Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Motivation’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Motivation’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Motivation
- Essay on the Definition of Motivation
- Essay on the Concept of Motivation
- Essay on the Characteristics of Motivation
- Essay on the Importance/Need of Motivation
- Essay on the Types of Motivation
- Essay on the Theories of Motivation
- Essay on the Techniques of Motivation
1. Essay on the Definition of Motivation:
The organizations can make profit by the optimum use of all resources such as men, material, machine, money and methods. Out of all these resources, men are most difficult to handle. This is the job of a manager in the workplace to get things done through its employees. To do this, the manager should be able to motivate employees in such a way that they work with their full potential.
The term motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’ which implies ‘to move’. It is the act of stimulating someone to get a desired course of action. The process of motivation involves needs, drives and goals.
Need is behind most actions of man. Some of the needs of the employees are better facilities, recognition, more pay etc. Drives are called motives and they represent the behaviour in the process of motivation. Every organization has certain goals, which it wants to achieve and these goals can only be achieved through the efforts of its employees.
Some of the definitions of motivation are:
Motivation can be defined as a process of stimulating people to act for the purpose of achieving desired goals.
Motivation is the driving force that keeps one going towards one’s goals.
Motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something.
Motivation is the art of getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it.
2. Essay on the Concept of Motivation:
For many people, motivation is the most important thing to take into consideration whenever they want to start a certain action or activity. It is the fact that by having a strong will and motivation, people are likely to achieve their goals. Motivation means determination and also enjoyment. A motivated person is likely to accomplish his or her goals quicker and more efficiently than one who is not motivated.
In spite of enormous research, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often very poorly practiced. To understand motivation one must understand human nature itself. Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. An understanding and appreciation of human nature is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in-the workplace and therefore effective management and leadership.
Human nature can be very easy to understand in term of the ambitions, ideas, needs, wants and desires/in life. In order to understand the concept of motivation, it is very essential to understand three terms viz. Motive, Motivating and Motivation.
Motive can be defined as a reason for doing something; a state of mind that drives and force or push somebody to act. Here it is also important to understand terms, like, need, want and desire. Need is something one has to have for one’s survival, want is greed and desire is a wish. For example, a person need to eat food to cater his hunger, it is his need. He wants to eat particular food (say Pizza), it is his want and he desire to go to Mc. Donald to eat pizza, it is his desire.
This term is basically used to encourage or to push someone to take action. This may be done by providing someone with an incentive.
Motivation is a kind of internal energy/force which drives a person to do something in order to achieve something. It is a kind of behaviour.
So, it can be said that above three terms are interrelated in way that motives are internal needs/wants/desires of someone which are activated and maintained by motivating or by providing the required atmosphere to engage the person to exhibit the desired behaviour for the accomplishment of desired goals, which is said as motivation.
As the motive of a person is to become a software engineer in Wipro (say). For the accomplishment of that motive, teachers and parents motivate or direct the student to fulfill his motive and the sense of motivation is that energy which takes that student to Wipro (say).
3. Essay on the Characteristics of Motivation:
i. It is a Behavioral Outcome:
It is a behavioral outcome of motivating the workers towards fulfillment of their motives.
ii. Motive is the Driving Force:
It is purely based upon motives. Motives may vary from person to person. Motives may be identified i.e., known to the worker himself or unidentified/hidden i.e., not known to the worker himself. These unidentified and hidden/ latent needs of the workers become the driving force for motivation.
iii. A Hypothetical/Internal Process:
One cannot physically measure or check the magnitude of input in the form of stimulation done and the output i.e., how motivated is a person. So, it is an internal or hypothetical process.
iv. Motivation may be Positive or Negative:
A person may be motivated positively (by adding some incentive) to accomplish his/her task more efficiently and at the same time he or she may be motivated negatively (by threatening or associating some punishment) to perform the same task efficiently.
v. It is Affected by External Factors:
A worker may feel highly motivated or demotivated, it depends upon the external factors which govern the motivation. External factors may be salary structure, vision of the company, basic facilities (air, water, food, cleanliness etc.) at the workplace.
vi. It is Complex Process:
Motivation in itself is a complex process as it involves human being who are most difficult to handle and understand.
