they place their merchandize on sale offering two for one price etc. Local advertisers use clearance advertising when they want to sell the merchandize at very low price to make room for new product lines. Firms going out of business may also use clearance advertising to get rid of their existing stocks.

Advertising Technique # 2. Institutional Advertising:

Institutional advertising attempts to create a favourable long term perception of the business as a whole and not just of a particular product or service. Many businesses use this kind of advertising to promote an idea about the company and build a long term goodwill for themselves. This effort of the firm makes the public aware of what the business stands for and attempts to build reputation and image.

An institutional ad might focus on the company’s store expansion, new product, new credit policy, convenient hours, the philosophy of the organization etc. An effective ad builds up a favourable image for the business and is instrumental in attracting new customers. It also encourages consumer loyalty for the business and its products.

Advertising Technique # 3. Classified Advertising:

Classified advertising is the one which is used by advertisers in the newspapers. This is done for the reasons of locating and recruiting new employees, offer services of an employment agency or broker or sell or lease products like cars, office equipment, real estate or matrimonial services. Generally, it is done to recruit employees for the organizations.

Local advertisers do not use only the traditional means of advertising i.e., ads place in the media any more. They combine personal selling with media advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion and public relations. Thus, the local advertisers are the best integrators of the marketing communication. They talk with the consumers, prepare mails, write or talk to media, answer phone inquiries, create graphics for seasonal products; write and place ads evaluate supplier’s trade promotions etc.

13 Important Types of Advertising Techniques

Advertising Technique # 1. Local Advertising:

The advertising directed towards consumer market is called local advertising. It is also known as retail advertising. It emphasizes specific customer benefits. It is undertaken by local retail stores, departmental stores, consumer durable etc. It is done through window display, posters, pamphlets, hoarding, local newspapers, magazines etc.

Advertising Technique # 2. Regional Advertising:

The advertising done on a regional level to target the customers of that particular region is called regional advertising. It is undertaken by manufacture or regional distributor of a product.

It is considered to be an ideal form of advertising for launching and marketing a new product in a specific region. The media used for regional advertising includes regional newspapers, magazines, radio, regional television channels, outdoor media etc.

Advertising Technique # 3. National Advertising:

The advertising done on a national level to target customers all over the country is called national advertising. The companies that sponsor these advertising are called as national advertisers. It is generally undertaken by the manufactures of branded goods.

The advertiser utilizes various mass media such as national newspapers, television network, internet etc. The national advertising is suitable for products, services and ideas which have demand all over the country. For example – The soap advertising in national television channels.

Advertising Technique # 4. International Advertising:

The advertising targeting different countries is called international advertising. This type of advertising is undertaken by multi-national companies. It is extremely expensive. It involves the services of professional advertising agencies in different countries. For example – The Air India advertises their products and services all over the world.

Advertising Technique # 5. Consumer Advertising:

The focus of this type of advertising is towards the consumers of the products. All types of consumer products need continuous and extensive advertising using various appropriate media. For example – The advertising of tea.

Advertising Technique # 6. Industrial Advertising:

The advertising focuses on persons who buy or influence the purchase of industrial goods or services is known as industrial advertising. It is used by manufacturers and distributors of industrial goods. This type of advertisements appears in trade journals, trade dictionaries, business magazines etc. For example – The advertising of machinery.

Advertising Technique # 7. Trade Advertising:

The Advertising which attracts the wholesalers and retailers by motivating them to purchase its products for resale is called as trade advertising. This kind of advertising is employed by manufactures or distributors to influence wholesalers and retailers. The advertiser offer incentive schemes to wholesaler and retailer to sell the goods. It appears in publications that serve the particular industry. For example – The company offers discounts to wholesaler and retailer to enhance sales volume.

Advertising Technique # 8. Professional Advertising:

The advertising that encourages the professional groups to purchase advertiser’s product is known as professional advertising. The professional groups include such as engineers, doctors, lawyers etc. This is done through professional journals and advertisers representatives.

These groups constitute market for products and services they use in their businesses. The recommendations of this group have greater impact on consumer purchase decisions. For example – The doctor recommends a patient to purchase a particular branded medicine.

Advertising Technique # 9. Social Advertising:

The social advertising is undertaken by non-commercial organisations such as trust, societies and associations. The main objective of social advertising is to work for social cause. For example – The Advertisements for collecting donations for flood victims.

Advertising Technique # 10. Political Advertising:

Political advertising is undertaken by political parties to motivate people. This type of advertising tries to attract people in favour of the party ideology. The political advertising is intensively adopted during the time of election. It helps in communicating the plans and policies of the concerned party.

Advertising Technique # 11. Product Advertising:

The product advertising refers to the advertising of tangible product. It is undertaken to promote the sales of products. It helps the advertisers to portray that their product is superior among the available substitutes. For example – The advertisement of soaps.

