This article throws light upon the three key aspects of a farm. The aspects are: 1. Human Aspects 2. Physical Aspects 3. Financial Aspects.

1. Human Aspects:

(i) Goals of Farm Family:

Scope for a change, i.e., family satisfaction and an additional business approach to achieve both family satisfaction and profit maximization. The farmer’s family may not be able to change the goals because of the lack of knowledge about the opportunities. The resource base may be limited. There may be complacency in the family’s attitude with the present status.

(ii) Skill of the Farm Family:


There may be prospects of improving the skill through the access to new technology from the extension agents. In village there may not be schools for the formal education or the school may be far off. There may be reasons for the failure of the extension agents to set up demonstration or conducting project in connection with informal education.

(iii) Farm Family Labour Supply: Number, Age, Sex:

Better utilization of family labour through diversification into farm related or non-farm related activities or through some changes in who does what, when and how? May be the agro-climatic condition as prevailing may leave very little scope for diversification. There may not be any institutional facilities for a non-formal education or the members may have inhibition for adoption of new skill i.e., as they are tradition bound.

2. Physical Aspects:

(i) Types of Crops:


Short duration (3-4 months); Medium terms (4-7 months); and Long duration (12-14 months); Perennial (2-50 years) Cultivation practices for each type of crop.

New crops have been introduced as in the case of HYV crops. Intensive cultivation, reclamation of soil-alkaline, marshy land or acidic soils. With the introduction of multiple cropping new machinery being used for timeliness of operations. Pollution may compel to adopt organic farming.

Hesitation in adopting new crops (HYV’s). Resource constraints (financial before the nationalization of commercial banks) for the weaker section of the farming community (small and marginal farmers) to adopt the modern technology.

In case of subsistence farmers who grow their needs by diversifying the farming into cereals, pulses and vegetables. Reclamation of land may be costly that is, out of the reach of the small and marginal farmers. New crops may not fit in with the essential crops which have to be grown to suit the improved cultivation.


(ii) Cropping System:

Cropping intensity—sole crop, double crop, rotation, inter­cropping, mixed cropping, relayed cropping, multiple cropping.

The potential goes by way of double cropping, multiple cropping, inter-cropping, multi-storied cropping. This would be in accordance to natural and created facilities. The natural facilities be if the condition is akin for development it must be explored. Created facilities be by way of developing resources like irrigation and other infrastructures which shall go to increase the cropping intensity.

There may be certain bottlenecks which may hinder in utilization of the potentials. The examples of such obstacles are—inadequate rainfall, labour may be not adequately available in terms of quantity or quality. Relevant technology may be lacking. There may be perpetual fear from diseases and pest if cropping intensity is increased.


(iii) Methods of Maintaining Soil Fertility:

The usual methods adopted by farmers be practising fallow, legume based rotation or non-legume based rotation. Use of minimum cultivation, turning over of soil with the help of mold board plough, use of chemical fertilizer, mechanical or chemical control of weeds.

The potential lies in increasing the percentage of legumes in the rotation. Under the threat of environmental pollution now the trend is towards maintaining the soil fertility through natural means and the use of longer or better fallow would be good but it will depend on other factors.

The use of organic matter is now the trend thus ploughing into the crop residues will serve the purpose provided it is feasible or an alternative is in carting the O.M. from outside and ploughing into the soil.


Chemical control of diseases, pest and weeds should be minimized and plant protection should be resorted to by organic sources. Use of latest spraying and dusting machines viz. electronic for efficient and effective application.

The weaknesses for not adopting these recommended methods may be due to non-availability of vigorously growing legumes in rotation, Or depending on the nature of soil, legume crops may not be successful.

The pressure of population may not permit the long fallow practices or even not at all. The stubble may be sold out or fed to livestock thus no incorporation in the soil. The O.M. supply may be limited as the cow dung be used as fuel. Supply of fertilizer be limited.

(iv) Input used:


The seed of improved varieties are sown to get good output. HYV of crop are now available. Improved Co or CoS varieties of sugarcane are available. Short duration varieties are available for facilitating the practice of multiple cropping. The HYV may not be available in the required quantity.

The potential is that planning materials are now available in sufficient quantity and at lesser price to encourage the farmers to adopt them.

At times in case the required planting material is not available the alternative may not be at hand.

