Here is a term paper on ‘Motivation’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Motivation’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Motivation
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Definition of Motivation
- Term Paper on the Nature and Features of Motivation
- Term Paper on the Importance of Motivation
- Term Paper on the Techniques of Motivation
- Term Paper on the Features of a Sound Motivational System
Term Paper # 1. Definition of Motivation:
Management is the art of getting things done through people. The purpose of functioning of all managers is to achieve the goals of the organisation. For this purpose the management is to inspire and motivate people for accomplishing organisational objectives. To keep the employees always in good spirit for performance is a tough job.
A good manager is to realise that mental revolution is necessary to push the organisation members to work willingly and enthusiastically. Only highly motivated people can meet and achieve organisational requirements. Further they require lesser control for achievement on time.
It is to be understood that motivation is not a better substitute of managerial functions. The organisational behaviour affects the working of the people. Before directing the management must know “why do people act as they do” and “what will make them to give best on the job.”
The only answer to these questions is motivation. Psychologists view motivation as the force which implies all living organism to action in the direction towards achieving the objectives of organisation.
It is the duty of the management to provide for motivating forces to intensify their desire and willingness to apply their potentialities for the achievement of common objectives. Some are self-motivated or some people are motivated by intense outer pressures of reward.
The word motivation has been derived from the word ‘motive’ which means any idea, need or emotion or organic state which prompts a man to an action. Motive is an internal factor that integrates a man’s behaviour. As the motive is within the individual it is necessary to study needs, emotions etc.; in order to motivate him at work.
There are so many inducing factors which influence the human behaviour and induce him for the best performance to meet his needs and emotions. This is known as the stimulus and this is dependent upon the motive of the person concerned. Motive can be known by studying his needs and desires.
There is no universal theory than can explain the factors influencing motives which control man’s behaviour at any particular point of time. Generally different motives operate at different times among different people and influence their behaviour. The management should try to understand the motives of individuals which cause different types of behaviour.
The human resources are considered as the unique element in every organisation. Outstanding people can transform a poor organisation to operate successfully. Poorly motivated people can nullify the performance of a sound organisation.
In motivation, manager is to develop the skills of command. He must know how to direct others without arousing offence or resentment and must be able to secure obedience without destroying initiative and creativity.
Koontz and O’Donnell define, “Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces.” He continues and states that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that “they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.”
Robert Dubin has defined motivation as “the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves a person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.”
Edwin Flippo “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain reward”.
According to Dalton E. Mc Farland, “The concept of motivation is mainly psychological. It relates to those forces operating within the individual employee or subordinate which impel him to act or not to act in certain ways.” So this definition considers motivation as a term which applies to the entire class of urges, drives, desires, needs and similar forces.
Motivation is highly individualistic. It is the essence of human behaviour.
Motivation consists of three parts:
(a) Motives i.e. need, ideas, emotions or organic state.
(b) Motivating factors and
(c) Attainment of objectives.
In every organisation the employees come from different background, needs and aspirations. Though the principles of motivation and theories of motivation may not be of much help but they provide a better understanding in predicting people’s response to performing their tasks, despite the unique of human beings.
Term Paper # 2. Nature and Features of Motivation:
The nature and features of motivation are:
(i) Motivation is an Unending Process:
Man is a social animal. He is guided by want satisfaction. He has innumerable wants. All these wants cannot be satisfied at one time. One want is satisfied and the other may emerge.
Satisfaction of wants is an unending process and motivation which is connected with wants is also an unending process.
(ii) Motivation is a Psychological Concept:
It is a psychological concept as it connected with motives which is an internal factor. The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influence the direction, volume, behaviour and limitations of efforts of individuals. So motivation deals with inducement of inner feeling of an individual for performance.
(iii) Goals are Motivators:
Goals and motives are inseparable. Here the term goals refer to satisfaction of needs. Every individual has his own need and the need satisfaction is the propelling factor for performance. It is the duty of the organisation to identify the needs of individuals to develop motivational policies to induce for performance. Integration of personal goals with that of the organisational objectives is important.
(iv) Self-Concept is the Unifying Force:
Every individual has a unifying force. The unifying force means the drive to actualize his image. This image exists in everybody’s life right from his childhood. Every individual wants to function like a role-model he has in his mind and tries to perform what he is capable of. So a successful individual tries to come up in life what he has in his mind and what he wants to achieve with his potentials. So it is the self- realisation that plays an important role.