vii. A Person is Motivated in Totality:
A person is motivated in totality, not in parts. It means that, each individual is a single independent unit who has some needs which are interrelated to each other. The needs and their satisfaction is a constant process. So, the behaviour which is continuous is not possible to exhibit in parts.
viii. It is not a Static Process:
It is not a static process i.e., if a person is motivated by satisfying some of his needs, may not stay motivated forever. His needs will take newer dimensions and he will again strive to accomplish them. So, it is dynamic behaviour.
ix. It is Linked to Satisfaction and Performance:
If a person has job satisfaction he will feel more motivated and as a result of this, his performance will increase.
4. Essay on the Importance/Need of Motivation:
Motivation is not just important for one’s own self but it is important in organizations where employees need to be motivated to achieve better results for the organization. A motivated workforce is the backbone of any organization. It is important for a manger that he constantly motivates his employees.
Some of needs for which motivation is desired in organizations are as follows:
i. It Affects Productivity:
If the workers are motivated in organization, they will be proven more productive.
ii. More Quality Conscious Team:
If the workers are motivated they will be happier and more mentally stable. So, they will be imparting more quality in job.
iii. Creative and Less Monotonous:
Motivated workers will be very creative in nature and find newer ways of doing the jobs and consequently they will feel less monotonous.
iv. Less Absenteeism and Labor Turnover:
Highly motivated workers will enjoy their work and being at their workplace. So, there will be less absenteeism and labor turnover.
v. Ready for the Changes:
Every organization works for growth and they constantly bring changes in their systems so as to grow from every aspect. If the manpower is not ready to accept the changes and learn and work with newer technology, it will be problem for the managers. This problem can be overcome by keeping the workers positively motivated and ready for changes.
vi. Optimal Utilization of Resources:
Motivated workers will use all the resources to its optimal level so as to maximize the profit of the organization.
vii. Much Co-Ordination:
In a motivated team, workers will try to coordinate and help each other than in the places where the attitudes of employees are negative.
When the workers are motivated then the harmony among the workers can be seen. It is better for an organization.
ix. Dedicated and Committed Workers:
A highly motivated worker normally shows much commitment and dedication towards his duties.
5. Essay on the Types of Motivation:
Motivation is of two types:
i. Intrinsic Motivation.
ii. Extrinsic Motivation.
i. Intrinsic Motivation:
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money etc. Intrinsic motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing a task.
Intrinsically motivated person will work on a solution to a problem because the challenge of finding a solution is providing a sense of pleasure. Intrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not seek rewards. It just means that such external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated.
Characteristics of Intrinsic Motivation:
Some of the basic characteristics of intrinsic motivation are:
a. Intrinsically motivating people will engage for the interest and enjoyment that is attached with the activity.
b. Intrinsic motivation is more effective in the long-term because it means that the person has a real interest in doing something he likes.
c. Intrinsically motivated people are not influenced by external rewards or punishments for their work, such as earning money for doing a job etc.
d. Intrinsic motivation is far stronger a motivator than extrinsic motivation.
Ways of Maintaining Intrinsic Motivation in Employees:
a. Best way to intrinsically motivate the employees is to allot the work to the employees, that really suit their potential and in which they feels most comfortable.
b. If the work allocated does not provide the workers any internal satisfaction then try to let them know why it will .benefit them and how it is going to improve their life.
c. Don’t force the worker to do any such job, wait for some time, it may work.
d. Give rewards based on performance.
e. Use verbal and non-verbal praise.
ii. Extrinsic Motivation:
Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money etc. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide.
An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. The rewards can be something as minor as a smiley face to something major like fame or fortune! Extrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing a task.
It just means that the pleasure they anticipate from some external reward will continue to be a motivator even when the task to be done holds little or no interest. Salary, benefits, working conditions, supervision, policy, safety, security, affiliation, and relationships are all externally motivated needs. Supermarkets use loyalty cards and discounts, airlines use air miles, companies use bonuses and commissions. Extrinsic motivation is everywhere.