Advertising Technique # 12. Service Advertising:

The service advertising is designed to safeguard public interest. It is non-commercial advertising. The objective of this advertising is to change attitudes or behaviour of the people for the benefit of society. It helps in public welfare and social development. It is generally used by government and other organisations to promote public welfare. For example – The advertising related to wildlife preservation.

Advertising Technique # 13. Institutional Advertising:

It is mostly undertaken by large firms. It is undertaken to build brand and goodwill of the organisation. It is also, known as corporate advertising or image advertising.

The importance of institutional advertising are:

(i) It helps to build manufacturers reputation in the minds of people.

(ii) It creates awareness about the advertiser and its people.

(iii) It talks about the advertiser contribution to society by social welfare activities.

(iv) It helps in promoting consumer satisfaction.

(v) It helps in highlighting achievements in technological field.

(vi) It helps in sharing economic progress of the advertiser etc.

Advertising Techniques Available to Advertisers and Media Buyers

The term media is plural for medium. In advertising terms, medium is a channel of communication, such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television. A medium is a vehicle for carrying the sales message of an advertiser to the prospects. It is indeed a vehicle by which advertisers convey their messages to a large group of prospects and thereby aid in closing the gap between Producer at the one end and the Consumer at the other end.

Of course, this is from the viewpoint of advertisers and the audiences. There is another way of looking at the media, and that is from the point of view of the medium itself. Different media are organisations or enterprises for entertainment and information. They sell the product in the form of newspaper, magazine and radio and television programmes.

At best, they are service organisations fulfilling the needs of listeners, readers and viewers for entertainment and information. Each medium designs its product to be more and more attractive among its audience. Each medium applies marketing concepts to the designing of the right product, selling it at the right price, distributing it through several outlets and, at times, taking the help of the right promotional means to increase its circulation or improve the popularity of its programmes.

Newspapers and magazines work hard to build up their circulation among readers by improving the material they publish, be it local news, national news, special interest information such as business, sports, housekeeping, science, etc. Similarly, television and radio stations broadcast programmes which are designed to attract larger segments of the public. In short, media, too are products who have to market them properly.

Once a medium has been well established and has built up a significant readership or audience, it is in a stronger position to attract advertisers who are on the lookout for such media to reach audiences with their selling messages. Of course, they are willing to pay for this service.

Thus, in addition to selling their products in the form of newspaper, magazine, radio and television programmes, the media are selling space or time which, in turn, earns large revenues for them. The money so earned out of selling advertising space and time ultimately helps to make the product itself (medium) cheaper and more attractive among its audience.

It would not be inappropriate to mention here that it is advertising which has been instrumental in the phenomenal growth of the media. In the nineteenth century, publishers of newspapers and magazines were faced with the stagnant circulation of their publications, with the result that profits were limited.

This was due to the fact that the entire cost of writing and production was covered by subscriptions and news-stand revenue only. If the circulation was to be increased, it was possible only when prices were reduced. With lower prices, the circulation went up, resulting in a widespread reach of advertisers for their selling messages which, in turn, earned more money for the media.

Both the media and the advertisers seem to have been benefited in the process. The publishers increased their audiences, profit and sphere of influence; at the same time, advertisers could reach effectively their prospective customers, making mass marketing possible for them.

Today, every medium, be it a newspaper or a magazine, the radio or television, has a department with the responsibility of selling advertising space and time. The media themselves do advertise and promote the sale of their advertising space and time, for this is one of the important activities of the media.

For their growth and even for their survival, the media have to be constantly on their toes to achieve an increasingly higher advertising revenue.

Here is a list of the various media available to advertisers or media buyers:

Advertising Technique # 1. Print Media:

(i) Newspapers

(ii) Daily Newspapers

(iii) Sunday Newspapers

(iv) Sunday/Weekend Sections of Daily Newspapers

(v) Weekly Newspapers

(vi) Magazines

(vii) General Interest Magazines

(viii) Special Interest Magazines

(ix) Trade Publications

(x) Institutional Publications

(xi) Direct Mail.

Advertising Technique # 2. Electronic Media:

(i) Television – DD National, DD Metro, DD Satellite channels, STAR TV (Star Plus, BBC, Star Sports, MTV), Zee TV, Sony TV, Sahara, Colors, Imagine TV, 9X.

(ii) Radio – Primary Channel Vividh Bharati and FM Channel

3. Outdoor Media:

(i) Posters

(ii) Hoardings

(iii) Neon Signs

(iv) Sky advertising

Advertising Technique # 4. Transit or Vehicular Media:

(i) Mainline Trains

(ii) Suburban Trains

(iii) Buses and Trains

(iv) Taxis and Auto-rickshaws

(v) Private vehicles

Advertising Technique # 5. Speciality Media:

(i) T-Shirts, buttons, caps, stickers, badges etc.

