Here is a compilation of term papers on ‘Organisation’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Organisation’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Organisation
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Introduction to Organisation
- Term Paper on the Meaning of Organisation
- Term Paper on the Definition of Organisation
- Term Paper on the Nature of Organisation
- Term Paper on the Features of an Organisation
- Term Paper on the Steps in Organisation
- Term Paper on the Principles of Organisation
- Term Paper on the Importance or Significance of Organisation
Term Paper # 1. Introduction to Organisation:
Organisations dominate our lives. From birth to burial man’s activities and behaviour are shaped by organisations. Schools, colleges, universities, hospitals, society, clubs, cultural and social bodies. Governments are examples of organisation with which we are associated with throughout our lives. So organisations are closely associated with the life of human beings.
Business organisations deal with manufacturing, trading and service operations. These organisations have their own objectives for which they provide work to people, divide the work among employees, delegate authority and assign responsibility to the people. Their roles are defined by formal organisation structure. Organisations try to promote initiative and develop a sense of responsibility in the minds of the people.
Organisations exist for achieving certain well defined objectives. For achieving objectives the activities are analysed, they are divided into sections and departments and proper delegation of authority is made for smooth and effective performance. For carrying out the activities the managers try to organise properly.
Management is the art of getting things done-through and with people. So management is to pay attention on organising personnel and their work. Organisation provides means or avenues along which efforts are diverted for making such joint efforts which will produce productive, effective and fruitful results.
Organisation defines duties and responsibilities to different positions in the managerial hierarchy. It co-ordinates various efforts defining the relationship between various positions in the organisation.
It specifies the activities to be performed by different people by grouping them into departments. It provides the framework within which managerial functions of planning, staffing and directing can be attempted for successful performance.
It builds the foundation upon which the managerial edifice is raised for the accomplishment of objectives.
Term Paper # 2. Meaning of Organisation:
Organisation is a mechanism or structure that enables living things to work effectively together. The evolution of all forms of life and of human society has demonstrated the need for organization. In their primitive forms, living creatures have minimum need for organisation.
Simple, functional organisations are generally adequate. With the development of life the organisational forms were developed to facilitate the formation of increasingly complex group action and relationships.
An organisation is an association of persons. These persons work together for common interest. Organisation is a social entity. It is a socio-technical system concerned with achieving objectives, maintaining the internal system and adapting to external environment.
Organisation may be defined as the study of structure, functioning and performance of organisations and of the behaviour of groups and individuals working in organisations. It is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions and prepositions that present a systematic view of behaviour of individual groups and sub groups interacting in some relatively patterned sequence of activity, the intent of which is goal oriented. It helps the people to understand, diagnose and respond to needs and problems.
The basic objectives of organisation theory are:
(a) To provide a general frame of reference for understanding and explaining behaviour patterns in organisations.
(b) To provide a scientific basis for managerial actions concerned with predicting, controlling and influencing the behaviour with an idea to improve organisational effectiveness.
Organisation theory provides the grounds for management activities in a number of significant areas of business endeavour.
Term Paper # 3. Definition of Organisation:
The quotations from some authorities are given below to support our statement on the definition of organisation.
Koontz and O’Donnell:
“It is the grouping of activities necessary to attain enterprise objectives and the assignment of each grouping to a manner with necessary to supervise it.”
Louis. A. Allen:
Organisation is “the process of identifying and grouping work to be performed defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.”
“In a dynamic sense, organisation is a process of welding together a framework of positions which can be used as a management tool for the most effective pursuit of the goals of an enterprise.”
Jones D. Mooney:
Organisation is “the form of every human association for the attainment of a common purpose.”
Organisation is derived from the word organism which means organisation is an arrangement for an internal administration of the enterprise. It is the mechanism of management by which group performance is achieved for the realisation of objectives through definition and division of activities, responsibility and authority.
A careful study of the above definitions of the term organisation enables us to understand that different authorities have considered organisation from different angles. Some call it as a process while some others calls it as a structure which define the duties and responsibilities through which an enterprise functions. Some others consider it as a group.
Term Paper # 4. Nature of Organisation:
To have a clear understanding the nature of organisation, we shall study it under the following heads:
1. Organisation as a group of persons.
2. Organisation as a structure of relationships.
3. Organisation as a function of management.
4. Organisation as a process.
1. Organisation as a Group of Persons:
It is viewed as a group of persons contributing their effort towards certain goals. The evolution of organisation is as old as humanity. There are evidences in history. It is an established truth that organisation began when people combine their efforts for some common purpose. Chester I Barnard defined organization an identifiable group of persons contributing their efforts towards achievement of objectives.
An organisation has the following features:
(ii) Cooperative efforts
(iii) Common objectives
(iv) Rules and regulations.
Communication is needed for understanding and enlisting co-operation of employees to achieve their objectives. The establishment of common objectives is a must for organisation as it gives a sense of definition and direction for performance. Group rules and regulations are established for co-ordination of the group.
2. Organisation as a Structure of Relationships:
E.F.L. Brech has defined organisation, “is no more than the framework within which the responsibilities of management of an enterprise are discharged.”
