Here is a compilation of term papers on ‘Communication’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Communication’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Communication
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Meaning and Definition of Communication
- Term Paper on the Characteristics of Communication
- Term Paper on the Communication Process
- Term Paper on the Principles of Effective Communication
- Term Paper on the Importance of Communication
- Term Paper on the Channels of Communication
- Term Paper on the Media of Communication
- Term Paper on Communication Networks
Term Paper # 1. Meaning and Definition of Communication:
The first executive function is to develop and maintain a system of communication. It is an indispensable activity in all organisations. It is the nervous system of an organisation. The members of the organisation are informed about the internal and external happenings relevant to the task and interest. The success of the organisation depends on co-ordination which can be achieved effectively by communication. Without communication the very existence of the organisation is in danger.
It is a managerial skill based on human behaviour. It is the process of passing information and creating understanding from one person to another. It is a system through which two or more persons exchange ideas and understanding among themselves. The communication may be written or oral.
The word communication is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common.
If a person effects a communication, he has established, a common ground of understanding. So communication involves imparting a common idea and covers all types of behaviour resulting therefrom Communication means to inform, to tell, to show or to spread information.
It may be interpreted as an interchange of thinking or information to bring about understanding and confidence for good industrial relations. It brings about unity of purpose, interest and efforts in an organisation.
To have a better understanding of communication the following definitions can be relied upon.
Louis. A. Allen- “Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”
According to Theo Haimam “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others.”
Newman and Summer are of the opinion that “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
Keith Davis has defined communication as “The process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It is essentially a bridge of meaning between people. By using this bridge of meaning a person safely cross the river of understanding that separates all people.”
So communication may be defined as an interchange of thought or information to bring about mutual understanding and confidence. It is the information intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages. It is the exchange of facts, ideas and viewpoints which bring about commonness of interest, purpose and efforts.
Term Paper # 2. Characteristics of Communication:
On the basis of the above definitions we can deduce the following characteristics:
1. It is a Two-Way Traffic:
Messages, directions, opinions etc. are communicated downward by management to employees. Similarly grievances, complaints, opinions, point of view etc., are communicated upward by employees to management. Communication is complete only when the message has been understood by the receiver and his response is known to the sender. It is not merely the transmission of message but also the correct interpretation and understanding of the message.
2. Communication is a Pervasive Function:
Communication is vital to all managerial functions. Planning collects information about plans, policies and objectives. Organising involves information about tasks, authority and responsibility. Staffing, direction and control also require proper communication between management and employees. Thus communication is important to all managerial functions.
3. Communication is a Continuous Process:
The system of communication is a continuous process as the performance of the organisation is continuous. Communication is the nervous system of an organisation. To make the organisation active always the communication system is to be ever active. It is the ever active communication keeps the organisation vibrant. So it is a continuous process.
4. Communication Aims at Developing Mutual Understanding:
An effective understanding is reached between the sender and receiver which promotes co-operative human relationship towards the achievement of organisational objectives.
Term Paper # 3. Communication Process:
For communication there must be at least two persons are required. They are:
(i) A sender
(ii) A receiver.
The sender conceives the idea, puts it in such terms that can be conveyed, decides the channel of communication and conveys it. The receiver receives it, tries to understand and finally takes an action according to the information or direction received from the source.
So the entire process of communication involves the following six steps:
(e) Decoding and
(f) Follow- Up Action.
This means the message that should be sent. It is the content of communication and a basis of message. This is the crucial step as it provides the start for the process.
In this step the sender organises his ideas into a series of symbols, charts or words which he feels will communicate the message effectively by the receiver. In choosing the mode the situation plays an important role.
In this step the sender chooses the path for communication through which a message is to travel to the receiver. Channel may be mass media or inter-personal channel. In selecting a channel, its effectiveness and to what extent the channel is free from disturbances is to be considered.
(d) Receiving the Message:
The receiver must pay necessary attention in receiving the message, in understanding and translating it into an effective action.
This means translation of symbols encoded by the sender into ideas for understanding. Understanding of the message by the receiver is the key to decoding process. The communication becomes ineffective if the receiver does not understand the message properly or pretends to misunderstand it. This occurs as the perception of two people is quite different.