Characteristics of Extrinsic Motivation:
Some of the basic characteristics of Extrinsic Motivation are:
a. Some external reward is involved in it.
b. In involves tangible rewards.
c. An extrinsically motivated worker works even when the task to be done holds little or no interest.
d. To some extent it affects the internal motivation of workers.
e. Extrinsic motivation is not sustainable.
Ways of Maintaining Extrinsic Motivation in Employees:
The various types of extrinsic motivation ranging from the more common ones such as money, fame and recognition, awards and prizes, status and privileges to the extreme ones like bribery, threats and punishments have been utilized by man of all ages and sizes, and in different circumstances.
If the organization tries too much on the rewards then they are depleting the soul from work. Since the workers only provides the quality work that are necessary (minimum requirement) to have the rewards associated with the job.
Extrinsic motivation works for a shorter period of time and till the reward is associated with the activity. So, the workers must be motivated intrinsically as far as possible.
Example of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation:
An extrinsically motivated police officer might do his or her job to earn a good paycheck and gain recognition from the community and individuals in the police force. An officer with intrinsic motivation, however, has a strong, earnest desire to help others and maintain a safe, healthy society. By not seeking rewards or recognition, the intrinsically motivated officer is likely to work harder and take on more responsibility than the individual who is motivated by outside influences.
6. Essay on the Theories of Motivation:
Over the years many psychologists have attempted to define and categorize what motivates people. The term motivation theory is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behaviour is activated and directed. There are a number of different views as to what motivates workers.
The most commonly held views or theories are:
i. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory.
ii. Herzberg Theory.
iii. Alderfer’s ERG Theory.
iv. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y.
v. McClelland’s Three Need Theory.
vi. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory.
i. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory:
This theory was formally proposed by Dr. Abraham Harold Maslow, in 1954. According to Maslow, people do things for certain motives Abraham Maslow with his theory of motivation identifies different stages and forms of motives which will motivate people in different stages of their lives. This theory also presents a relationship between these needs. These needs are presented in a hierarchy.
The higher level needs will be activated when the lower level needs are satisfied according to Maslow. According to Maslow, there are five kinds of needs viz. physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs. The Fig. 8.1 presents the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
These are explained below:
(a) Physiological Needs:
The physiological needs are shown at the bottom of the hierarchy because these are the most basic and most essential needs of any living organism on earth including human. Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as food, shelter, clothing, water, air, sleep etc. These needs are biological in nature and keep the body fit. According to this theory, if these fundamental needs are not satisfied then one can surely be motivated to satisfy them.
(b) Safety Needs:
Once physiological needs are met, one’s attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Safety and security needs include personal security, financial security, health and well-being, safety net against accidents/ illness and their adverse impacts etc. Such needs might be fulfilled by providing job security, grievance redressal, insurance policies, accommodations, etc. In other words, these are the needs for self- preservation.
(c) Social or Affiliation Needs:
Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level motivators awake and will emerge as dominant in the need hierarchy. This level needs are said as the first level of higher level needs. Since people are social beings, they have a need to belong and to be accepted by various groups. Social needs are those related to interaction with others and may include friendship, belonging to a group, giving and receiving love and affection etc.
(d) Esteem Needs:
After individuals begin to satisfy their need to belong and they are socially accepted, they generally want to be more than just a member of their group. They then feel the need for self-esteem and recognition from others. Some examples of esteem needs are recognition, attention, social status, accomplishment, and self-respect.
(e) Self-Actualization Needs:
These form the apex of hierarchy of needs. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. This forms the basis of the need for self-actualization. These needs include need for self-development, self-actualization, self-advancement, and desire to take increased responsibilities etc.
Implications of the Theory:
(a) Every person has needs and these needs work for him as a motivator.
(b) It is a dynamic process i.e., when the needs of one level of hierarchy are satisfied; the need to reach the next level emerges. So, the managers can always find the ways to motivate the workers to rise to next level.
(c) A satisfied need can never work as a motivator. Only those needs which are not satisfied act as a motivator.
ii. Herzberg Theory:
This theory is also known as Herzberg’s two factor theory. Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist, is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. In 1959, he carried out the research work which showed that there were two different sets of factors affecting motivation at work.