(v) Cropping Labour Needs:


It describes the main operations on the farm and its quantity on annual basis depending on the type and system of fanning. The labour may be skilled or non-skilled. The mode of personal perks: Share in the crop or livestock products, or hire and paid or exchange of labour between or amongst the farms.

The method by which the demand for labour could be reduced thus minimizing the cost and also meeting the pressure of labour needs at the peak periods in a year, could be done by rearranging the system of farming.

The improvements in arrangements in farming could be done to reduce the labour needs during peak period when its availability is poor and rates are high. There is scope in resorting to mechanization of the farm and use of chemicals—fertilizers and weedicides to reduce the labour needs.

The obstacles in making improvements may come as a matter of fact that the farmer cannot change the system because of the prevalent type of farming and economic reason such as demand and price position as well as agro-climatic condition prevailing in the region. There is always a high wages rate during the peak period. For a small farmer it would be difficult to manage the mechanical usage on exchange basis.

(vi) Crop Product Utilization and Marketing:

The marketing channels as they exit in northern India are: farmer-village or itinerant trader—kachha arhatiya (in the market)—pucca arhatiya (wholesaler)-retailers—consumer. On small farms a high percentage of the product is domestically consumed or in case of sales it may be a distress sale resulting in buying back at a higher cost. In case of large farmers a high percentage goes to market.


On the farm, processing is not very much prevalent but in some cases it is done, for example, milk is processed into butter fat (ghee), dahi, khoa etc. In case of wheat, gram, pea flour it is done at home for domestic use rather than sale.

Processing of chilies, mango is usually done on the farm as achaar, chutney, amawat etc. Storage is done on a very small scale in mud bins, drums, gunny bags etc. In general, there is high percentage of loss in unscientific storage.

The potential lies by way of improving presentation by resorting to grading, cleaning the food grains before sending them to market. The farmers should sell their products through the marketing societies or in the regulated markets.

There is a lot of scope for making improvement in marketing. The storage losses could to a greater extent reduced by adopting the scientific storage by building moisture, rodent, insect-pest proof storage facilities.

Without resorting to cooperative approach it is very difficult for the small and marginal farming community to make improvement in the presentation of the food grain as the feasibility in small quantity is almost non-existent. Farmer takes recourse to the traditional methods of marketing. The market is full of parasites to suck the blood of the fanners. Knowledge of existence of such Channels lacking.

(vii) Irrigation:


How limited water is to be used among competing crops. In India the major sources of irrigation are: Rivers, canals, tanks and water reservoirs, tube wells, masonry wells, artisan wells (in hilly areas). Now, major sources which are much utilized are canal, tube wells, and pumping sets.

The potential of irrigation is much more than the utilization as is evident from the statistics of irrigation. Tube-wells sinking and development of canals has increased the percentage of gross irrigated are and has brought a definite change in cropping pattern.

Now, in order to cope with the scarcity of water, recycling of water is being adopted. There is use of sprinkler and drip irrigation system to use the water for irrigation in a judicious manner, in areas where there is shortage of irrigation water.

The improper utilization of irrigation water is due to many factors which have been questioned. Under canal irrigation excessive water is applied as the rates per unit areas is fixed thus causing deterioration of soil turning into alkaline reaction. Small farmers and marginal cannot afford to have independent source of irrigation. The only solution lies in cooperative ownership.

There are pockets where irrigation water is in short supply and cumbersome to utilize for the purpose. In canal irrigation the distance fields do not get required quantity being distantly located and distribution system defective. The misuse of water takes place because of the lack of knowledge in its optimum utilization. Extension activity is very much needed.

(viii) Feed Supply for Livestock:


Sources are pasture or grazing in the open. Stall feeding—is the most popular and usual method. The pasture lands don’t have proper vegetation to fulfill the needs of the livestock. There are a number of species which can be seeded into the pasture land. After harvesting animals are led into the field to utilize the crop residues.

There are different varieties of fodder crops, some of them are hybrid varieties, which give a high tonnage and are, good milk producing qualities. They are cultivated by the modern and knowledgeable farmers. These fodder crops are grown in both Kharif and rabi season. Some of them are perennial.

There is a lot of potential for cultivation of fodder crops and planting of pasture land although there is a keen competition between human and animal for the land having a short supply in India.

The farmer running a mixed farm should demarcate the land into fodder production and food grain production and cultivate HYV fodder crops for economizing on land. Use of fertilizers and other organic matter for better output of fodder crops.

