Everything you need to know about the principles of training. Training is a continuous process. It involves lot of time and expenditure. It is therefore essential that training programme be organised after due consideration.
Training programme should be prepared in the light of the requirements of the organisation as well as the trainees.
Training is a process. It is continuous. It has a long time and cost involved with it for training purpose, a good training policy is to be prepared Employees and organisation both must be benefited by the training policy.
Proper training policy should check irregularities in training. Irregularities such as – overtraining, imitation of training programme of other firm’s inadequate tools and equipment, misuse of testing techniques, can take place.
Some of the important principles of training are:-
1. Principle of Clear Objectives 2. Principle of Training Policy 3. Principle of Learning Period 4. Principle of Reinforcement 5. Principle of Motivation 6. Principle of Organized Material 7. Principle of Participation
8. Principle of Guidelines 9. Principle of Suitability 10. Principle of Sequence 11. Principle of Practice 12. Principle of Continuity 13. Principle of Result 14. Principle of Feedback 15. Principle of Assessment.
Employee Training Principles in HRM – Clear Objectives, Training Policy, Learning Period, Reinforcement, Motivation and a Few Others
Principles of Training – Top 7 Principles to Make Training More Effective: Principle of Clear Objectives, Principle of Training Policy, Principle of Learning Period and a Few Others
The following principles can help to make training more effective:
1. Principle of Clear Objectives:
The objectives and the reason behind the training programme should be clear. A comparison of operational requirements and existing personnel skills will help to determine the specific training needs of employees, so far that a set of performance standard should be created.
2. Principle of Training Policy:
A clear defined training policy serves as a guide for designing and implementing training programme. This type of policy should specify who is responsible for training, what is to be spent.
3. Principle of Learning Period:
Learning time and teaching in segments is better than in one go. Several short session spread over a long period enable the trainee to learn and review.
4. Principle of Reinforcement:
When a behaviour is repeatedly rewarded, it becomes a permanent part of one’s personality. Learning is more effective when there is reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishments. Trainers should be encouraged to participate, discuss and discover the desirable patterns of behaviour.
5. Principle of Motivation:
Employee tends to be most responsive to training programmes. When they feel the need to learn. Therefore, training must be related to the needs and problems of the trainees as well as to their abilities and aptitudes. Information which is provided in training as well as in the training material should be useful.
6. Principle of Organized Material:
Training material should be properly organized. A complete outline of the whole programme should be distributed in advance so that the trainees can prepare themselves before coming. Training material should be prepared by the training section in consultation or help of the supervisors.
7. Principle of Feedback:
Trainers should be provided information on how much they have learnt and how they are doing. The feedback should be positive, fast and proper.
Principles of Training – Principle of Participation, Guidelines, Suitability, Sequence, Continuity, Result and Assessment
The effectiveness of training depends on the principles applied.
The following are some important principles of training:
1. Principle of Participation – Training is conducted for a specific purpose, primarily to make the trainees gain the maximum out of it. This objective can be accomplished only when the trainees are highly participative. This does not happen until the trainees have physical, mental, emotional and spiritual readiness and interest to undergo training.
2. Principle of Guidelines – Training is conducted in accordance with the existing training policy of the organization. Hence, throughout the training the policies should be followed as a guidebook.
3. Principle of Suitability – Though there are many on-the-job and off-the-job training available for individual and groups, a right selection of a training method is a must for effective training.
4. Principle of Sequence – Training is conducted in a systematic and sequential manner. It should start with the basic tasks and skills to the most complex and complicated work.
5. Principle of Practice – The trainees must be given hand-on exposure after demonstration and in the course of training. It is simply because practice makes people perfect.
6. Principle of Continuity – Training is not a one-time affair. It is a continuous process carried on till the trainees acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude they are supposed to.
7. Principle of Result – Every training programme is conducted to accomplish certain objectives and achieve some anticipated results. In fact, the outcome of the result speaks about the effectiveness of the training. If the result is not satisfactory, it has to be repeated till it is achieved.
