Here is a term paper on ‘Supervision’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Supervision’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Supervision
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Meaning of Supervision
- Term Paper on the Qualities of a Good Supervisor
- Term Paper on the Functions of Supervisor
- Term Paper on the Requisites of Effective Supervision
Term Paper # 1. Meaning of Supervision:
Supervision means overseeing subordinates at work. This is performed by managers at all levels. It means observing the subordinates at work to see that they perform in tune with the plans and policies of the organisation and keeping the time schedule, and help them in solving their work problems. It also implies the direct contact the subordinate and the immediate superior.
The top management supervises the work of the middle management which in turn supervises the front line managers who in direct contact with the workers. That is why the front line managers are known as supervisors. To define the term, supervisor means a person who is primarily in charge of a section and its employees and is responsible for both the quantity and quality of production for the efficient performance of equipment, and for the employee in his charge and their efficiency, training and morale.
A supervisor derives his authority from the sectional or departmental head for getting it done by the employees and for using the resources of the organisation. He issues orders to his workers and instructions to the workers, directs their activities and report to the departmental head on the performance of his section.
The supervisor occupies a strategic position. His position is said to be unique in managerial hierarchy. He serves as a major link between the management and the employees. He is in direct contact with the operatives. He interprets management policies to employees. Further he is responsible for getting the work done from the workers working under him.
So front line manages perform essentially more of a direction function compared to other level of employees. He plays a two-fold obligation of satisfying the organisation and the employees. The selection of a supervisor is based not only on the skills and knowledge for doing a job but also his ability to understand and deal with the workers.
He must possess leadership qualities so he may lead his workers in achieving organisation goals. He is responsible for promoting discipline among the workers and motivating them.
Term Paper # 2. Qualities of a Good Supervisor:
A good supervisor should possess the following qualities:
(1) He must be a man of human relations. He has to approach the problems of employees sympathetically.
(2) He should be mentally alert always.
(3) He should be competent to take decisions quickly.
(4) He is to be honest in dealing with his subordinates so as to leave no scope for any doubt in the minds of his subordinates about his integrity.
(5) He should have patience and should not lose temper easily.
(6) He should not rely on his formal authority heavily.
(7) He should be a good leader in guiding his subordinates towards the achievement of his goals.
(8) He should have technical competence to perform the job to be supervised to get better quality of output from subordinates.
Term Paper # 3. Functions of Supervisor:
As a manager the supervisor has to perform the following functions.
(1) Planning the Work:
He is the basis for planning in organisation. He has to determine the work schedule for even and steady flow of work. He has to assign work to his subordinates according to their abilities. He has to make arrangement for raw materials, machines, tools and equipment.
(2) Issuing Orders:
The supervisor issues orders and instructions to the workers for achieving co-ordination. He instructs them what to do and how to do.
(3) Provides Guidance and Leadership:
The supervisor is responsible fixing production targets and provides them the necessary guidance for performance. They lead the workers of his department.
The supervisor motivates his subordinates by providing necessary requirements for performance. Further he provides financial and non-financial incentives. He inspires for quality performance and higher productivity.
(5) Preserving Records:
The supervisor keeps records of output and other related aspects of each employee. He sends necessary information to the top management.
(6) Controlling Output:
It is the duty of the supervisor to evaluate performance and to see that it is in tune with established standards.
(7) Liaison between Management and Workers:
The supervisor provides a vital link between the management and the workers. He explains management policies to the workers and transmits management instructions to the workers. By his close proximity to workers, he understands their problems and brings it to the knowledge of management.
(8) Grievance Handling:
As he is in direct touch with employees he can handle grievances effectively. He has to encourage the employees to come out effectively with genuine problems and when reported he has to handle it. If he is not capable of redressing the grievances he should report it to the immediate superiors.
(9) Industrial Safety:
The supervisor has to ensure the safety of the workers. The employees are to be educated and trained by supervisor for safety. He has to inspect machines, tools and other equipment to minimise the chances of accidents.
Term Paper # 4. Requisites of Effective Supervision:
To make supervision the following are to be present:
(1) Knowledge of Work:
A supervisor to be effective must have the knowledge of machines, equipment, tools processes and that are under his care.
(2) Knowledge of Rules and Regulations:
He should be familiar with the organisational policies and the rules and regulations which are applicable to him. He should also be conversant with various labour laws that affect his section.
(3) Skill in Leading:
A supervisor should be a leader in the real sense of the term. As a leader he has to teach, coach and guide the subordinates and promote harmonious relation with employees.
(4) Instructing Skills:
A supervisor has to issue orders and instructions to his subordinates. He has to interact with superiors as and when necessary. So he should be a good communicator. He should have good communication skills. By his effective communication he has to attract subordinates and make to follow their instructions.
(5) Sense of Dynamism:
A supervisor must be dynamic. In normal situations he is expected to make the best possible use of resources available to him. Regarding change of situations and emergencies his handling of resources must be admirable.
(6) Human Orientation:
A supervisor is to treat his subordinates as human beings and he has to achieve human relations. He has to develop a helping attitude with his subordinates. To function effectively he should be impartial, open-minded and fair in dealing with everyday problems of his work group. He must be easily approachable and listen to their problems with care and sympathy.
In essence supervision plays an important role in the organisation.
To make this job successful the supervisor must be:
(a) A person of positive mind.
(b) He has to issue clear instructions.
(c) Maintain good personal contact with subordinates.
(d) He has to develop teamwork.
(e) He has to make use of group dynamics positively.