One set of factors, if absent caused dissatisfaction. These factors relate to the job environment e.g. the quality of supervision, level of pay etc. Herzberg labeled these as the Hygiene or Maintenance Factors.
The second set of factors, if present lead to feelings of satisfaction. These relate to the job itself, e.g. its complexity, achievements in the job, recognition due to the job etc., which Herzberg named the Motivators or Growth Factors. These are two entirely independent sets of factors.
(i) Hygiene or Maintenance Factors:
These factors do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction. These are called extrinsic factors because they are considered outside the work being performed.
Hygiene factors include:
a. Company policies and administration.
b. Quality of supervision.
c. Interpersonal relations with supervisors, peers and subordinates.
d. Salary e Job security.
e. Personal life.
f. Working conditions.
(ii) Motivation Factors:
These factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. It involves what people actually do in the job. These are called satisfiers or intrinsic factors because these are real causes of job satisfaction.
Motivation factors include:
d. Interesting job.
e. Growth and Responsibility for task.
Implications of the Theory:
(a) Prior to the emergence of this theory, hygiene factors were considered as the motivators. But this theory suggested that these factors are not motivators but they are dissatisfies i.e., their presence provide no motivation but their absence dissatisfy the workers.
(b) According to this theory, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not dependent, but they are independent to each other. If hygienic factors are present they are not able to provide any satisfaction, but their absence will dissatisfy the workers. On the other hand, absence of motivation factors will provide no satisfaction but their presence will satisfy the workers.
(c) Prior to this theory, money was thought as the biggest motivator. But, this theory overruled this proposition. This helped the mangers a lot to understand the other maintenance and hygienic factors which could be taken into consideration for motivating the employees.
(d) Most of the people are able to satisfy their lower level needs considerably and they are not motivated by higher level needs. This fact helped the mangers to greater extent to understand the psychology of the workers.
Similarities between Herzberg’s and Maslow’s Theory:
a. Both the theories concentrate on the human behaviour based on the needs.
b. Hygienic factors proposed by Herzberg matches with lower level needs proposed by Maslow, and motivation factors proposed by Herzberg matches with the higher level needs proposed by Maslow.
c. Both theories suggest that human being can be motivated in totality.
Dissimilarities between Herzberg’s and Maslow’s Theory:
a. Maslow formulated his theory based on experience whereas Herzberg developed his theory on the basis of empirical studies.
b. Maslow takes into account all needs of individuals whereas Herzberg looks at only those needs which are concerned with environment.
c. Maslow considers lower level needs such as pay, safety, working conditions etc. as motivators whereas Herzberg considers these only as hygiene factors and not motivators.
d. Maslow theory is applicable to all types of employees whereas Herzberg’s theory is mainly applicable to professional persons.
iii. Alderfer’s ERG Theory:
Clayton Alderfer, in 1969, revised, Maslow’s hierarchy of five level of needs by reducing the number of levels to three.
The letters ERG represent these three levels of needs:
1. E—Existence Needs.
2. R—Relatedness Needs.
3. G—Growth Needs.
(i) Existence Needs:
These include the physiological and safety needs (such as food, shelter, hunger, thirst and safety). The first two levels of needs as proposed by Maslow.
(ii) Relatedness Needs:
These include the social and external esteem needs (involvement with family, friends, co-workers and employers). The third and fourth levels of Maslow’s need hierarchy.
(iii) Growth Needs:
These include the internal esteem and self-actualization needs (the desire to be creative, productive and to complete meaningful tasks). Maslow’s fourth and fifth levels of needs.
Relationship between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory:
This theory does not provide a clear view about the needs. Needs lie along a continuum, and can be satisfied by any sequence and it is very difficult to access about the priority of needs for a worker.
iv. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:
Douglas McGregor developed two theories of motivation called theory X and theory Y to explain human behaviour.
The assumptions of both the approaches are:
Theory X Assumptions:
a. The average person dislikes work and will avoid work if they can.
b. Because of dislike of work, people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives.
c. The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.
d. The individual and organizations goals are different.
e. Most people resist change.
f. Most people are gullible and unintelligent.