Now a days there are certain fodder trees which could be planted on waste lands, on the field boundaries, in front of the houses and fodder obtained to feed the livestock. Balance diet or ration approach is very important to economize on fodder crops.

(ix) Farm Grown and Purchased Feed from Factories:


The feed which is mixed on the farm comes from the farm or from the market. The bhusa is usually from the farm but when the supply from farm is short then it is purchased from the market. Oil cakes and bhusi and chunni are generally purchased from the market. The best ration is the balanced one: it comprises of roughage: Green and Dry, concentrates, and minerals.

The ration is based on body weight and milk produced by the animal known as maintenance and yield ration. In villages the output is kept in mind but is not calculated scientifically by the farmers. They are given feed collectively prepared for all livestock but supplemented for the milk yielding cows or buffaloes. Dry fodder is stored in the bhusawal but green fodder is daily harvested and fed.

Feeding is generally done by putting the ration in the manger or Hauda in wet form but at times dry fodder is also given. It is assumed that purchased ration (concentrate) is pure but adulteration is practiced by fraudulent businessmen. Performance is always better if the ration is scientifically prepared at home.

There is always scope for quality improvement in fodder by heeding to the advise given by the extension agents or reading from the journals on livestock. There are a number of such literature available in India on livestock nutrition and health like Indian farming, Kissan, animal science, Indian Dairyman, Poultry Guide etc.

Agricultural Universities and agricultural colleges serve the interest of the farmers. The losses can be reduced by proper storage of feeds and fodder and feeding the livestock scientifically. As a routine the factory feeds should be tested to check on adulteration and statutory enactment’s should be enforced in cases of fraud.

Extension agents if they are sincere and honest in their work can keep on feeding the farmers on latest development in this field but it is generally found that such workers are far and few. Weaker section of the farming community is helpless because of the shortage of funds and cannot adopt the advises given to them.


(x) Animal Activities (Converting Feed):

Types of animals are: work animals—bull, bullocks, breeding, bulls cattle— crossbred or indigenous, buffaloes—improve or local, goats—for meat (barberi), milk (Jumnapari), Poultry—layer and broilers, ducks—layer or meat purpose, pigs (for meat)- Yorkshire, indigenous, camel and horses are for carrying food grains to markets, fish for supply to market.

Much has been done in improving the breeds -of livestock specially in the case of milch cattle and buffaloes. Hybrid chicken are available for broiler industry. Draught animals are sometime improved (not much). The researches on feeding and management of livestock has brought a lot of benefits in the field of animal husbandry and dairying.

Although much effort has been made to control the diseases specially in epidemic form, for instance in poultry, they are now safe from prevalence of epidemics. In cattle epidemic diseases are controlled by inoculation in time. But diseases and pest are a great risk in the livestock business.

Well, the caste and religious prejudices are there despite of the fact of some enlightenment amongst the masses. A population comprises of Muslims can never tolerate the keeping of pigs in neighbour-hood, the Brahmin community will not like to have poultry in their vicinity. This, of course, affects the business.

(xi) Structure of Herds, Flocks or Groups:

Under the village conditions a few head of cattle is kept by the farmers. Cattle or buffaloes for the domestic needs of the milk and its products. There is no mixed farming system as a common feature in villages in India.

There are a certain community who keep a large number of milch cattle or buffaloes for the milk business like Ghosis—amongst the Muslims and Yadavas amongst the Hindus. Besides these, other also keep livestock as business enterprise.

There are dairy farms, livestock breeding farm, poultry farm, duck farms, piggeries and goateries. The number of females are more than males. The ages within the herds vary. In case of milch animals the females range from three years to ten years.

The follow up stock is kept separately. In goats from kids to grown up adults are kept. Generally, crossing is within the farm if the right type of bull is kept. In case an exotic breed is to be introduced then the farmers take them to research stations or the university farm. In some case artificial insemination is done.

To bring improvement on a dairy farm the number of females is increased by selling out the male calf to other farmers or livestock farm. The culling is done to get rid of the aged cows (milch) buffaloes who become uneconomical to keep. This reduces the average age of the herd.

The goatery or piggery have specialized animals. Goat milk producing farm keep Jumnapari goats, for the meat keeping animal then barberi breed is kept. Some farms who keep crossbred milch animals keep either Jersey, Holstein crosses or sometimes pure breeds are kept but cross breeds are more economical.