This is the response by the receiver of the communication received from the sender. He may store the information received, perform the task assigned by the sender or like to ignore the message. In any case, the communication is complete as soon as the receiver responds.
Out of six steps the first three are taken by the sender and the last three by the receiver. There are two more steps. They are acceptance and feedback. Acceptance of the message is identified by the sender where there is motivation and co-operation from the receiver. The sender wants a feedback to see that his message generates a response to the sender.
This will facilitate him to evaluate the effectiveness of the message and he can modify his subsequent messages wherever necessary. These two steps acceptance and feedback are necessary for generating an effective long-run working relationships. So in communication process there are five rules and they are receiving, understanding, acceptance, action and feedback. If these five steps are complete from the receiver’s side the communication is effective and successful.
Term Paper # 4. Principles of Effective Communication:
To make the communication system effective, the following principles or factors must be followed by the management:
(1) Principle of Clarity:
The message to be transmitted must be clear and easily understandable so that the receiver is to interpret in the same sense and spirit in which it is to be communicated. There must be no ambiguity. So the communicator must be very clear about the message to be communicated.
(2) Principle of Attention:
To make the message effective, it is necessary that the receiver’s attention must be drawn to the message to be communicated to him. Each one of us is different in behaviour, sentiments and emotions which decide the degree of attention. Action speaks better than words is the point to be remembered as the passing of communication is to evoke response from the receiver of the communication.
(3) Principle of Consistency:
This principle implies that communication should always be consistent with the plans, objectives, policies and programmes of the organisation. In consistency in message always create confusion in the minds of people which is highly detrimental to the interest of the organisation.
(4) Principle of Adequacy:
Information should be adequate and complete in all respects as incomplete information delays actions and destroys understanding and relations.
(5) Principle of Integration:
This means the integration of personal objectives with that of organisational objectives. This is possible only when communication is complete and promotes co-operation among employees to achieve organisational objectives.
(6) Principle of Time:
Information should be communicated at the right time. The communicator must consider the timing of communication so that the desired response is created in the minds of receivers.
(7) Principle of Credibility:
The communicator’s action must follow in tune what was stated in a message. This will ensure believability and seriousness in communication. He should demonstrate that he is worthy of trust and communication of true and correct message is taken up to ensure credibility.
(8) Principle of Informal Communication:
In every organisation there is an informal organisation and informal communication spreads fast through its network. It cannot be avoided. So managers should know to use this channel effectively and at the same time they should know when to be formal and when to use the informal channel to their advantage.
(9) Principle of Feedback:
The communicator should know that the communication has reached the sender or not and he has understood it in the same sense in which it has been communicated or not. Further the receiver has agreed to the proposal or not. This can be observed only by his response either inviting or to be inferred by his performance. This is called the principle of feedback.
(10) Principle of Communication Network:
Communication network means the route through which the communication has to flow till it reaches the destination of the receiver. A number of networks may exist at a given point of time but the management should consider the effectiveness of the communication network and its effect on the behaviour of communication.
So to make communication effective the above said principles are to be followed. This minimise the problems of the organisation and will promote better co-operation and industrial relations.
Term Paper # 5. Importance of Communication:
In the present competitive world communication plays an important role. Either in manufacturing units or servicing units competition, complex methods of technology, large scale operations and specialisation has increased the importance of communication. No manager can perform well without effective communication.
It is compared to the circulatory system in the human body. The success of the communication system ensures the success of the business.
The following points will highlight the importance of communication:
(1) Ensures Smooth Functioning of the Enterprise:
Communication is the basis of existence of an organisation from cradle to grave or birth to burial. All organisations need an effective communication for its smooth and successful functioning as it ensures co-ordination of both human and material resources.
Further every aspect of functioning relies on co-operation of employees which can be achieved only by effective communication. With the stoppage of communication the functioning of the organisation comes to a complete halt. So it is required for the smooth functioning of the organisation at all stages.
(2) Basis of Managerial Functions:
Communication plays an important role in the discharge of managerial functions. Every function of management relies heavily on communication for its success.