These are all negative assumptions about human beings. The result of this line of thought is that Theory X managers naturally adopt a more authoritarian style of leadership and training based on the threat of punishment.
Theory Y Assumptions:
a. The average human being does not dislike the work. Effort in work is as natural as work and play.
b. Employees are ambitious, self-motivated, and anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-control and self-direction.
c. Employees enjoy their mental and physical work activities.
d. Employees have the desire to be imaginative and creative in their jobs if they are given a chance.
e. There is an opportunity for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to be their best.
f. If the employees are given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work and that there is a pool of unused creativity in the workforce.
Theory Y stresses on the satisfaction of needs of human beings. Theory Y managers naturally adopt a participative style of leadership.
v. McClelland’s Three Need Theory:
This theory has been put forward by David C. McClelland in 1961. The theory used the Thematic Aptitude Test (TAT) to measure the various need of the people. In this testing procedure, a series of vague pictures are shown to different employees, at a time. The individual is asked to tell a story about each picture. Each one of them will provide different interpretation about that picture depending upon his personality. Based on Thematic Aptitude Test (TAT) three types of needs were mainly found to vary in all workers and managers.
The needs are:
(a) Need for Achievement (n-ACH).
(b) Need for Power (n-POW).
(c) Need for Affiliation (n-AFF).
(a) Need for Achievement:
This is the need to achieve, excel and succeed. A person with this type of need will set goals that are challenging but realistic. The goals have to be challenging so that the person can feel a sense of achievement. This type of person prefers to work alone or with other high achievers. They do not need praise or recognition.
(b) Need for Power:
This is the need to lead others and make an impact.
A person’s need for power can be of two types:
a. Personal and
The first which is the need for personal power may be viewed as undesirable as the person simply needs to feel that they have “power over others”. People with a high need for personal power want to direct and influence others, enjoy competition and status-oriented positions. While these people are attracted to leadership roles, they may not possess the required flexibility and people-centered skills.
The second type of “need for power” is the need for institutional power. A high need for institutional power means that people like to organize the efforts of others to achieve the goals of the organization. Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power.
(c) Need for Affiliation:
This is the need for friendly relationships and human interaction.
Some characteristics of need for affiliation people are:
a. These people strive for friendship.
b. These perform better in cooperative environment.
c. They want to be liked and accepted by others, and attach importance to a personal interaction.
Implications of the Theory:
a. Different persons have different needs. As, some have high need of affiliation, other may have higher need of power, still other is desperate for achievement, so, the manager can categorize his personnel accordingly and act to motivate them.
b. Those persons who have high need for achievement are suitable for production, R&D, etc.
c. Those who are in need of affiliation are suited for large scale organizations.
d. Those who are in need of achievement are much suited for medium and large scale organizations.
vi. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:
V.H. Vroom criticized two factor theory of Herzberg and proposed expectancy theory of motivation. The expectancy theory of Vroom deals with motivation and management. Vroom’s theory assumes that behaviour is a result from conscious choices among alternatives.
The purpose of the choices is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee’s performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. The expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations.
Vroom introduces three variables:
Valence is the strength of an individual’s preference for obtaining some particular outcome. Valence can be positive or negative. Valence will be positive, when the individual prefers to attain some outcome. When a person is indifferent about achieving a certain goal, a valence of zero occurs and there is a negative valence, when the person would rather not achieve a goal.
Expectancy is the belief that output from the individual and the success of the situation are linked, e.g. if I work harder then this will be better. Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing.
Instrumentality is the belief that the success of the situation is linked to the expected outcome of the situation.
Expectancy Theory formula:
This formula can be used to indicate and predict things as: job satisfaction, occupational choice, the likelihood of staying in a job, and the effort that one might expend at work.
Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality
Implications of the Theory:
a. Managers have to find out which rewards the employees want, and which rewards are seen as valuable by the employees.
b. Managers have to create instrumentality, in which managers must convince the employees about that the accomplishments of certain tasks will generate the rewards valued by the employees.
c. Manager’s job is to design an environment for performance, taking into account the differences in situations.
d. Managers must ensure that the employees have the necessary capabilities to accomplish the given task, so that the employees expect that they will be able to accomplish it, and thus get rewarded.