The management, which includes feeding, breeding, health and hygiene, is very important. In case of milch animals, feeding balanced ration does bring a lot of improvement in yield. Meat animals also need balanced ration which fattens them. Broilers are fed with quick growing rations. Cross breeding is gaining importance’s artificial insemination is resorted to for improving the milk output.

(xii) How System is Replaced:

Self-produced or pinched is for replacing. Generally, the old stock gets replaced by the new stock produced on the farm. But in case better breeds which promise greater profit are purchased and used as breeding stock for new breeds of livestock.

Generally, improvement in milch stock is done by bringing a better sire and breeding the new stock to replace the older ones which have become uneconomical. The output of the new stock is found to be better, for instance, the indigenous milch cattle are replace by crossbred livestock.

This is specially found in livestock breeding farm as the new breeds fetches better return and also in dairy farms for getting high output of milk to tone up the milk business.

Farmers in rural areas are generally traditional and they, mostly, do not venture in new stock. The dissemination of knowledge, in general, is very slow reaching the rural areas takes few years. In case an exotic breed has been introduced the technical know-how being weak does not bring good results. For this extension wing of the universities and the government be strengthened.

(xiii) System of Feeding:

Grazing crops or crop residues, hay produced on the farm, purchased feeds and fodder, supplemental feeding to milch stock or breeding stock. In villages fodder and concentrates are mixed at home. Rarely mixed feeds and fooders are purchased from the feed suppliers. On commercial farms the feeds and fodder are purchased from feed supplying agencies.

The rural practitioners of animal husbandry should give attention to nutritive feeds and fodders. The researchers have introduced many such varieties of fodder crops which are high yielding as well as highly nutritive. The farmers must be encouraged to grow such varieties such as Sudan chari, M.P. Chari, Berseem crop.

Progressive farmers do grows such high yielding and nutritive fodder crops. These crops sustain the cross bred livestock. Balanced ration must be given to milch and work stock. Scientists have recommended certain concentrates, animal licks, oil cakes and other feeding materials for the livestock.

Poultry must be fed with mixture of feed depending on whether they are broilers or layers. Antibiotics are mixed with feed to prevent diseases occurrence. Milch goats must be stall fed. Grazing, wherever feasible, should be introduced as this gives livestock the required exercise.

The first thing which is lacking in India is the pasture facilities which is due to land constraints. For growing livestock they are led out in the open waste land where they feed on undesirable vegetation as well as dangerous polythene etc.

After harvest they are led-out into the field where they consume crop residue. There is definite lack of knowledge about the supplementary feeds. Another important factor is the prices which are generally unaffordable by the ordinary farmers.

(xiv) Husbandry:

Labour, housing, yard, veterinary medicines, and chemicals, calving etc. In the villages the care of the livestock is taken by the members of the family specially the women folk who contribute most in fanning. Housing is poor hardly a pucca cattle barn.

The thatched covering supported by poles or mud walls or pillars is used for keeping the livestock. There is no periodical checkup of the livestock by a veterinary surgeon. In case of grave sickness they call a vet. doctor. The yard for tieing the animals is the frontage of the farmers’ residence.

There is a lot of scope for bringing improvement in the animal health. The livestock suffer from diverse pathogenic and parasitic ailments. Now-a-days, various veterinary aids are available such as vaccines, inoculates, oral administration.

There are internal and external parasites which affect the animals. The incidence of non­-survival of animals have been reduced. Poultry is safeguarded by vaccination and other treatments.

Small animals like sheep and goats are taken care of against the diseases through veterinary aids. The housing, health and hygiene plays a very important role in reducing losses from diseases and pests and improve their efficiency in production. Time of birth can be manipulated through scientific techniques.

There is a big shortage of competent vets in the country despite of the fact that there are veterinary institution. But the conditions are improving. The development blocks have veterinary surgeons on the staff. Private practitioners are also available but at an exorbitant cost. The reliability of medicines are questionable.

This part of the agricultural development needs attention. The housing cost are going so high that it becomes out of the reach of the common man in the farming business so the question of pucca barns becomes out of question. Attention has yet to be drawn for the construction of cheap but suitable housing for the livestock in the villages.