(v) Motivation is System-Oriented:
It is the result of interplay of three factors known as:
(a) Influences operating within an individual refer to his needs, values and goals,
(b) Influences operating within an organisation (refer to organisation structure, technology, physical facilities, nature of job etc.)
(c) Forces operating in the external environment (refer to culture, customs, norms of society).
(vi) Motivation can be Positive or Negative:
Positive motivation implies use of incentives like increase in pay, reward, promotion etc. Negative motivation emphasises penalties like reprimands, threat of demotion, fear of loss of job.
(vii) Motivation can be used to Enthuse Individual:
Motivation can be used to enthuse the individual completely by developing his outlook and personality and providing him with necessary requirements for achievement.
(viii) Motivation can be Successful only with People whose Mental Health is Sound:
Motivation cannot succeed with frustrated people and people with sick mind. To motivate frustrated men one has to focus on the satisfaction of his basic needs.
Term Paper # 3. Importance of Motivation:
Motivation is one of the important functions of management. It is the duty of the management to induce employees on the job to extract performance and to have the best results out of minimum efforts. All administrative actions lose its points unless the members of the organisation are willing to contribute their efforts for the achievement of completed jobs.
This can be identified with the help of the following points:
(i) Proper Utilisation of Human Resources:
Motivation induces subordinates to work efficiently and effectively. This increases productivity. Further the organisation culture and the use of improved technology facilitate the organisation to improve its operating efficiency. The interaction of all these forces leads to proper utilisation of human resources.
(ii) Proper Use of Material Resources:
The utilisation of resources is not possible to the fullest extent unless the employees are induced to contribute their efforts towards achieving organisational objectives.
(iii) Willingness for Work:
In every organisation there maybe employees who are disciplined and self-motivate. There may be a person who has capacity to work and they may be physically, mentally and technically fit for work but he may not be willing to work. So motivation is needed in organisations to include all employees to achieve the organisational objectives.
(iv) Motivation is Responsible for Developing Good Labour Relations:
In an organisation with proper motivation approach by the management the employees will try to achieve pre-determined objectives within the framework of policies and programmes.
This is mutually beneficial to both management and employees. This increases the operational efficiency of employees and that of the organisation. This results in reduction of labour problems like absenteeism, labour turnover, indiscipline, grievances etc.; are considerably reduced. So motivation helps to improve better labour relations.
(v) Develops Co-Operation:
In their enthusiasm to produce more the employees work as a team and lend their support and loyalty. They play an efficient role in achieving the goals of the organisation. So motivation forms the basis for co-operation to get the best results out of their efforts.
(vi) Improvement of Skill and Knowledge:
The employees of the organisation will try to be as efficient as possible and to improve upon their skill and knowledge so that they may be contributing to the progress of the organisation. They will do it because they know what they have been promised and ultimately they will be able to satisfy their personal and social needs.
Finally an effective motivation policy facilitates in developing better understanding and better human relations. So motivation is needed for achieving organisational and individual goals in an economical and efficient manner. For this motivation is an important tool in the hands of management.
Term Paper # 4. Techniques of Motivation:
In management literature motivation techniques have been identified. They are:
(i) Motivation by Leadership:
Leaders can be successful only when they are able to motivate their subordinates. He is a follower as well as the leader of his men. All great leaders might not have always been ideally good men, but they were able to motivate men to perform. Examples, Gandhi, Nehru, Shivaji, Buddha, Napoleon and Hitler.
All these leaders were themselves inspired men, and in turn inspired their followers towards achieving their goals. These leaders were able to inspire irrespective of the laudable nature of their objectives.
(ii) Motivation by Participation:
Participation means the process of giving, taking or sharing advice, experience, exchange of information ideas etc.; as well as action. Normally in matters where people are affected they like to be consulted. Participation provides a psychological satisfaction that money cannot buy.
(iii) Motivation by Goals:
A goal is like a target. This is to be predetermined to facilitate employees to know its location, direction elements which are obstructive and which are conducive. The manager can sense both personal and organisational goals through good counselling, proper guidance and correct follow-up.
(iv) Motivation by Empathy:
Empathy means seeing things from the point of view of the other fellow. This can be achieved by interacting with other individuals in the group. Interaction can be creative or it may turn hostile. Developing a free flow of communication both ways, upward and downward, and developing and making use of informal communication can make it effective.