Its importance in performing these functions can be discussed as follows:
a. Planning and Communication:
Planning means pre-determining the future course of action in the background of organisational objectives, policies, programmes, procedures etc. These are to be conveyed to the employees in writing for their understanding and performance. They are responsible for translating all these into actions.
b. Organisation and Communication:
Organisation involves creating an effective set up for performance, departmentation and delegation of authority and responsibility. For the successful functioning of the organisation communication is a must. An effective communication informs different persons, different departments and groups to know their powers and jurisdiction. In essence communication holds the key for successful functioning of the organisation.
c. Direction and Communication:
Direction includes leadership and motivation. For the successful functioning of an organisation a good leader needs an efficient system of communication. The effective two way (upward and downward) communication is necessary creating a good relationship and understanding between superior and subordinates.
Motivation means developing a positive frame of mind for performance in the minds of employees. This can be achieved only by establishing a proper communication system. Good communication assists workers in their adjustments with physical and social aspect of work. It is the basis of participative and democratic pattern of management.
d. Co-Ordination and Communication:
In the present day set up the designing of organisations is made on the basis of specialisation and division of labour. To achieve organisational objectives co-ordination is needed. Coordination can be achieved by effective communication to develop mutual understanding about organisational goals and very personal interaction.
e. Control and Communication:
In control evaluation of performance is done in the light of pre-determined objectives. The management identifies deviations and tries to locate them. It tries to remove such deviations in the subsequent plans. It requires proper communication.
(3) Maximum Production and Minimum Cost:
Every organisation tries to achieve maximum output at minimum cost. For this purpose an effective internal and external communication system must be established. Internal communication is needed for maximising output by coordinating both material and human resources. Minimisation of cost can be achieved by establishing good understanding and human relations. On the external field efficient communication is needed for improving public opinion, having contact with government departments and getting market information in order to achieve the primary goals.
(4) Decision Making and Implementation:
Communication is needed for collection of information for decision making and for its implementation. The employees are to be informed about decisions to be taken. So communication is basically needed for this.
(5) Development of Human Relations:
The human resources is considered as the most active and effective factors of production and they are responsible and instrumental in establishing co-operation, industrial peace, good working conditions and working environment. All these things are possible only when there is free flow of downward and upward communication.
Downward communication facilitates the management in informing employees what it wants and how it can be performed. Upward communication helps employees in representing their grievances, suggestions and modification to policies to the higher ups. This creates confidence and trust in the minds of employees and promotes better human relations.
(6) Develops Good Morale:
Morale motivates human beings to work in right spirit. Good communication develops the confidence and trust of workers and develops a better sense of understanding and co-operation in employees. Thus it promotes job satisfaction.
(7) Time and Effort Effective:
Communication helps in saving time and effort. A manager can keep in touch with his employees only in case of deviations and call for explanations wherever necessary. This can be done by going through the reports. Thus manager’s time and effort on supervision is made more effective and purposeful.
(8) Facilitates Public Relations:
Every organisation is to confront various groups like customers, trade associations, shareholders, government, suppliers, trade unions, advertisers, research organisations etc. The organisation is to develop a good image of the enterprise with the public and create a favourable attitude towards the organisation. For this effective communication is needed.
So communication is a vital element for the existence of the organisation. Its importance was rightly remarked by Chester I. Barnard as it is the “first executive function is to develop and maintain system of communication”.
Term Paper # 6. Channels of Communication:
Channel of communication means the medium path or route through which the message is transmitted from the sender to the receiver. Though there are numerous channels through which information passes from one person to another in an organisation. This constitutes the network.
The important elements of a network are:
(a) Determining the information to be communicated and the person to whom it is to be communicated.
(b) Transmitting information accurately and at proper time.
(c) Processing and interpreting the data before transmitting the information and
(d) Maintaining information record till required.
Communication channel is divided into two types known as:
(1) Formal communication
(2) Informal communication.
(1) Formal Communication:
Formal communication enforces a relationship between different positions. This is associated with the formal organisation structure. It is a deliberate attempt to regulate the flow of organisational communication so as to make it orderly and to ensure smooth, accurate and timely flow of information. It is the path of line authority linking two positions in an organisation. This is also called as the channel of command.
