Here is a term paper on ‘Job Evaluation’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Job Evaluation’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Job Evaluation
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Definition of Job Evaluation
- Term Paper on the Objectives of Job Evaluation
- Term Paper on the Principles of Job Evaluation
- Term Paper on the Methods of Job Evaluation
- Term Paper on the Limitations of Job Evaluation
Term Paper # 1. Definition of Job Evaluation:
Job evaluation may be defined as an attempt to determine and compare the demands which the normal performance of particular jobs make an average worker without considering individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned. It is the task of determining demands in terms of efforts and ability which the normal performance of a Job makes on a normal worker.
In essence it is the process of determining the relative worth of a job. According to Kimball and Kimball Jr it represents an “effort to determine the relative value of every job in a plant and to determine what the fair basic wage for such a job should be.”
In the words of Dale Yoder “Job Evaluation is a practice which seeks to provide a degree of objectivity in measuring the comparative value of jobs within an organisation and among organisations.” It is essentially a job rating process, not unlike the rating of employees.
Term Paper # 2. Objectives of Job Evaluation:
The primary objective of job evaluation is to establish the relative requirements of the job for the purpose of properly rewarding employees for the work to be performed.
Its other objectives are as follows:
(a) It Eliminates Inequalities:
The biggest single factor responsible for job dissatisfaction is inequality of base rate for comparable jobs. Job evaluation establishes relative values with the help of which the inequalities can be eliminated provided the findings of the study are tested and applied. It provides an objective basis for resolving wage controversies involving comparative rates.
(b) It Eliminates Personal Prejudices:
In job evaluation the job is rated and not the employee. Job evaluation facilitates the elimination of personal prejudices in establishing rates and places the structure on an objective basis.
(c) Facilitates Comparison and Survey:
The job evaluation is based on information provided by job description. This information in useful for conducting wage surveys and comparisons.
(d) Facilitates Establishment of Definite Plan for Salary Administration:
Job evaluation is based on the information provided by job description. This helps the management to establish rates which assist them in evaluating the incumbent in terms of the job.
Job evaluation enables a company to maintain a high degree of standardisation even though the wage levels may be different.
(f) Job evaluation enables management to simplify wage structure by an objective establishment of rates and by periodical review.
Term Paper # 3. Principles of Job Evaluation:
The principles of job evaluation are:
(i) Rate the job and not the man.
(ii) Elements selected for rating should be few in number to cover the necessary factors of a job and they must be easily explainable.
(iii) The definition of elements must be uniform and there should be consistency in the selection of elements.
(iv) The departmental heads are to participate in the rating of their departmental jobs.
(v) The job rating plan should be given wide publicity.
(vi) Co-operation from the employees should be sought.
(g) Minimum occupational wage rates are to be established.
Term Paper # 4. Methods of Job Evaluation:
The various methods used in job evaluation are:
(1) Ranking Method
(2) Factor comparison Method
(3) Point Method
(4) Classification Method.
(1) Ranking Method:
Other name Grading Method. This method involves the preparation of a list of jobs in the order of importance beginning with the most important to the least important job in office. The job descriptions are arranged in rank according to the value of work as judged by the analysis.
The ranking consist of three stages:
(a) Making a thorough job analysis.
(b) Express the findings of this analysis in a job description.
(c) Rank each job in the ascending order, starting with the one with minimum requirements and ending up with the one with maximum requirements.
The merits of ranking method are:
(a) Methodology is very simple.
(b) Consumes lesser time.
Its demerits are:
(a) It merely tells that a job is higher or lower and does not tell how- much one job differs from another.
(b) In comparing jobs the organisation is to consider the same factors in other approaches of analysis, otherwise the results may be inaccurate.
(c) Wages for the job are likely to influence the ranking in the absence of details for analysis.
This method is best suited for small organisations.
(2) Factor Comparison Method:
Other names Weight-in-Money Method and Benge Plan.
In this method following five important factors are to be considered:
(a) Mental requirements
(b) Skill requirements
(c) Physical requirements
(d) Responsibility and
(e) Working conditions.
The steps involved in this method are:
(a) The above-mentioned factors are listed in a sheet in a columnar form.
(b) Salary for each key job is allocated to different factors is related to each job.
(c) Each key job is evaluated with regard to each of the given factors and entered in the factor column against the appropriate salary index.
(d) The salary components for each factor are added to get the appropriate salary level for each key job.
(e) Other jobs are ranked in relation to the ranking of jobs.
The merits of this method are:
(a) It facilitates the comparison of unlike jobs.
(b) Easily applicable to combination of clerical manual and supervisory positions.
Its demerits are:
(a) This system is complicated and its installation is expensive.
(b) Not easily intelligible to employees.
(c) Only experts can establish and conduct this method.
(3) Point Method:
In this method a manual is developed by the organisation.
The contents of the manual are:
1. Elements or factors upon which each job is to be rated are given.
2. It provides scale and yardsticks by which each degree of each factor is to be valued.
3. It describes several job elements and prescribes the weighing to be applied to each element.
The technique for rating is as follows:
(a) A quantitative evaluation of different jobs in terms of various factors is made.
(b) Maximum point values are assigned to each of the job factors to be considered.
(c) Each job is awarded points for each of the factors.
(d) The salary level is appropriate for each job is fixed on the basis of total points scored by it.
Though this method is capable of producing accurate results it suffers from the following demerits. It is expensive to administer and not suitable for small organisations. It is also difficult to arrive at equitable job by classifying the job requirements and determining the degree of which these requirements are needed.
(4) Classification Method:
Other name job grading method.
In this method the technique adopted for grading each is:
(a) Jobs are classified on the basis of predetermined level of skills required for each class of job.
(b) For each grade or class there is a different scale of pay.
This method is very useful for job evaluation. But the main difficulty arises in defining the different grades.
Term Paper # 5. Limitations of Job Evaluation:
The limitations of job evaluation are:
(a) In all these methods there is no standard list of factors to be considered and all factors cannot be measured accurately. So the concept of job evaluation lacks scientific precision.
(b) A properly evaluated rate might not retain workers who can make more money elsewhere because of law of demand and supply.
(c) The expectation of the employees is to have merit rating for every individual so it is necessary to have super imposed evaluated rates are to be evolved. This again creates complications and problems.
(d) Job evaluation presumes that jobs of equal worth are equally attractive to the employees. But this is not time in real life. Between two jobs of equal nature a job with bright prospects will attract more people.
(e) If tends to be inflexible in so far as it does not place the night deal of emphasis on the wage rates prevalent in the industry as a whole.
(f) Trade unions often consider job evaluation with suspicion because the methods used are not easily intelligible to employees and they fear that job evaluation will remove their right of collective bargaining. So this creates a sense of distrust among employees.