After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Promotion 2. Promotion as Communication 3. Recent Developments.

Meaning of Promotion:

When a company develops a new product, changes an old one or simply wants to increase sales of an existing product or services, it must transmit its selling messages to potential customers. In the today’s competitive and volatile environment all marketers communicate with their target markets.

Though there is no direct relationship between the promotion and sales but then also we can say that if promotional programs are directed towards the target (potential) customers, it pays to the marketer.

No doubt, today the promotion has become the most controversial aspect of the marketing mix. Many critics maintain that the marketers who are engaged in promotion are like propagandist because they try to convince people to act in a way that they would not otherwise act. But this charge is not true.


In marketing we assume that the customer is judicious and do the things rationally. No one can force a person to do his own way. Promotion is only a means of communication about the product with-out the motive of persuading for that act which he do not want to do.

Promotion as Communication:

As we know that the key elements of the definition of marketing is the exchange. The exchange process involves communication—the imparting of thoughts, opinions or information by speech, writing or signs. Promotion is that marketing communication activity that attempts to inform and remind individuals and persuade them to accept, resell, recommend or use a product, service, idea or institution.

Promotional communication has the triple purpose to perform. To inform, to persuade and to remind, and the three basic purposes are being fulfilled at the different stages of product life cycle. For example, in the introduction stage promotion’s main function is to inform, in growth stage to persuade and in maturity stage reminder and persuasion.

Promotional communication is not always directed towards to the ultimate consumer. It can be for industrial customers, institutions or sometimes towards middlemen. Promotion is an important tool for both the profit as well as non-profit organisations. As we know that most often it is being used to sell a product or services, it is also being accepted in the marketing of social services, political candidates and ideas.

Recent Developments in Marketing & Promotion:


From the year 1991, a great change in the marketing environment has taken place. Because of liberalization policy, so many multinationals entered India and with them professionalism also entered.

These multinationals experimented their marketing strategy on the Indian consumers and the extensive marketing evolved. Marketing & advertising wars become the marketing phenomenon and all this was to win the heart of the consumers. Consumers were /are the real beneficiaries. The true marketing started.

The product oriented appeal utilizes the product or the functions of the product or it may attempt comparison of the product with other brands available in the market. The consumer oriented appeal, on the other hand, is directed at the audience’s attitude, faith and beliefs.

It may emphasize the attitudinal and behavioural patterns of the consumer, the life style of the audience or its social image etc. It can be seen that whatever be the nature of the appeal, all of them are directed towards some human need or the other. In-fact several messages combine the product appeal and the consumer appeal.