(ii) Off-beat Approach

We can use some off-beat techniques like rub the finger against the surface and smell a perfume. Our creativity should be put to use to design the off-beat techniques.

Advertising Technique # 6. Point-of-Purchase or in-Shop Media:

(i) Banners

(ii) Hangings

(iii) Stickers

(iv) Packaging

(v) Painted Signs

Advertising Technique # 7. Miscellaneous Media:

(i) Internet – Medium of the new millennium

(ii) Cinema

Advertising Technique # 1. Print Media:

Despite the TV, print media survives. TV cannot replace it. Yes, TV does affect what we read.

We include newspapers and magazines in print media. These days we have mass magazines of general interest like India Today and Outlook and special interest magazines like Computers(at)home.

Newspapers have special Sunday editions, whose sales are higher because they are content rich.

Print media allows selectivity. We can reach the desired audience. Every magazine and newspaper has a readership base. We have to compare it with our target audience. National newspapers have lesser selectivity. Magazines have more selectivity. Special interest magazines offer the highest selectivity.

The editorial environment of the print media affects the ad messages. Magazines and newspapers are read for editorial matter and not for ads. If readers are emotionally involved with the edito-chances of the ad being seen or read. Newspapers have news environment. The new creates an impact. Who can doubt the pulling power of a full page newspaper ad? But size alone does not matter.

Requirements of Print Ads:

A print layout is not as difficult as a TV storyboard. A layout is the arrangement of the different elements of the ad as they will appear in print. The ad as ‘a whole should deliver the strategy and rise above the clutter.’

Some prints which make print ads work are as follows:

i. Simple Layout:

A layout should be kept as simple as possible. An elaborate layout with a wide variety of typographical variations and multiplicity of illustrations and cluttered copy would not work. The layout should allow smooth eye movement; not necessarily from top to bottom, but from the most powerful element on the page.

ii. Illustration:

Fashion goods are advertised on the basis of visuals only. They may not carry even a head-line. Body copy is mostly absent. Illustration must be evocative. It must carry the brand name. A unique product or package can be used as an illustration.

iii. Short Appeal:

The illustration must set the reader thinking. He should ask, ‘What’s happening?’

iv. Photographs:

Most modern ads carry photographs. It improves recall. It scores over artwork, especially where sensory appeals are dominant. Ice-creams and food are better known as photographs. Photos can show a product in use.

They are a sort of visual evidence. Before-and-after photos are more effective than copy. Cosmetic companies always photos. Captions under photos attract more readership. A captioned photo can itself become an ad.

v. Benefit Headline:

Self-interest is the strongest motivating force. It is for this reason that head-lines incorporate a major benefit of the product, which is made obvious, and easily accessible. Headline sometimes give news Head-lines have one major function ¾ to capture the reader’s attention by a believable promise.

Headlines must communicate 3A whether they are long or short is immaterial. Some short headlines which fail to communicate are no good as compared to long headlines which do communicate.

Headlines can be topicalized and personalized.

vi. Long Copy:

We tend to ignore the long copy. But there are occasions to use it. High involvement products like a computer or a car do require adequate information before buying decision can be taken. Ad copy should not be made fatter by empty rhetoric. It must be repute with facts and figures. It should be simple, without any operational jargon. Long copy should be properly laid out. So as to improve readability.

vii. Readability:

Consider a good magazine or newspaper. See its typography. It is classic. It does not have wide typographical carnations on one page. They avoid block caps. They use serif type, rather than sans serif. Reverse is used to the minimum. There is no overprinting on tints, or tones or photos. This is to facilitate reading. Good copy should facilitate reading.

viii. Campaign Planning:

Every ad should be complete by itself, but should remain connected to a campaign made by a series of ads by adopting a basic theme or proposition.

ix. Off-Beat Approach:

We can use some off-beat techniques like rub the finger against the surface and smell a perfume. Our creativity should be put to use to design the off-beat techniques.

x. Match between Creative and Media:

An ad should be designed for a specific media. One and the same ad may not work for a daily newspaper and a tabloid. Sometimes companies just reduce the size of a bigger ad to a cramp if in a smaller space. This is not the way.

We should also consider the editorial environment and design our message accordingly. The paper used by the media also affects the creative. Glossy magazines score in colour reproduction over coarse newsprint using dailies. An ad copy must be seen in the context of the media, rather than as a stand-alone.

xi. Production Cost Optimization:

Most of print production is now electronic and so even roughs are closer to the finished copy. Cost control is exercised by understanding what each step is going to cost Outdoor shoots, expensive photographers, weekend or night shoots, special effects, child models – all these will contribute substantially to costs. Production budget should be made in advance and be approved, prior to the allocation of more.

The use of artwork should be agreed upon. Are we free to use a photo for print runs only for a specified time? Can we use the same for promotions?