(xv) Genetic Quality:

Methods used to maintain or improve quality. Now-a-days, the science of genetics has improved with leaps and bounds. The latest technique is cloning. However, researches have shown the way for improving the quality of livestock through genetic sciences. The crossbred milch cow, highly recommended by D. Sunderasan, the yester years Director, of the National Dairy Research Institute,

Karnal has been a great gift to the Indian livestock keepers. It is said that Dr. Datar Singh, once Director of Animal Husbandry and Dairing made the statement that he was wrong in persisting that only pure bred milch cattle will be beneficial to the fanners but he was convinced that cross bred will be the best.

There is a lot of potential for improving the livestock through cross breeding. These breeds have given very good performance. Calving intervals are very favourable for these cows. The best way of getting full benefits from crossbred livestock is care and maintenance of these. Artificial insemination is a great boon to introduce the exotic breeds in far of places. Cross bred livestock have high vigour.

Selection method is an outdated and now cross breeding is preferred. Adaptation of suitable strains in other environment may cause discouragement. Still there are prejudices against the cross breeding. They say that after a few filials they lose the hybrid vigour. Customs-oppose to artificial insemination. The artificial insemination does not cover wide areas.

(xvi) Machine and Animal Power:

Acquisition of machinery services are of two types: Owned and hired. Besides, it can be shared commonly. The services may be exchanged. The basic advantage of mechanization is the timely operation, coverage of larger area in less time and is less costly.

Improvisation of indigenous tools is also important. With multiple cropping the use of machinery is vital. Since, India is over populated intensive mechanization will create unemployment. Technology should create more employment, therefore, it has been suggested that intermediate mechanization will be most suitable.

The first bottleneck in adoption of mechanization is the heavy investment is needed in equipping the farm with farm machinery. The cost have gone very high thus the cost of cultivation will increase. There is a dire need of improving the local produced machines and equipment which will be in real sense an adoption of “Swadeshi”.

A very important factor which will discourage the use of machinery is the rising cost of fuel or gasoline which will not only result in laying off the machinery purchased with high investment but also will increase the cost of production. Custom hiring will become expensive. The tractor for which the cost reducing device was custom service and transportation will be discouraged.

Machinery Continued: Age and Value of Machinery:

The farm machinery has a certain year of working life after which it may have the junk value. In case of rapid development of design and improvement the farm machinery becomes obsolete.

They need to be replaced for which the depreciation fund and interest account should be maintained and invested to replace them. Right machinery and equipment should be used in the right place. They need care and maintenance.

Better care and maintenance increases the useful life of the machinery and equipment. Cleaning and greasing and oiling after it use and keeping under the shed prolongs the life of machinery. Each farm operation needs a different machine or many operations can be performed by one machine like combine, tractors etc. Improvement in the design is an important research objective.

The handling of machinery be given into the skilled hands so that the breakdown of machinery by semi-skilled hands could be avoided. It is important that spare parts of the machinery is easily available. It often happens that the spare parts are not available and the machine is put aside. It gives great financial loss to the farmers.

Animal Power:

The types of power are: Bullock, oxen, buffaloes, donkey, horses, elephants, camels etc. Some of these are for ploughing like bullocks in India, horses in England. Others are used for carrying load like camels, elephants in tarrai or marshy areas, horses in North India for bringing food grains to mandis etc.

In the above paragraph their roles have been mentioned. In case of ploughing with bullock power the design of equipment is in accordance to it, for instance, in Assam the plough handle is designed to suit the common person (farmer) who are of short stature.

The strong bullocks of Punjab and Haryana can operate big soil turning ploughs and are good enough to operate them. It is very important to give a balance diet to the livestock. In case of work animals maintenance ration plus work ration (concentrates) are fed so that their work performance is efficient. This will definitely increase the working life of the livestock.

How Acquired?

The animals power is the most common power in India. Much research work is being performed under the sponsorship of ICAR at different centres (Animal Energy Project at the Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad). The objectives are how to get the best out of the animal power for the better agricultural performances. With the price rise of the gasoline this research is of great utility in Indian agriculture.

In rural India, the keeping of bullock power is the most important feature of Indian agriculture. In old times the status of the cultivator was measured by the pairs of bullock power available with the farmer which meant how much land is under his farming operation.

The animals are either owned (mostly) or hired—this is the case of the farmer whose landholding is very small and he cannot afford to maintain a pair of bullocks. Sharing is also done under these cases. Contractual operation is also prevalent when holding is small and a pair of bullock is hard to keep.