8. Principle of Assessment – At the end, every aspect of training such as the content, method, trainer, trainee, post-training performance, productively, change in behavioural pattern and the cost are evaluated and appraised. If needed, corrective actions are taken as and when required.
Principles of Training – Provided by Morris Viteles and National Industries Conference Board, U.S.A.
Training is a continuous process. It involves lot of time and expenditure. It is therefore essential that training programme be organised after due consideration. Training programme should be prepared in the light of the requirements of the organisation as well as the trainees.
A successful training programme calls for careful selection of important fields of training. It is also essential to have proper atmosphere for training.
Morris Viteles has mentioned the following principles of training:
(i) An employee should be taught only the correct methodology.
(ii) Employees should practice only the correct methodology.
(iii) Best method of operation should be determined by means of study of work-analysis, time and speed.
(iv) In work, principle of best speed should be followed.
(v) Training should lay emphasis on accuracy rather than speed.
(vi) Objectives of practice should be given importance in the training.
(vii) Training imparted under actual working conditions is preferable to formal training or training in a class.
(viii) That training which consumes less time is considered more efficient,
(ix) Training should be imparted to all employees — new and old.
The National Industries Conference Board, U.S.A. has also mentioned some additional principles:
(i) Managers must have full knowledge of the needs and objectives of training.
(ii) Training should aim at helping the attainment of objectives of the organisation.
(iii) The objective of training should be to enable the trainees to work at all levels of the organisation and acquire sufficient knowledge and skill.
(iv) The process and technique of training should match with the aims and requirements of the training.
(v) Training activity should be the responsibility of each manager.
(vi) It is the function of the trainer to give suggestions from time to time to line managers regarding needs of training, development policies, managerial systems etc.
(vii) For effective training programme it is essential that it should be based on the tested principles of learning.
(viii) As far as possible, training programme should be conducted under actual working-conditions.
Principles of Training – According to Flippo for a Good Training Programme
According to Flippo, a good training programme should be based on the following principles:
(1) Principle of Motivation:
To render training effective it is essential that it should motivate the trainees to undergo training. Trainees must be made aware as to what needs of theirs will be satisfied by training so that they get training with keen interest. Once the trainees are convinced that they will get more salary, appreciation or even promotion, they will get training with full enthusiasm.
(2) Principle of Practice:
To increase efficiency, this principle lays emphasis on practice and repetition. To render training effective, it is essential that trainees be put on continuous practice.
(3) Principle of Individual Differences:
Ordinarily, trainees should be given training collectively. While imparting training, individual differences among the trainees must be kept in mind. These differences can be physical or mental. Besides, training requirements of each trainee may also be different. Training should therefore be imparted keeping in view the needs and aptitudes of the trainees.
(4) Principle of Progress:
Training becomes effective only when the trainer keeps in mind how much progress has been made by the trainees in different fields and how much is still to be made.
(5) Principle of Whole Versus Part Training:
Training can be of two kinds — whole training and part training. It depends on the nature of work and the ability of the trainee. If the work is complex, it is divided into small parts and training is imparted part-wise. It proves more effective.
(6) Principle of Reinforcement:
To make training effective, it is essential that there should be proper provision of wage-hike, promotion, etc. in the organisation, so that trainee may be motivated to go in for training.
Principles of Training – Top 8 Principles: Motivation, Feedback, Reinforcement, Active Participation, Whole Versus Part, Individual Differences, Specificity and a Few Others
Based on research, certain principles have been evolved which play a very important role while imparting skills or knowledge to the trainees.
These principles of training can be briefly summarised as follows:
Principle # 1. Motivation:
Various research studies have demonstrated that the more highly motivated a trainee, the more quickly a new skill is learnt. The trainee must, therefore, want to learn. That is, his/her motivation to learn a new skill or to improve his/her job performance must be pretty high.
Motivation can be increased by the prospects of some reward at the conclusion of training, for example, a job or a better job, promotion, recognition, more money and status. Besides, it is much easier to motivate a new employee than an older employee.
Principle # 2. Feedback:
The consequences of a trainee’s learning should be checked by the trainer and the trainee be told whether he/she is learning correctly or incorrectly and why. This is known as ‘feedback’.