The formal communication has the following merits. They are:
(a) Helps Line Executives:
The executive can have an effective control over subordinates and make them answerable for their performance. This can be successfully achieved by fixing responsibility of the subordinates.
(b) Develops Better Understanding:
Formal communication develops a better understanding between superior and subordinate by enabling them to understand the attitude and behaviour of both. This makes communication more effective.
(c) Better Solutions and Decisions:
The superior can find better solutions to problems and can take prompt and correct decisions due to their good knowledge about the organisation and its problems. This strengthens the good relationship between superior and subordinate.
The demerits of formal communication are:
No organisation can force every happening so action based on unforeseen event cannot be formalised by communication.
The workload of line managers increases enormously as they are responsible for all communications. It takes the time of the superiors.
There are chances for distortion and it affects the accuracy of the message due to transmission congestion.
(d) Delay and Red Tape:
Passing of information may be taken up on priority basis. So the free flow of communication may be affected. This may result in delay and red tape.
Forms of Formal Communication:
The formal communication may take any one of the following forms:
(a) Downward communication
(b) Upward communication
(c) Horizontal communication
(d) Diagonal communication.
(a) Downward Communication:
This means the flow of communication from the top to the bottom for various levels along with the scalar chain. The main purposes of downward communication are to advise, inform, direct, instruct and evaluate subordinates and to provide organisation members with information about organisation. So they make and take the form of orders, instructions, rules, policies, programmes directives etc. It specifies the extent of subordinates, authority and responsibility.
Its major objectives are:
(i) To give specific task directives about job.
(ii) To inform about organisational procedures and practices.
(iii) To provide information about rationale of job.
(iv) To tell the subordinates about their performance.
(v) To provide ideological type information for employees.
It’s merits are:
i. Helps in explaining employees about company policies, plans and programmes.
ii. To maintain effective control over the performance of subordinates.
iii. It brings satisfaction to people and helps to motivate them.
It’s demerits are:
(i) The passing of communication through various levels may lead to delay, filtering and distortion.
(ii) By the time it reaches the lowest level it may possibly be get distorted and there may be change in shape. This may lose the very objective of communication.
(b) Upward Communication:
This is the reverse of downward communication. This communication moves from the bottom to the top of the organisation through various levels. This means the supply of information from below to the top.
There are two possibilities:
(i) Feedback of information in response to the communication of the management to know the response of the subordinates.
(ii) Secondly, Voluntary communication from the subordinates to carry their complaints, suggestions, intelligence, reports, innovative ideas, opinions etc.
The main merits in upward communication are:
(i) It gives right feedback from employees about policies and procedures promote confidence.
(ii) It helps the management in locating problem areas in the organisation.
Its demerits are:
(i) The top management may not consider the suggestions of the lower management and due weightage may not be given so they may ignore the suggestions.
(ii) There may be status differences. The lower level employees may not communicate freely due to lack of social and verbal skills.
To make it effective the top management is to follow the open door policy to know precisely what is happening in the organisation. The upward and downward communication is also called as vertical communication.
(c) Horizontal Communication:
Other name Lateral communication. This refers to communication between departments of an organisation that generally follows the work flow and provides a direct channel for co-ordination and problem solving. The departments may be headed by one superior or two different heads. The main object of this communication is to co-ordinate the efforts of different departments. This type of communication is common between the line executives and staff specialists.
Its merits are:
(i) Facilitates co-ordination of different departments of equal level.
(ii) It removes duplication of work and minimises wastage of time, money, labour and materials.
The main limitation of this form of communication is it gives rise to differences in approach and vision of different functionaries as they may advocate from their own angles. Further this may affect efficiency and productivity.
The success of this communication depends on the ability and willingness of experts to view each other’s point of view and to adjust so that problems may be dealt with effortlessly.
(d) Diagonal Communication:
This means the communication between people who neither in the same department nor on the same level in the organisation. It cuts across departmental lines. It generally takes place when members of an organisation cannot communicate effectively through other channels.