7. Essay on the Techniques of Motivation:
Some of the techniques used by the managers to motivate the employees are:
ii. Job Satisfaction.
a. Job Enrichment.
b. Job Rotation.
c. Job Enlargement.
iii. Creation of High Standards.
It is a reward or encouragement or inducement to an employee for the hard work and efficiency at job, assigned by the organization. It is for motivating employees to do better and harder.
Incentive may be classified into:
i. Financial Incentives.
ii. Non-Financial Incentives.
(a) Financial Incentives:
Money is the main element of financial incentives. Financial incentives involve money payment by the employer. It boosts the enthusiasm and self-confidence of the workers. It provides the workers with economic security and gives the worker a social security. These are for better productivity and performance. Financial incentives include higher wages and salaries, bonus, profit sharing; commission, increment etc.
(b) Non Financial Incentives:
Non-financial incentives do not involve money payments. These are also important in motivating employees. Non-monetary incentives are useful in increasing production and efficiency. These are job security, challenging Work, recognition, better designations, opportunities for advancement, participation in decision-making, competition etc.
ii. Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction is the internal feeling about the degree of satisfaction of a person that he or she draws while doing his job. Job satisfaction describes how satisfy an employee is with his or her job. It is a tool to motivate the employees. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations.
Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors such as:
a. Personal Factors.
b. Environmental Factors.
(a) Personal Factors:
These are the factors, which are linked to the employees themselves.
a. Personality of Employee:
It implies that, what attitude (positive or negative) of an employee is having. What are his/her personal expectations? His behaviour, general well-being etc.
Men and women have different approach and satisfaction levels, expectations etc.
As the person grows his point of view changes. His needs changes which affect the way an employee can be satisfied.
d. Cultural and Ethnic differences:
Difference in the cultural background of employees, their different value system and think process, affects the way an employee can be satisfied.
(b) Environmental Factors:
Apart from the personal characteristics some external factors also affects the job satisfaction, like:
a. Type of Organization:
Type of organization put severe impact on the job satisfaction of employees. The level of understanding of the employees is entirely different in manufacturing industry, software development company etc.
b. Pay Structure:
Salaries, remunerations, other perks and incentives paid by company affects the motivation process and job satisfaction levels.
c. Work Culture:
Relationship among the workers and with supervisors.
d. Vision of the Company:
Short and long-term vision of company affects the job satisfaction.
Methods of Job Satisfaction:
Various methods of job satisfaction include:
a. Job Enrichment.
b. Job Rotation.
c. Job Enlargement.
a. Job Enrichment:
Job enrichment is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use the range of their abilities. It is a vertical expansion of the job as opposed to the horizontal expansion of a job, which is called job enlargement.
Job enrichment is the addition of tasks to, a job that increase the amount of employee control or responsibility. Job enrichment is a fundamental part of attracting, motivating, and retaining talented people, particularly where work is repetitive or boring.
To do it well, the organization need a great match between the way the jobs are designed and the skills and interests of the employees working for them. Job enrichment makes the work more challenging and rewarding for employees.
b. Job Rotation:
Job rotation is another method for motivating the employees. It means moving one employee to various departments of the same organization, after a predetermined period. Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed to give him/her breadth of exposure to the entire operation.
Some of the reasons for job rotation are:
i. To avoid over-stressing of some workers.
ii. To help workers stay healthy, and maintain a good work atmosphere as well.
iii. Safety is often a key consideration in this situation.
iv. Job rotation is generally done for the designations/jobs that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
v. Job rotation is practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to increase job satisfaction through job variation.
c. Job Enlargement:
Job enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. Small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions, so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.
It is the addition of extra similar tasks to a job. In job enlargement, the job itself remains essentially unchanged; the employee rarely needs to acquire new skills to perform the additional task.
iii. Creation of High Standards:
Employees are motivated by setting higher standards in the organization. Employees must know about certain things such as what is expected of them, how their performance is measured, and what rewards they can expect when they exceed the standard. The organization should make sure that these standards are consistently applied to each employee and employee should understand how these standards are measured so that they know how to reach it.