According to this definition organisation sets up the scope of activities of the enterprise by laying down the structure of relationships. If the organisation is merely viewed as a structure it will be viewed as a static thing.
But an organisation is a dynamic entity consisting of individuals, means, objectives and relationship among individuals. It is the mechanism through which the management directs, co-ordinates and controls the activities of the people.
3. Function of Management:
Organisation is a basic function of management. It provides the resources of men, material and money to achieve predetermined objectives. It is an integrating force which co-ordinates human and material resources for the accomplishment of pre-determined objectives. The process of organisation is used for every aspect of management.
4. Organisation as a Process:
Some of the authorities consider organisation as a process and this is the most acceptable concept of organisation. It is the process of determining, arranging and grouping and assigning activities of the enterprise to accomplish objectives. It involves the dividing and combining of activities. The total work is first divided into units and sub-units of co-related activities and the divided activities are linked to make it as an integrated whole.
Term Paper # 5. Features of an Organisation:
The features of an organisation are:
1. Every organisation has certain common which it has to achieve. The efforts should be directed towards these objectives.
2. The total work of the organisation is divided into functions and sub-functions to get the benefits of specialisation.
3. In every organisation there is an arrangement of position into a graded series. The place of each position is well defined in the organisation. It is subordinate to the position above it and superior to the position below it. The chain of superior-subordinate relationships is known as chain of command.
4. An organisation is basically a group of persons. People constitute the dynamic human element of an organisation.
5. Every organisation has its own channels of communication.
6. There is a mechanism for coordinating different activities and parts of an organisation to function in an integrated way.
7. An organisation functions in an environment comprising economic, social, political and legal factors. Therefore it must be desired to work efficiently in a changing environment.
8. In every organisation there are some rules and regulations to direct the activities of its people in the desired direction. They may be in writing or implied from customary behaviour.
Term Paper # 6. Steps in Organisation:
Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping of activities to be performed, defining and delegating authority and responsibility relationship enabling the people to work efficiently in order to achieve organisational objectives.
The process of organisation involves the following steps:
1. Determination of objectives
2. Identification of Activities
3. Grouping of activities
4. Assignment of Duties
5. Delegation of authority
1. Determination of Objectives:
Organisation without any purpose has no meaning. Once objectives are established all other activities will follow suit. The setting up of the organisation and the nature of work to be performed will be answered by establishing objectives.
2. Identification of Activities:
Identification of activities is done on the basis of objectives established. The entire work of the organisation is divided into various activities and sub activities. They are inter-related. This facilitates the assignment of duties and delegation of authority. Identification and classification of work enables the managers to assign various activities to competent persons. This is done to avoid wastage of efforts, duplication of work and overlapping. It enables the employees to know about group performance.
The manager is to ensure that:
(i) Proper identification is made of all activities.
(ii) No unnecessary duplication of work.
(iii) Different activities are performed in a co-ordinated manner.
3. Grouping of Activities:
This is the other name for depart mentation or creation of departments. Activities are divided and sub-divided. This is done based on the requirements of the organisation and the grouping may be attempted on the basis of functions, products, customers, geographical locations etc.
4. Assignment of Duties:
Each group of activities is assigned to a person most suited to it. The head or in-charge of department holds a managerial position. He allocates the jobs among his subordinates. Allocation is attempted on the basis of job requirements and competence of the individual. The point to be noted here is that the man must suit to the job and the job must suit the man. This process of assigning duty goes on to the last level in the organisation. This is done to ensure certainty to performance.
5. Delegation of Authority:
Every organisation structure consists of various positions in a hierarchy. These positions must have a clear definition of authority and responsibility associated with each of them. There are various levels of authority. The middle levels binds its subordinates by its decisions and it is also bound by decisions of superiors.
Each position has authority and also responsibility perform the assigned duties. There should be proper balance between authority and responsibility. The relationship between various positions and channels of communication should be clearly defined. This will facilitate smooth and effective functioning of the organisation.
This is necessary for optimum performance. It is an integrating function. The performance of departments and sections are to be integrated to achieve objectives.
Term Paper # 7. Principles of Organisation:
The complex functioning of a business unit is affected by a variety of components which are active both inside and outside an enterprise. The success of a business unit is developed by its operating results.
For improving operating results the following principles of sound organisation are followed:
1. Principle of Unity of Objectives:
Every organisation is committed to its objectives. Each unit in an organisation may facilitate the accomplishment of objectives. This is possible and it can be ensured only when every individual in the organisation must be aware of its objectives and they are to devote themselves.
2. Principle of Division of Work or Specialisation:
The entire work of the organisation should be divided in such a manner that every person is confined to the performance of single job leading to specialisation. The work assigned to an individual is to correlate with the requirements of the job and the potentials of the individual.
3. Principle of Span of Control:
This means the numerical limit of subordinates to be supervised or controlled by a manager. A manager should supervise a limited number of subordinates reporting to him directly keeping in view the time and ability of the manager. But the exact number of subordinates will vary from person to person depending on the nature of the job. The span is wider in the care of simple and routine jobs and narrow in the case of complex jobs.