Cost accountant wants the marketing staff to send a report to him directly. There is diagonal communication. This helps in saving time and to speed up action. The main drawback is that it violates the principle of unity of command.
(2) Informal Communication:
Other name- Grapevine. It is an unplanned and un-patterned set of information flows which cut across the formal structure. This takes place in all organisations when employees spontaneously interact and exchange information concerning their work and other matters not necessarily related to work. This is social and personal in nature. They exist outside the formal channel and they do not adhere to the organisation’s hierarchy of authority.
Its features are:
(a) It arises from social interactions of people.
(b) It is a natural and normal activity as it is an essential part of the total human environment.
(c) Another feature of grapevine is the speed with which it functions. It is possible for the grapevine to leap hundreds of kilometers very quickly.
(d) It co-exists with the formal communication and supplements it.
(e) There is no formal path for this communication.
The objectives of informal communication are:
(a) They satisfy personal needs, such as the need for relationship with others.
(b) They try to influence the behaviour of others.
(c) They serve as a source of job related information which is not provided by formal channels.
(d) They counter the effect of boredom or monotony.
The merits of informal communication are:
(a) It helps in achieving better human relations in the organisation by providing the required speed and humanistic touch to the formal communication system.
(b) It links even those people who do not fall in the official chain of command.
(c) Informal communication fill in the gaps in the formal system and lend the much needed flexibility to it. It is a powerful tool in their hands to get information on organisational and other matters, which they would not get if they depend exclusively on the formal communication system.
(d) Its speed is very fast as it is free from all barriers.
(e) It’s acceptable to all employees as it is not authority and control oriented.
(f) It is multi-dimensional. There is no channel of command. It may go to any extent. All limits to direction and degree of communication are self-imposed. This promotes co-operation sound lines.
The demerits of Informal communication are:
(a) Informal communication is not authentic. It very often carries half- truths. rumours and distorted information with an alarming rate of speed.
(b) It may lead to generation of rumours in the organisation.
(c) It is not dependable as it may not be accurate always.
(d) It may lead to leakage of confidential information.
(e) No action can be taken on the basis of informal communication as it lacks authenticity of formal channel and such communication may be erratic.
Rumour and Dealing with Rumour:
Rumour is the most undesirable feature of grapevine and it has given grapevine a bad reputation. To define it, is grapevine information that is communicated without authentic standards of evidence. It is an untrue part of grapevine. Generally it is incorrect and it is undesirable.
The reasons for its origin are:
(a) Because people are malicious as they spread rumours.
(b) Anxiety and insecurity of employees in the organisation is another reason.
(c) Employees try to make use of it as their wish fulfilment.
(d) They also use it for applying pressure on management.
Its features are:
(a) Its general theme is maintained but not its details.
(b) It gets twisted and distorted when it passes through from one to another.
(c) It spreads like an epidemic and does the maximum damage on the organisation.
So it is the duty of the management to deal with rumours effectively.
The steps that can be taken in this regard are:
(a) The cause of the rumour must be properly assessed and they should be dealt with accordingly.
(b) The management has to pass the correct message in time.
(c) Place the facts about misconceptions before the people.
(d) The message should contain only facts and not opinions.
(e) Every employee’s help must be taken to combat rumours.
An efficient and successful manager can make use of grapevine to strengthen formal channels of communication in the following ways:
(a) It is a permanent part of the formal structure and it should be used to facilitate effective communication.
(b) Managers should have complete knowledge of what grapevine is communicating and its reasons for doing so.
(c) The management is to provide inputs into the grapevine so that it will reach maximum employees.
(d) All levels of management are to be provided with only total and accurate information.
Term Paper # 7. Media of Communication:
In communication with the object of promoting understanding and exchanging information three main media are used.
These are the most important and powerful media of communication. Information through words can be transmitted orally or in written form. Both have their own advantages and disadvantages.
A. Oral Communication:
Here transmission of information is attempted with the help of spoken words. Here exchange of information takes place either in face to face situation or through mechanical devices like telephone. Meetings, lectures, interviews counselling, public address system, conferences are some of the techniques used in this regard.
Its merits are:
(a) It is more effective communication system.