Advertising Technique # 2. Electronic Media – TV:

TV has been introduced in India for the last four decades. The Satellite TV appeared in India when CNN started beaming in the wake of the Gulf war between the allies led by the US and Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait. STAR TV and Zee TV which was a Hindi channel in the bouquet of star channels are beaming in India through satellites since 1992, and thus almost a decade of satellite transmission has been computed in India.

Though there are more than 500 satellite channels now, the major players are Star, Zee which has since started independent operations and Sony. We have a variety of TV channels 3A entertainment channels, music channels, news channels, education and knowledge channels. In the days prior to the arrival of satellite channels, DD ruled the scene with monopoly terrestrial transmission through high power transmitters and a series of low-power transmitters to cover the length and breadth of the country.

As DD was the only channel available followed by DD2 or Metro, the coverage and reach of DD was phenomenal. Some programmes like the Mahabharat commanded a rating of 80 per cent. The audience was not fragmented, as it is now amongst the several satellite channels.

A viewership of some 10-15 per cent is considered to be very high. As so many channels have appeared on the scene, software development became the key to success. A shake- out will drive away channels weak in programming and poor in viewership. DD formerly had the increasing share of advertising revenue, but that was later shared with satellite channels.

With such a clutter of channels, it is increasingly difficult to get the viewers to watch our commercial and its message. Commercials are made using the latest filming techniques to capture the attention of the viewers. But what is necessary is a meaningful strategy backed up by a strong creative idea.

Involve the Viewers:

We can involve the viewer’s so as to make them watch our commercial. Our message should provide them the information they want, a solution to their problem, a situation with which they can identify and entertain them.

Good advertising is always relevant to the needs, interests, values and life-style of the people.

Story Board:

In the script of a TV Commercial, we have a combination of audio (words) and video (scenes that go with the words). A viewer thus sees and hears what has been presented as drawings below which the action of a commercial has been worded. This is called a story board.

A commercial can be visualized by imagining the drawings which will accompany the audio-video parts. A story is created. We can also prepare a script without the drawings by putting the video on the left side and the audio on the right side of the paper. A few technical terms like CU or close-up, BCU or big close-up or zoom etc. are used in the script.

A story-board should deliver the strategy e.g., stain removing properties of a detergent. If it does not, it will fail. It should also involve the viewer and communicate the strategy.

Significance of Video:

TV is a visual medium, and is essentially to be viewed. It is of utmost importance to film the commercial so as to convey the message through the pictures. When sound is muted still the message in the commercial should be obvious.

Virtual Symbol:

A commercial should have a frame that captures the essence of the whole message effectively.

Arresting Attention:

A commercial must open in such a way that further viewing is ensured. A commercial must have a firm grip in the first five seconds.


Elaborate and complicated script is not necessary. A simple message which has a clear focus is necessary. A 10-second commercial has to tell the whole story. It packs drama, demo and action. There are 15 second, 30 second, 60 second commercials to overcome the constraints of a 10-seconder. But an advertiser must first explore the possibility of packing the message in a 10 second commercial. If an advertiser fails to deliver the message in a short time of say 10 seconds, he is perhaps not focused.

Product Consciousness:

A commercial may make an impact but the consumer may not know for which product it was. This is very true if the product is new. Brand names should be such which are easy to memorise.

People Oriented:

A commercial which makes people talk on the camera becomes memorable.

Benefit Shown:

We can show the benefit that the product offers. A pimples cream can give blemish – free screen. A model with clear is shown as proof. BPL Mobile shows how a child can talk to a grandpa, thus touching an emotional chord.

Brand Personality:

Our message should support brand personality and must be consistent with it.


The less we say, the better. If the commercial is crowded, perhaps the key benefit will be buried under unnecessary foliage.


A commercial should be a part of a campaign that builds up a theme.

Dramatic forms of the Commercial:

We can convey our message by several dramatic techniques like demonstration, story-telling or slice-of-life. Each technique has its merits and it depends on the market and the brand which technique will be more appropriate. Techniques can be combined to suit our purpose.


These lend credibility to the message. Someone who has experienced the product first hand testifies about it. A testimonial must have the support of a sound product idea and concept. Dove soap is not only a soap, but also a moisturizer, which makes dry skin glow. A seven day test proves it. A real life person provides legitimacy and authenticity to the claim made by the product. Some testimonials are given by experts. A dentist talking about tooth- care and a paste is an example of expert testimony.


If you an advantage, flaunt it. Demonstration is a very strong technique. An adhesive can show its strength when a man dangling precariously from a bridge does not fall down in a commercial just because there was a container of the adhesive kept on TV set itself. Humour and drama put together!

In a symbolic way, we have made a point. A demonstration must substantiate a key benefit of the product. A solid kurta can be made new for an occasion by soaking it in a particular brand of detergent. The cleaning power of the detergent is proved.