Principle # 3. Reinforcement:
After the trainee has learnt the desired skills, the effect should be reinforced by means of incentives or disincentives. Positive reinforcements may include rise in pay, promotion, appreciation and so on. Such rewards must be given on the successful completion of training. Rather, in the beginning, the trainee must be rewarded after each time success is attained.
However, in the case of undesired behaviour, punishment may be suggested but experience has shown that such penalties earn ill will and resentment in the long run. Therefore, only positive reinforcement which may be dispensed on a variable ratio schedule may be a better proposition.
Principle # 4. Active Participation:
In order to learn a skill or acquire knowledge or develop particular type of attitude, it is necessary that the trainee himself/herself participates actively. This is also known as ‘learning by doing’. Needless to mention that practice makes a man perfect.
Principle # 5. Whole Versus Part:
Whether to teach the ‘whole’ job at once or to teach the job ‘in parts’ is still a controversial issue. However, the general consensus of opinion is that if the job is longer and more complex, it should be taught in parts.
Principle # 6. Individual Differences:
Although it is easier to train an individual, because of economic considerations, group training has to be provided. In such cases, due attention should be paid to individual differences because individuals vary substantially in their intelligence, aptitude and physical strength.
Principle # 7. Specificity:
It is always desirable to impart more specific rather than general training.
Principle # 8. More Use of Supervisors:
Experience has shown that it is better to make greater use of supervisors or fellow workers in imparting substantial amount of training.
Sawyer and Eastmond have suggested the following ways so that learning principles can be applied to job training:
i. The trainee must be motivated to learn.
ii. He/she must be able to learn.
iii. The learning must be reinforced.
iv. The training must provide material for practice.
v. The material presented must be meaningful.
vi. The material must be communicated effectively.
vii. The material taught must transfer to do the job.
Principles of Training – On the Basis of Extensive Researches which are: Learning, Motivation, Progress Report, Reinforcement, Practice and a Few Others
The heart of training theory is “learning theory”. It requires the application of learning theory and hence principles of learning are basic to all training programmes. On the basis of extensive researches a number of principles have been evolved which serve and guide while imparting skill, knowledge and attitudes.
(i) Learning is an adjustment on the part of the individual and hence training also affects considerable change and ability to adjust
(ii) Motivation – Motivation is essential so as to get knowledge quickly and thoroughly. The aims and purposes must be of interest e.g. for new employees – training should ensure regulation of post While for old employees training should be related to promotion and increments. Learning is closely related to attention and then only it can be more effective.
(iii) Progress Report – Progress Report i.e. the performance tests or on the job observations are highly essential certain yardsticks to measure performance must be provided.
(iv) Reinforcement – When the skills are reinforced by rewards and punishments i.e. positive actions like (certificate) and also negative actions like retraining. Prompt rewards for success are utmost essential.
(v) Practice – Law of exercise, repetition or practice – It is the most essential principle with a view to utilise acquired skill and knowledge.
(vi) Individual differences – Individuals very in intelligence and aptitudes and effective training programme should provide the adjustments with such complexities.
(vii) Whole v/s Part – It will depend upon the nature of the job to be trained. Sometimes it may be most efficient to teach only a part as a given sequence of operation at a particular time, and later the parts can be combined. While many times whole may be taught first and then it will proceed to the parts.
(viii) Accuracy – It is the most important consideration to be observed while devising training programme.
(ix) Understanding – Self instruction is also one of the essential factor. Spoon feeding or complete dependability is not at all desirable.
Principles of Training – Important Principles Followed for Effective Training
Training is a process. It is continuous. It has a long time and cost involved with it for training purpose, a good training policy is to be prepared Employees and organisation both must be benefited by the training policy. Proper training policy should check irregularities in training. Irregularities such as – overtraining, imitation of training programme of other firm’s inadequate tools and equipment, misuse of testing techniques, can take place.
So for effective training, following principles must be followed:
(a) When trainees feel the need of training, they will be more responsive.
