After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Job Design 2. Methods of Job Design 3. Techniques.
Meaning of Job Design:
For effective selection, it is necessary to have clear understanding of the nature and purpose of the position which is to be filled. It is, therefore, essential to design the job so as to meet organisational and individual needs.
Job design is essential so that individuals feel good about their work. This requires an appropriate job structure in terms of content, function, and relationship. In designing jobs, enterprise requirements are taken into account. Thus job design is the division of an organisations work among its employees.
Methods of Job Design:
1. Mechanistic Job Design:
In this method, each worker is required to do only one or two simple things, over and over again. Though it is fairly easy to learn and do these jobs, but is usually boring. The workers are generally dissatisfied and unmotivated and have high rate of absenteeism.
2. Motivational Job Design:
It has been experienced that employees have responsible jobs are more motivated and satisfied with their position. A high level of autonomy makes workers more responsible and accountable for their acts. The jobs having characteristics of skill variety, tasks identify, task significance, autonomy, and feedback, highly motivate and satisfy the employee.
3. Biological Job Design:
Jobs with lesser physical work are preferred as in such cases there is less chances of accidents. The branch of science which deals with this approach is known as ‘Ergonomics’.
4. Perceptual Job Design:
This approach seeks to ensure that the mental demands of their work do not exceed workers’ mental capabilities.
Techniques for Making Job Design as Motivational:
1. Job Enlargement:
For break up the monetary of a routine work, job scope is increased. This is done by combining various operations at a similar level into one job to provide more variety and thus increase their motivation and satisfaction.
2. Job Enrichment:
This is deal with dissatisfied workers by increasing the depth of their jobs. It is the combining of several activities from a vertical cross section of the organisation into one job to provide the employee with more autonomy and responsibility.
It is the act of delegating power and authority to a subordinate so that the goals of the manager can be accomplished.
4. Job Rotation:
It is done to broaden and knowledge of managers. It also helps in dealing with the problem of general dissatisfaction by allowing employees to diversify their activities and offset the occurrence of boredom.