Presenters are just brand ambassador. They can be stars, sportspersons, celebrities or created personalities. One who presents not only the message but also builds the brand image is a good presenter. Sharukh Khan was used to announce the entry of the Santro car and to emphasise its features. Sharukh Khan enhanced the attention value of the commercial. A CEO of a company can be used as a spokesperson.

A grandma who is quite knowledgeable and experienced is used as a spokesperson for Ayurvedic concepts. It is an example of created personality. There is a match between the product and the personality. Celebrity endorsement has its own risks. Celebrities may run into disrepute. Of late this is the problem with our cricketing stars. They may overshadow the brand.


Cartoon animation is popular these days, especially for children products. Animation can be combined with live action.


It is a dramatic technique in which the characters enact a role contributing to the development of a small story. They involve people with the brand while enacting the role. Generally, this format follows problem-solution model. The solution is emphasized more than the problem. An effective slice culls from real-life situations to which the audience can relate.

Comparative Advertising:

Two detergent cakes are compared on the basis of their whitening power. Two colas are compared in a test. Generally, this approach works when we can establish the edge our product enjoys over the competitive brand. Viewers must not be confused about the brand being advertised and the brand being compared. A market leader has no need to compare its product to other products. However, market followers can adopt this approach.


Music and jingles are very much important in developing commercials. Music is evocative. Jingles are poetic way of conveying the message. We can compose music and jingles first­hand use. Alternatively, music from the vast repertoire of popular tunes can also be used. Even jingles can be set to tune on popular numbers. These adaptations must enhance the core idea. Music used from second-hand sources can be used by others too and so it is not exclusive for commercial.

A commercial also contains non-musical sounds such as clapping of hands, sounds of sore-throat, sound of door-slam, chirping of birds, flowing of water etc. When these sounds are combined with music, we get what is known as ‘sound design’.

Sex and Humour:

Humour is entertaining, and sex is helpful in selling. But they must be relevant. They should not distract the viewer from the main message. They should emanate from the consumer benefit. They should not be just an appendage. Humour fades out fast, and so constant renewal is necessary. Though humour is commonly liked, we should remember people find it difficult to buy from jokers.

Production Aspects:

A commercial has to pass through three stages — pre-production, production itself and post-production.


In pre-production, we select a story board in keeping with our strategy and decide about casting. Mostly, the cast consists of models considered suitable to enact the roles envisaged. Cast can be picked up from established actors and actresses.

But it will shoot up the production budget. Even the common people can be used in casting. After the client company approves the story board, it is sent to TV channel for clearance. Mostly it is cleared if it does not violate the broadcasting code set by the channel.

The production company submits a production estimate to the ad agency. It is called budgeting. It includes expense heads like pre-production expenses, recce expenses, casting fees and expenses, production salaries, unit salaries, electrical unit expenses, camera equipment expenses, art department’s costs, studio charges, location shooting costs, laboratory costs, post-production costs, insurance and miscellaneous. Animation production expenses and mark-up are added to the total expenses to give the total production cost.

Production is generally set at 10 per cent of the media budget. But it may go to V3rd of the media budget. Premium costs can be controlled if we know-how all the elements contribute to the costs. Besides, one must always try to have a strong idea rather than celebrity endorsements and fancy special effects. Over-time also adds to the budget. We have multiple bids from several production companies to select a cost-effective bid. Most commercials are shot on film and later edited on tape.


The actual shooting of a commercial is a matter of cinematography. It has a time schedule of generally one to three days. The actual time taken depends upon whether it is hot in a studio or location, the complexity in terms of lighting, the camera movements and the action involved. The whole process is well-planned to avoid time over-run, produced and aired very economically. We can select mornings to air coffee commercials. Drive-in listening is good to promote automobile products and cellphones.


In post-production we generally include editing special effects and dubbing video-tape editing is simpler and faster than film editing.

Last Word:

Great commercials are built around strong ideas. We should not produce lousy commercials, and waste resources. We have to spend our budget effectively.

Advertising Technique # 3. Electronic Media – Radio:

Radio is still an inexpensive medium to reach a large number of people nationally or locally. As it is a mobile transistor that is being mostly used by people, it becomes its greatest strength. In India, radio was not made commercial in the fifties and sixties.

Radio Ceylon was in those days popular. It was only since 1967 that Vividh Bharati, the commercial services of radio started in India. Radio is an instant medium. TV takes more time, since the paraphernalia of the camera and other things are to be sent to get the visuals.

Radio was the sole entertainment medium previously. But since the advent of TV and proliferation of other media, radio listening has undergone a sea – change. The leisure time available is very limited. Radio must create a word picture for the listener who has to visualise mentally what is being described.

Radio is one-to-one medium. We have to anticipate the activities of the audience while receiving the message. The audience is doing something or the other while listening to the radio. Radio, as McLuhan, feels provides a ‘private experience’ to a person.