(v) Motivation by Competition:
Developing the spirit of competition for better performance in group endeavour motivation by competition has to be kept objective without any inkling of favouritism. It requires skill to keep man or race and maintain the spirit of sports man-ship at the same time.
(vi) Motivation by Challenge:
It is a known fact that most men do not work to their full potential. The employees do have capabilities and resources to rise to unexpected and unprecedented performance provided there is enthusiasm, encouragement, coaching and support from higher authorities. There will always be new things to reach for and challenge men at work. To facilitate employees to accept challenge the management is to provide for the following-Freedom to experiment, Encourage creative thinking, permit employees to think differently and imaginatively and promise of rewarding accomplishment and reward achievements.
(vii) Motivation by Attention:
Employees like to feel important as they feel the need to be recognised. They would like to get the attention of others socially, physically, emotionally and in other manners.
(viii) Motivation by Change:
Mangers play the role of catalyst. A catalyst is one which facilitate changes quickly. A manager has to change the attitude of a person by changing his own attitude towards that person. So long as mutual attitudes remain unchanged, one has to unfreeze first. Change is inevitable, but the manager must be aware of the direction of change and the effort he has on others, that is, to cause least emotional disturbance in the employee.
Successful managers foster and maintain team play and co-operation among their subordinate groups. They recognise individual differences in people and make them feel important. They ask tactful questions to know the deep-seated feelings of others and avoid arguments. They are good listeners. They persuade rather than command.
They practice participative management and give adequate and provide effective supervision. They develop a balanced pattern of financial rewards to motivate people. They practice motivation through consistent use of these cardinal guidelines.
Term Paper # 5. Features of a Sound Motivational System:
(1) It has to reflect the goals, objectives and philosophy of the organisation. The organisation is to evolve a system that satisfies individual requirements.
(2) A good motivational system should be simple and easily intelligible to all employees.
(3) Motivation system should be directly related to efforts. The system should establish a positive interconnection between efforts and rewards.
(4) Motivation system should be flexible. It should have a built-in mechanism for accommodating desirable changes in the motivational system which is well within the framework of organisational objectives.
(5) It should be comprehensive and competitive. The system is to satisfy the needs of various employees. It has to undertake a careful study of various needs, degree of intensity and prospective consequences of the various schemes are to be considered and incorporated carefully. To make it competitive the managers is to develop it in such a way that it is on par with competitors and induce employees to join this organisation.
(6) It must have a permanent place in the organisation. No adhocism is to be permitted.
Financial and Non-Financial Incentives:
Money plays an important role in motivation. This is given in the form of wages and salaries, bonus, retirement benefits, health insurance, medical reimbursement etc. To attract good labour force and to maintain them organisations may offer competitive wages and salaries. Though money is a good motivator it is not the only motivator. There are non-financial motivators.
This is a kind of non-financial incentive. The management is to develop a healthy competition among individuals and groups. This will help to achieve their individual and group goals.
(2) Group Incentives:
A powerful tool to motivate employees is group incentives other than individual incentives. This develops team spirit. This increases high morale and productivity.
People respond better to praise and it is considered as more effective than any other incentive. Care should be taken to praise an employee as praising incompetent employees may create resentment. But an occasional praise for achievements may act as an incentive.
(4) Job Enrichment:
This means increasing the contents of a job by upgrading responsibility, scope and challenge in its performance. Executives at the higher levels like Job enrichment because the Job becomes more challenging. This is done to improve Job satisfaction and increase the motivation of employees.
(5) Chances for Growth:
This is another incentive. Employees are to be provided with opportunities for advancement and growth. They feel very much satisfied and become more committed to organisation goals.
(6) Performance Rating:
An employee is interested in knowing about his performance. A worker gets satisfied when he is appreciated for performance. So to motivate an employee the management is to inform him about his performance and achievements.
(7) Fringe Benefits:
The benefits like free housing, free electricity, provision of free gas, free school to children, free medical facilities, subsidized canteen, guest house facilities in tourist places are some of the examples to motivate employees.
(8) Worker’s Participation in Management:
This acts as an incentive by providing psychological satisfaction that their voice is being heard by providing two-way communication.
(9) Suggestion System:
The organisations use this to make use of cash awards for useful suggestions. To publish the employee’s name with his photograph in the company’s magazine. This motivates the employees to be in search for something which may be of greater use in the organisation.