(b) Rewards and punishment make training more fruitful.
(c) If the trainee is encouraged during training, the result will be better.
(d) Feedback system must be used in training.
(e) Through training, behaviour of the trainees can be changed.
(f) Rate of learning decreases when complex skills are involved.
(g) Training must be goal-oriented.
(h) Study materials must be made meaningful and must be provided in time.
Principles of Training – 9 Main Points
If evaluation in any form is to be effective, it must be done in accordance with some of the following principles:
1. Evaluation must be planned, which is to be evaluated, when, why, by what means and by whom must be determined in advance.
2. Evaluation must be objective. It should not be a mere formality or eyewash or for name sake.
3. Evaluation must be verifiable. Results can be compared by the same or different means.
4. Evaluation must be cooperative. It must involve all those parts of or affected by the training programme. It is not a contest between the evaluator and the subject of evaluation.
5. Evaluation must be continuous to ensure effectiveness at every step.
6. Evaluation must be specific. It should specify the strengths and weaknesses for further improvement but should not make out vague statements or generalisation.
7. Evaluation must be quantitative. All measurements should aim at quantifying the charges in different performance variables.
8. Evaluation must be feasible. It must be administratively manageable.
9. Evaluation must be cost-effective. The results must be commensurate with the costs incurred.
Principles of Training – 6 Main Principles
An effectively designed training program must be based on certain principles so that it can achieve its objectives effectively and efficiently. It is a good practice to know the do’s and the don’ts before one engages in designing or selecting proper training programs for their organizations.
These principles are as follows:
1. The training needs and objectives have to be clearly determined.
One should know what has to be accomplished before embarking on a training program:
i. These objectives should serve as guidelines and the end-results can be measured when we have such objectives. For instance, a printed circuit board assembly operation would like to reduce the rejection rate by teaching and training the participants in proper soldering methods. The objective here is to reduce the rejection rate of PCB’s
ii. Teaching behavioural techniques to improve the interpersonal relations among employees where conflicts seem to be on the rise.
iii. Structuring and operating small group activities such as quality control groups in production departments so that the rejection rate can be minimized and the quality can be enhanced to maintain zero tolerance.
2. Prepare the individuals for learning who are supposed to go into training programs. Without such preparation, quite a bit of training time may be wasted due to uncertainty, lack of clarity, unreasonable expectations, and even not knowing why they are there. We do hear participants say, the program is a waste of time and a complete wash out. Prior to going into the program, if I would have given some materials to prepare, lot of time could have been saved. And, the learning process could have been more efficient.
3. Present the operations or activities which the individual is to be taught in a logical, well-planned and sequential fashion. Some psychological principles of learning would be of help. Principles such as proceed from easy concept or method to difficult or complex method; material to be taught can be broken down into smaller segments in a programmed manner; participants must be able to see a logical sequence in the material being presented; and reviewing the material being taught.
4. There must be an opportunity to try out what the trainee has learnt during the program. In some programs the hands-on approach may be used so that the participants can try out what is being taught.
The trainers must provide some:
i. Learning or practice time so that the participants as individuals or in groups may try out what is being taught.
ii. In some training programs, group exercises, games, role plays and simulation exercises are used to put the principles and material taught by the trainer. In some programs models are used so that the participants can try out what is being taught.
5. There must be an opportunity to follow-up to see whether the trainee is able to do the job right. The trainer can work with the trainee to see whether the trainee has grasped what is being taught and repeats it properly. This type of follow-up gives confidence to the learner and assures the trainer that what is being taught is received well. At times, some relevant exercises and assignments are given to check whether the trainees have grasped the material being taught. There are also self-scoring tests and exercises which are administered during or after training programs are completed.
6. The trainees must be given sufficient time and opportunity to practice what is being taught. Some companies provide special opportunities for this purpose.
Companies make every effort to increase the value of their assets. Training is an effective way of adding value to the human resources. Over the years, a number of new techniques and methods have been developed to enhance the value of a company’s human resources. Such an investment must guarantee a good return. A number of training programs are available to raise the value of human resources.