FM radio has now attracted the youngsters, especially the teenagers. Radio allows time- wise targeting. We can select a listener and talk one-to-one.

We give her some basic principles of radio advertising:

(i) Editorial Environment – Each programme has its own context and a commercial played is interpreted differently accordingly to the context of the programme. We have selected the appropriate programme to dir our commercial.

(ii) Focus – We have to be direct and clear, since there are no moving images to rivet the attention of the listener, who get distracted easily.

(iii) Supplementation – Radio can be a good supportive medium especially to print and TV. If it supports a TV commercial, we can use the same jingle or music to maintain consistency in strategy.

(iv) Imagination – We can stimulate the imagination of the listener by putting sounds and voices and put people in an ambience we would like them to be in.

(v) Topical – We can customise our message keeping in mind the season, the time of airing, the station from which the commercial is being aired and the listener profile. This topicality is possible as radio commercials are produced and aired very economically. We can select mornings to air coffeee commercials. Drive-in listening is good to promote automobile products and cellphones.

(vi) Brand – Radio does not show a product or brand. We have to sink in the brand name by making the listeners hear it.

(vii) Music – Music is evocative. Jingles capture the salient points of the brand. We can use the track of a TV commercial or produce special music or commercial for the radio.

(viii) Sales Promotion – Sales Promotion efforts can be advertised through radio. Thus we hear many buy-one, get-one-free commercials or radio.

(ix) Commercial in Context – A commercial is listened either while driving or cooking or reading or talking. We have to see how a commercial is affected in different contexts.

(x) Formats of Radio Copy – A radio copy, like the one for TV minus video, can take many formats — humour, drama, straight sell, educational, demonstration, skit of a short play, testimonial, real-life situation, a musical etc.

Advertising Technique # 4. Out of Home Advertising:

Outdoor billboards or posters or hoardings is one important advertising medium. Transit advertising (inside the buses, outside the buses, on taxi-cabs, on suburban railway coaches) is another example of out-of-home advertising. The audiences of both outdoor and transit advertising are different.

Hoardings are controversial since they disfigure the environment. But they are extensively used. Automobile products, beverages, fast moving consumer goods, retailers, fashion goods and movies are the frequent users of outdoors are the first stepping stones to an upcoming artist.

Outdoor copy should arrest the attention quickly. Outdoor advertising is the oldest form of advertising. The modern outdoor media include outdoor advertising in several forms – such as posters, bill-boards, hoardings, non standardised signs, highway advertising and at rail road and bus terminals.

Outdoors are all static, fixed on highways, with increasing number of automobiles, the dispersion of population to the suburbs and the greater mobility of the people, the outdoor ads will be seen by more and more moving people. Outdoor has the possibility of greater exposure-this is the burden or remark.

When you are moving on a highway, you are very unlikely to miss a big billboard or sign. There are no big messages in outdoor ads. They are basically the shortest possible, but they are most visible and eye-catching. The matter is to be grasped in a jiffy. Otherwise, it is a waste. The ideal poster uses symbols universally recognised.

Outdoor is not only to be seen. There is no editorial matter here. So no effort is required here on the part of the viewer. It is the audience who goes to the message while doing other activities. Outdoor messages offer repeat opportunities for looking at the ad message.

There is Traffic Audit Bureau (TAB) on the lines of ABC to measure the number of persons passing a particular outdoor during a given interval of time (in some countries).

Outdoors are purchased in terms of coverage, say a 100 outdoors cover an entire mobile population per month.

Indoor and outdoor ads have one vital distinction. Indoor ads themselves circulate amongst viewers/readers. Outdoor ads themselves do not circulate amongst masses. People circulate around them-people in motion. This is an advantage. Outdoors are seen while doing some other activity. For indoor ads a special reading/viewing is called for. Outdoor ads provide a two-fold advantage to see/read message and to continue to move, walk, and travel.

Poster Advertising:

Posters are of great value in developing countries like India with a great deal of diversity of languages and problems of illiteracy. It is a visual medium par excellence most of the times. Even when words are used they are pithy.

Mostly posters remain in position for a period of time, say several weeks. We therefore, say that they enjoy 24 hour exposure and long life. The fact is that audience gets only a fraction of a second to view the advertisement. But this is compensated by repetition of viewing. The repetition, as Jefkin says, is ideal for sinking the name or registering a slogan or sales point or pack design in the mind of the audience. The task of a poster is though simple but is an insistent one.

Posters communicate with a large number of people at the same time. Coverage could be according to our choice. It is a real mass medium. It gives exposure to one and all. They may be on their way to office, work, play, shop and so on. Its message delivery is dependent upon the passer-by-traffic. It acts as an impulse-trigger.