Keeping more than a pair of bullocks indicates the concern for the timeliness of farm operations. Besides, the cultural operations there are other operations within the same season like carting the manures to the field in the bullock cart, transshipment of food-grains to the market in bullock cart or on the horse back, camel or donkey.

The best way of getting the work in time and with utmost efficiency is to own the animal power. The farmer cannot afford to wait till such time the other farmer finishes his own farm operation and then allows his neighbour to use his bullocks. As such there is no alternative to ownership.

How Maintained?

System of replacement, Methods of feeding and housing. In order to maintain the efficiency in the farm operations it is necessary to replace the old stock with the new one. This can be easily accomplished by buying the work stock from the traders, from the livestock fair or from the breeders or traders.

The other alternative is to raise his own stock on the farm. If the cow gives birth to a male calf it is kept for replacement so well fed and cared for. The livestock should be taken proper care and maintained.

The feeds and fodder should be well selected or purchased from the reliable shops. Fodder crops must be grown on the farm if feasible. The housing which protects the livestock from the harmful weather condition is a must.

The art and science of animal husbandry is very important for care and management of the livestock. The feeding, housing and veterinary aid should be provided for. The work animals should be given training by making them to plough the land. In case of un-repairable defect in the animal it should be discarded.

Never cheat a person by selling it to him. The suitable work stock will give the best performance with great efficiency. Good breeding of work stock and preliminary care will fetch better returns to the farmer when sold to others. The farmer should take utmost care of his livestock need not be repeated. Replace the old stock with more efficient one. Buy good animals than economize on the cost it will not pay in the long run.

3. Financial Aspects:

In the small and marginal farms whatever capital investment is in the land bullock, plough, some small implements, kaccha cattle shed a cow or buffalo. But in larger farms investment in land (fixed) which is inherited, cattle shed, barn, implement house, tractors, ploughs and other tillage implements, tractors, tube-wells, pumping sets, storage, implement sheds etc.

The investment in fixed form is quite big. With the development of technology now-a-days purchased inputs investment is quite high-in terms of fertilizers, plant protection chemicals and spraying and dusting appliances.

Irrigation charges in terms of labour, diesel, electricity etc., tractor gasoline, labour, repair and maintenance. The output disposal: The small and marginal farmers do not have enough marketable surplus but in case of larger farmer’s marketable and marketed surplus are high.

They sell their product through the marketing channels. They carry the product on their own transport, make contact with the middlemen or brokers and sell. Cooperative sales are also in practice wherever cooperative marketing societies exists like Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh etc.

The fanners take advantage of regulated markets. The small farmers have large family so their domestic consumption utilizes the high percentage of the produce whereas domestic consumption in case of large fanners is low. A part of the product goes as wages for farm workers.

There are private and institutional sources of finances. The farmers make use of the institutional sources for financing the farm activity. Short term and long or medium term loans are available from the cooperatives, nationalized commercial banks, regional rural banks.

The debt repayment is done but in case of crop failure there may be outstanding debts. Collateral loans are taken by the farmers on the hypothecation of the assets purchased by the loan and its repayment is made in installments.

The technological development has increased the prospects of large margin of profit. In case the farmers use their resources judiciously the cost of production could be minimized and profit maximization will take place.

But the government policy is not encouraging to cost minimization as the prices of fertilizers and gasoline is becoming higher and higher after each annual budget of the government. Again, there is stagnation of the output but a recourse has been found out in organic farming which is eco-friendly. Let’s see how much farmers get benefited.

There have been many enquiry commissions set for probing into the reason behind the lacunas in the banking institutions. There are many suggestions which have been given by eminent economists and bankers to revitalize the banking system in favour of the farming community.

The Land Value is on High Increase:

There is definitely poor management on the farms. Although they (farmers) have taken to modern technology but half heartily. They do not use the optimum level of inputs, the reasons being both ignorance on the part of the farmers and also the non-­availability of inputs as well as the high prices.

The cost of cultivation is increasing year after year. The realities in the credit structure is very limited thus, discouraging the farmers to go in for institutional credit and shying away from it because of red tapeism. Advisory system is very poor particularly in the investment in farming.

Farmer do invest on their own whims to which they closely adhere. Any extension activity by the government agencies is taken as handouts but they (fanners) never fully heed the advices given to them.