(b) It saves time and money.
(c) It facilitates easy exchange of information and can promote proper understanding and get the right feed-back.
(d) It is the only way in emergencies.
(e) It fosters friendly and co-operative spirit.
(f) Facilitates immediate and evaluation of communication.
(g) Improves morale and motivation of employees and it generates a feeling of participation.
B. Written Communication:
Communication is reduced to writing in conveying information. This is resorted to when there are large number of employees and they are scattered in far off places. This is in the form of written words, graphs, charts, diagrams, pictures etc. This is the most used common form of communication. This helps in determining the responsibility.
The objectives of this communication are:
(a) To give information.
(b) To receive information.
(c) To give orders and instructions.
(d) To record recommendations and decisions in a meeting.
The merits of written communication are:
(a) Helpful when the sender and receiver are at far off places.
(b) Lengthy messages are to be sent and that too for large number of people then written communication is most suitable form.
(c) It is the satisfactory and effective form of communication in organisations for policy matters, service conditions, secret orders and instructions etc. Further they are needed for future reference.
(d) Written communication gives enough time for the receiver to think, analyse and decide the course of action if any.
(e) It minimises disputes, organisational frictions, back passing etc.; if it is complete and perfect in its drafting.
(f) Written communication has permanent effect on the receiver.
(g) They are more clear and specific as they are drafted. It serves as a reliable record for the future and can be used as evidence in legal proceedings.
The merits of written communication are considered as demerits of oral communication and vice versa. The use of both the methods is to be done sensibly and effectively. In any case the basic idea is to see that the communication is effective.
Differences between Oral and Written Communication:
Oral communication is expressed through spoken words. Written communication is expressed in writing. Oral communication is informal in nature but written communication is formal.
Oral communication may not be complete. It may not be understood properly and at times it may be difficult to understand. Written communication is to be complete and chances for understanding are better. No ambiguity in statement.
Oral messages cannot be verified but written messages are verifiable.
Oral communication may not be precise but written communication can be precise.
The suitability of both forms of communication is given below:
Oral communication is effective in the following situations:
(a) Used for instructing and counseling subordinates.
(b) Used while dealing with Trade Union Leaders.
(c) Employees use this to ventilate their grievances and their suggestions.
(d) Employees give the necessary feedback to management.
Written communication is effective in the following cases:
(a) Used in important assignments and in fixing responsibility of subordinates.
(b) Where it is needed as the record for future reference.
(c) Employees and Trade Unions make use of this when they need a formal response from the management.
Here the mode of communication is actions, gestures, postures etc. This may be in the form of purposeful silence, manner and tone of the voice, handshake pat on the back, facial expression etc. This is used to supplement oral communication. This conveys feelings, emotions, attitudes, reactions and responses.
The main advantages of this form of communication are:
(a) It motivates subordinates.
(b) It immediately conveys feelings, emotions, attitudes, reactions and responses.
Finally, as it is supplementary to oral communication all merits and demerits of oral communication are applicable to this form also.
Pictures are also very powerful communication media. They make tremendous impact on viewers. It clearly transmits ideas, facts and information on par with any other media. Pictures create an indelible impression in the minds of viewers and used as simple and convenient way of reaching public.
Charts, maps, graphs, models, posters etc.
Term Paper # 8. Communication Networks:
Communication Network means a set of channels within an organisation or group through which communication travels. It mainly depends on the nature of channels of communication and the number of persons involved in the communication process.
There may be three types of communication networks in the organisation viz, wheel, circular and free flow:
(1) Wheel Communication Network:
In this network all communications are to pass through the manager who acts as a central authority like the hub of a wheel. All the employees are to receive instruction, and guidance from one person.
The wheel network is represented by the following diagram:
(2) Circular Communication Network:
In this network the communication moves in a circuitous fashion. Each employee is to communicate with his two neighbourhood colleagues only. The passing of information is slow in this network. The adjacent diagram 5 represents circular communication flow.
(3) Free Flow Communication Network:
In this network no restriction on the flow of communication. Everyone is free to communicate with everyone in the organisation.
The diagram given below explains the flow pattern: