Here is an essay on ‘Communication’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Communication’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Communication

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on the Introduction to Communication
  2. Essay on the Types of Communication
  3. Essay on the Channels and Structure of Communication
  4. Essay on the Process and Systems of Communication
  5. Essay on the Barriers to Successful Communication
  6. Essay on the Techniques to Overcome Barriers and Improve Communication

Essay # 1. Introduction to Communication:


In recent years there has been an increasing recognition of the importance of communications in industrial organisations. Communication function is viewed as one of the most important processes of Management. The subject of communication is one of the broadest in the field of Personnel Management.

It encompasses a consideration of the subjects to be communicated, media, channels, communica­tors and the symbols of communication. Nearly every aspect of human relations and of supervisor-subordinate relations involves communications.

Communication is the process of conveying messages. For communication to take place, messages must be composed, transmitted and understood. Communication is the process of transmitting ideas or thoughts from one person to another, for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the ideas or information.

Essay # 2. Types of Communication:


i. Formal Communication:

A formal communication is official that is a part of recognized system involved in the successful operation of a concern.

Information passed on from the supervisor to a worker to do a particular work is an example of formal communication. Formal communication may be written, or oral.

Formal communication may be:


(1) Vertical communication, downward from top management to workers to do a job, a praise or a reprimand; or upward from workers to higher management levels giving work accom­plishment report or other feed-back information.

(2) Horizontal communication, i.e., the transmission of information from and to, to positions of the same level, e.g., Manager production informing Manager maintenance regarding a machine breakdown.

An informal communication is one that is outside the formal, recognized communication system, such as conversations between and among workers and the grape-wine.

A person is motivated to communicate naturally. When he is unable to communicate his feelings to his supervisor/Manager, he communicates the same informally to his colleagues. Such (i.e., informal) communication arises from social interaction.


ii. Informal Communications or Grape-Wine:

a. Is a natural and normal activity of a person and arises out of social relationships of people,

b. Works like a cluster chain in which each link (i.e., person) associates and communicates to a cluster of other links (i.e., persons),

c. Spreads fast,


d. Is a good method of vertically upward or downward communication,

e. Involves feelings, facts, rumours, etc.

Essay # 3. Channels and Structure of Communication:

Communication channels tend to:


i. Discover clashes of interest,

ii. Reconcile conflicts, and

iii. Coordinate efforts.

It is better to set up formalized communication channels between the different levels of organization, but among personnel at the same level, the information flow should be circular and more free. Proper structure of communication leads to efficiency.


Less structuring leads perhaps to greater individual job satisfaction. Communication left largely unstructured among personnel, gets a significant amount of struc­ture of its own after a period of time.

i. Upward channels of communication include:

a. Face-to-face contact.

b. Group meeting.

c. Grievance/complaint procedure.

d. Counselling.


e. Morale questionnaires.

f. Open-door policy.

g. Labour union.

h. Grape-wine.

ii. Downward channels of communication include:

a. Chain of command.


b. Company periodicals.

c. Notice boards.

d. Information racks.

e. Pay inserts.

f. Annual reports.

g. Group meetings.


h. Employee handbook.

i. Labour union.

j. Grape-wine.

Essay # 4. Process and Systems of Communication:

A communication process involves:

i. The sender.


ii. The media to transmit information.

iii. The receiver.

A meaning or concept is first of all converted into symbols by the sender and then transmitted at the receiving end.

The symbols of communication are:

(i) Words.

(ii) Actions.


(iii) Pictures.

(iv) Numbers.

The media to transmit information consists of channels of communication. The receiver or person at the receiving end receives the symbols and translates them into meanings for himself.

Essay # 5. Barriers to Successful Communication:

A barrier to successful communication does not permit the transmission of accurate and full information at the receiving end. A communication barrier breaks down, obstructs, delays, distorts and tends to give another colour to the information by the time it reaches the destination.

Various barriers to successful communication are:

i. More levels in the organization structure through which an information has to pass.

ii. Long and ill-structured channels of communications.

iii. Heavy work-loads at certain levels in the organisation structure.

iv. Attitude-either not to hear or to hear what one expects to hear.

v. Prestige and superiority complex.

vi. Sender and Receiver having different perceptions.

vii. Sender unable to symbolise the information correctly.

viii. Prejudiced and biased attitude of the receiver.

ix. Receiver unable to get the information (subject to different meanings) clarified.

x. Receiver ignoring conflicting information.

xi. Receiver tending to evaluate information from his own angle.

xii. Receiver emotionally upset.

Essay # 6. Techniques to Overcome Barriers and Improve Communication:

Techniques are:

i. Sending direct and simple messages.

ii. Feedback system to know whether the message has been understood correctly or not.

iii. Using many communication channels.

iv. Adopting face-to-face communications.

v. Be sensitive to the private world of the receiver, try to predict the impact of what you say on his feelings and attitude and tailor your message to fit the receiver’s vocabulary, interests and values.

vi. Time the message carefully. Communicate when the receiver is motivated to listen and he is not worried about other things.

vii. Reinforce the words with actions, e.g., employees are more likely to accept the change when they themselves participate in the process of change.

viii. Introduce a proper amount of redundancy in the message, i.e., some amount of repetition of information, so that the information is not misunderstood.

ix. Create cordial and peaceful atmosphere in the organisation.