Neon Signs:

Neon signs are conspicuous at Delhi’s Defence Colony flyover or Bombay’s Marine Drive. They are electronically controlled; move and form patterns. Once seen in part, we desire to see the whole sequence. In neon signs light emitting diodes, computer cards and curtain backgrounds are used.

Brite Neon Signs, Delhi is one such company that manufactures neon signs. Neon signs are especially useful as an ad medium in those cities which have a night life (a place like Chowpatty, where people can meet in the evenings). These days the emphasis is on special effects (e.g., Milk food ice-cream signs on the Defence Colony Flyovers).

The Charms cigarette sign shows a bird flying with the brand name flashing on it. This sign was first introduced in Bombay. Champion Neon signs also operate in this field. These signs are authorised by local administration or are put on private buildings. There are problems with neon signs – power shortage, security hazard as they might collapse if the board on which they are installed is small, traffic hazard. The cost to the companies include the rental to be paid to the landlord. Neon signs add definitely to the beauty of the city. However, they are an eye-sore during the day.

Essentials of a Good Poster:

Outdoor is a popular medium; at the same time it is powerful too. Outdoor media must draw attention to it, or else it fails totally. This is important since the audience is moving. The other essentials is that communication must be immediate.

Some principles on which posters are made:

1. Identify the product. It should register quickly.

2. Use short copy. But effective too.

3. Use short words, but cribs enough.

4. Be visible and legible. Capitals are scaled almost to a height of 41 cms and lower case letters to a height of 30.5 cms.

5. Use large illustrations.

6. Make use of bold letters.

7. Keep the background simple.

8. The three major elements of layout are identification, copy and illustration.

For identification, a logo or a slogan is used. New products are named in the copy line. Contrast is essential in outdoor.

The use of flat colour areas create tremendous impact in a poster design. Brevity is a pre-requisite. Words of copy must communicate the basic idea. A good visual helps you to economise on words. The copy must be readable from a distance. Lettering is a crucial aspect. Open spacing helps legibility.

Sky-Balloons or Sky-Writing:

This is an aerial method of advertising. Painted balloons are floated in the sky by the advertisers. It is called balloon advertising. The balloons are gaudily coloured. They carry a brief ad message or a logo or an illustration. Its exotic nature draws attention.

Sometimes banners are trailed overland. This is confined to the beach area. Tourists can read the banners trailed by air-craft over the sea. On roads, they are not permitted as motorists are distracted. In Germany, advertisements have been projected on clouds. Goodyear airships are used as aerial communicators for public announcements. In U.K., this is not permitted but when the Royal Wedding took place in 1981, greetings were spelt out and seen (even by TV, the viewers). Sky writing or aerial advertising or aerial advertising serves as a reminder advertising.

In UK, the 1961 regulation forbid sky-writing. In India this form is not in vogue. However, there is a party in Bombay who has designed a balloon for advertising purposes. In Germany, night flying air-crafts have had advertisements picked out in lights on the underparts of their wings.

Sandwich Boards:

Sandwich man is a man who walks on the streets between two advertising boards. Here the walking medium is a human being who carries the ad message. There are two advertising boards which are joined at the end to form a V-shaped board. The man places himself between them. The persons to the left of the man see the contents of the left side of the board and those who walk on the right side see the contents on the right side.

The sandwich carrier dresses funnily and repeats slogans in a megaphone. Sandwich board is a very old medium. In India in mofussil area, this medium was being very successfully used by cigarette companies, especially Cavendars. These days the medium is almost defunct.

Two slices of bread stuffed with some relish in between form a sandwich. Sandwich so- called after the Earl of Sandwich (1781-92) who ate such slices at gambling table to play non-stop. Sandwich man perambulates the streets between two boards of advertising.

Mural Advertising:

Mural publicity refers to wall-paintings or to painting on similar surfaces. In its extended form, even posters and printed bulletins pasted on walls become mural publicity. Mural publicity is a supportive medium. It attracts the passers — by. In towns as well as in villages this form has been used considerably. In Maharashtra most of students must have seen advertisements of coaching classes and political messages on the walls. Besides, Sapat Lotion and Ointment and Bytco Blacktooth powder have advertised in Maharashtra considerably by mural publicity.

Mural is a cheap outdoor medium. It is by its nature very big in size. Illustration is a dominating element of layout in murals. Murals are boldly coloured. This form is suitable for eye appealing products. Mural advertising is localised. Mural defies the walls of private owners sometimes in an unauthorised manner.

Advertising Technique # 5. Internet – The Medium of the New Millennium:

Internet is the network of computers world over. A group of computers are networked through a server and a modem. Such networks combine together to form a bigger network. Internet is thus a network of networks.

Right now, it is accessible on a PC, a mobile phone and hand-held devices. It is going to be accessible on a large variety of devices, once the suitable software is developed and world-wide acceptable language like XML is put in place. Microsoft has formed a dot Net exactly for this purpose.