4. Principle of Unity of Command:
Every subordinate in the organisation must receive instruction only from one superior whose command he has to obey. To maintain discipline and to fix responsibility for results the organisation should specify the reporting of the subordinates and reporting to the superiors.
5. Principle of Scalar Chain:
There should be a clear line of command from the top to the bottom of the organisation. The scalar chain is to define the position of each one in the organisation and their authority relationships. It should be short and clear. This will facilitate the effective flow of communication and decision making.
6. Principle of Delegation:
Authority delegated to each manager should be adequate so as to enable him to accomplish the job assigned to him. Authority should be delegated to the lowest possible level consistent with necessary control so that co-ordination and decision-making can take place as close as possible to the point of performance. The authority should be commensurate with responsibility. Where ever there is delegation the employee should be held responsible.
7. Principle of Flexibility:
The organisation structure should be flexible enough to adopt technical and other environmental changes and when required without any disruption and dislocation of operations. This would avoid red tape, complexity of control and complicated procedures. The organisation structure should be stable so that it with stand changes.
8. Principle of Continuity:
The organisational structure should be designed so as to have continuity of operations. Change is the law of nature. Each and every change must be easily adaptable in the organisation without dislocation of organisations. The employees must be trained to meet and accept challenges. They must gain experience in positions of increasing diversity and responsibility.
9. Principle of Balance:
Various parts of organisation should be kept in balance and no one should be given undue importance at the cost of others. There should be proper balance between centralisation and decentralisation, between Span of supervision and line of communication and between line and staff. Authority and responsibility are to be balanced as they are co-extensive and co-terminus.
10. Principle of Efficiency:
Organisation is to permit the optimum use of physical and human resources. The organisational structure is to facilitate the accomplishment of organisational objectives at minimum cost, provide maximum satisfaction to its members and should contribute to the welfare of the community.
11. Principle of Exception:
The higher level managers should take decision on exceptional matters and routine decisions should be taken at lower levels.
12. Principle of Co-Ordination:
The organisation structure should facilitate the unity of efforts and co-ordination in the organisation in pursuit of common objective. For this communication channels are to be clear.
These principles of organising are to be adopted so that deficiencies arising from wrong concept of responsibility, frictions in the organisation, and improper use of authority can be minimised if not totally eliminated. No laws are precisely established for sound organisation. So an attempt is made to enlist the principles with the object minimising problems in an organisation.
Term Paper # 8. Importance or Significance of Organisation:
Organising activities are very important for the success of an enterprise. It is the foundation stone upon which the structure of management is built.
A sound organisation can contribute to the success of an enterprise in many ways:
(1) It Increases Efficiency:
Organisation is responsible for increasing efficiency:
(a) It defines various activities and their authority relationships in the organisation structure by establishing proper division of labour, consistent delegation of authority and clear authority relationship.
(b) It provides a strong mechanism for the manager to direct, control and co-ordinate various activities.
(c) A well-defined and designed organisation facilitates effective functioning by avoiding delay, duplication, confusion in performance and removes friction and rivalry among personnel.
(2) Optimum Use of Human Resources:
In a well-defined and designed organisation structure detailed job specifications are prepared to match the job with the man and vice-versa so right persons are placed on the right job commensuration their knowledge and skill. There are proper channels of promotion and development. This promotes job satisfaction which results in effective performance from employees. Thus it facilitates optimum use of human resources.
(3) Balanced Emphasis to Activities:
The designing and creation of organisation structure is attempted on the basis of grouping of various activities into departments, sections and jobs on the basis of importance. Greater attention is focused on important jobs or activities.
The various activities are assigned to various levels of management. Routine jobs are assigned to lower levels for a steady flow of work while senior position employees can concentrate on major issues. In dividing the organisation and in dividing them into various levels care is taken to see that there is a balanced approach with reference to the work and the level of performance.
(4) It Facilitates Co-Ordination and Communication:
Organisation facilitates co-ordination among various departments, sections, jobs, positions, functions, and activities. This is due to definition of their relationship and laying down a balanced emphasis on various activities. The activities are coordinated to achieve a common objective. This provides the channels of communication for the co-ordination of activities of different departments.
(5) It Facilitates Growth and Diversification:
A sound organisation helps in keeping various activities under control and increases the capacity of the enterprise to undertake more activities and responsibilities. The growth in size and diversification of activities of an enterprise is the direct outcome of the organising ability of management. Efficient management is responsible for growth and expansion of the enterprise.
(6) Organisation Develops Managerial Ability:
In a sound organisation managerial personnel are trained to acquire a wide varied experience in diverse activities through job rotation making them responsible to accept the various challenges posed by the various situations. Managers are always trained, developed and tested for assuming greater responsibilities and to meet the demand for managerial positions in the future.
(7) Optimum Use of Technological Innovations:
An organisation structure should always be flexible to accommodate innovative changes in the enterprise by modifying authority and responsibility relationships in the wake of new developments. This is possible only by sound organisations because of the heavy cost of installation, operation and maintenance of expensive equipment. Thus an organisation plays an important role in the managerial process.