Information is available on the Net as web pages on the World Wide Web (WWW). An individual or organization can register a site or a domain name. It becomes the identity on the Net, e.g., www(dot)citibank(dot)Advertising Techniques # com. The tag at the end can be ‘dot com’ indicating commerce, or ‘dot org’ indicating organization or ‘dot gov’ indicating government or ‘dot in’ indicating a country like India.

A web page is written in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) which is then read with the help of a browser – Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. The document is made interactive by DHTML (Dynamic HTML) or Java applets. Graphics and layout are designed by using editing software like FrontPage (FP) or Dreamweaver

The computer we use on the Net to access information is called the client and this is connected to the Internet Service Providers’ server and other computers. A web designer has to know ‘client’ side languages and ‘server side’ programming.

World Wide Web follows TCP-IP Protocol. TCP stands for transmission control protocol. IP (Internet Protocol) gives the identity of the computer connected to the Net.

Internet now has millions of computers. There are portals which deal with a wide variety of subjects. There are specialised miche portals. There are search engines to search the required information from the World Wide Web.

Internet has given birth to E-commerce and E-business. There can be two types of transactions — business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C). Right now, B2B has become fairly common. With the passage of time and the development of secure payment system, we can expect even B2C transaction to grow. On-line shopping of books, fast moving consumer goods, music etc. will be possible.

Internet as an advertising medium is an attractive proposition. It is a suitable medium to access a worldwide clientele. It can be used to access client overseas, e.g. an Indian company wishes to reach NRI’s. Internet ads are cost-effective considering its wider reach. Internet can facilitate direct marketing by putting direct response ads on the Net. Internet ads can provide selectivity depending upon the site chosen and its patronage. The message can be made selectively at certain times of the day.

Generally, banners that carry a short massage are used on Internet. We can measure exposure by counting hits. However, there are some practical problems in the measurement.

Internet can be used to build brands and corporate image. Internet companies which are click-and-mouse companies, can by themselves be great brands. Or else, they can support the physical world’s brick-and-mortar companies.

Measuring Terminology:


They represent the number of elements requested from a given page. It thus provides no information on actual web traffic. For example- when a user requests a page with five graphical images, it counts six hits.

Click through:

It is a measure of the number of page elements (hyper-links) that have actually been requested — ‘clicked through’ from the banner ad to the link. It is typically 1 to 2 per cent of hits.

Page Views:

These are defined as the pages (actually the no. of HTML files) sent to the requesting site. It also does not indicate the number of visitors. 1 lakh page views in a week may mean 10 people reading 10 thousand pages or 1 lakh people reading one page or any variation in-between.


These are the number of occasions in which a user A interacted with site B after time C has elapsed. Usually C is set to some standard such as 30 minutes. If there is no interaction in 30 minutes, then a new visit will be counted.

Users or Unique Visitors:

The number of different people visiting a site during a specified period of time.

New Users:

User’s status is determined from the user’s registration with the site.

Log Analysis:

Measurement software that provides information on hits, pages, visits and users. It also lets a site track audience traffic within the site. Internet as a medium is still evolving. We cannot ignore it as we are living in the Internet age.

Advertising Technique # 6. The Cinema:

While it is comparatively easy to keep a tab on exposure of ads on television, radio and the press, it is next to impossible to check whether a company’s ads are being regularly, screened in cinema houses. The Blaze organization is the sole distributor in the field of cinema advertising and advertisers have to take its word that their ads are screened at the shows and theatres contracted for.

A further disadvantage of advertising in cinema theatres is that the movement of prints from one place to another and from one theatre to another, is very slow and the theatre owners are often careless in handling them. The result is that poor quality prints are shown to the public. The expense of producing slides and high-quality film advertisements is thus not compensated.

Yet, cinema remains the most popular medium of entertainment in India. It is also patronised by the rural folk especially those who live near small towns. Another clear advantage is that in cinema advertisers have a captive audience; the distractions of home viewing of video and cable are kept out from the theatres.

And unlike the print media, films appeal to the literate and the illiterate, children and adults. A further advantage is that ‘segmentation’ is easy, since cinema films are classified for ‘adults’, general audiences and PG (Parental Guidance; that is, accompaniment of an adult is necessary).

Merits of Cinema:

a. Cinema ensures a captive audience – People visit a hall to see a movie of their choice. This choice ensures a higher degree of concentration (as compared to TV Viewing). TV cannot command the complete attention of the viewers.

b. Cinema is the ideal media for niche marketing – Here the advertiser can be segment- specific, market-specific, right down to a particular district, city or even a theatre.

c. Advertising on cinema is economical – The cost of screening an advertisement film in a theatre of average seating capacity with 50% attendance or 10000 audience in towns of over 10 lakhs population would just cost Rs.300 a week.