Training is concerned with increasing knowledge and skill in doing a particular job and the major burden of training falls upon the business organisation in which the job is located.

On the other hand education is concerned with increasing general knowledge and understanding of the total individual. Training is job oriented. Training is practice based.

Training and development programmes are part and parcel of organisational development and hence they are the most decisive aspects of human resource development too.

According to Prof. Arun Monappa and Prof. Mirza Saiyadain, “Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organisation to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by the organisation”. They further opined that “broadly speaking, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”.


The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.

Learn about:- 1. Introduction to Training 2. Meaning and Definitions of Training 3. Objectives 4. Importance 5. Process of Identifying Training Needs 6. Training Process 7. Need 8. Purpose

9. Components 10. Types 11. Methods 12. Levels 13. Models 14. Design of the Training Programme 15. Training Evaluation 16. Role of Trainer 17. Advantages.

Training: Introduction, Meaning, Definitions, Objectives, Process, Need, Purpose, Components, Types, Models and Advantages

Training – Introduction

Almost every new hire is put through training to in order to improve their knowledge and skill so that they are able to perform their tasks more efficiently. It is an organised activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of the employee for a specific purpose. Training improves the competence of employees and motivates them. Many organisations have in house training centers. Others make arrangements with some training institutions to train their employees.


Thus, training helps employees to improve their knowledge and skill and make them perform their tasks more effi­ciently. It also helps them in promotion and improves their attitudes and confidence levels.

Training may be viewed as an organised and systematic planning procedure for increasing the knowledge and skill of people for a specific purpose. It imparts learning experiences which enable an employee to improve his contribution in meeting goals and objectives of an organization. Training improves the performance of employees and prepares them for taking new assignments in future.

Training is concerned with increasing knowledge and skill in doing a particular job and the major burden of training falls upon the business organisation in which the job is located. On the other hand education is concerned with increasing general knowledge and understanding of the total individual. Training is job oriented. Training is practice based.

Thus we see that training is a kind of learning skill by which one can learn, mould or sharpen his/her specific skill and tends towards perception in that skill. It is process by which an employee can handle his/her job activities comfortably and can enhance his performance. It is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual behaviour that will improve his/her ability to perform on the job.


In the recent past, especially in the last few years of the 20th century and in the first decade of the present i.e. 21st century, we find fundamental changes in approaches, attitudes, philosophy, outlook, and practices in the personnel area in the form of human resource management strategy. Because of which, it has become very essential for almost all organisations to develop skills, potentialities, capabilities, talents, attitudes etc. of the people working with them to meet the challenges of the changing period.

Therefore, many organisations have evolved and adopted suitable human resource development policies and strategies which help to bring forth necessary changes in skills, capabilities, attitudes and so on for people who are expected to cope with the emerging trends and changes. Thus, human resource development has now become an integral and important part of human resource management. Nowadays, various suitable organisational development programmes are being evolved and effectively integrated with the human resource development programmes.

Training and development programmes are part and parcel of organisational development and hence they are the most decisive aspects of human resource development too. HRD efforts are described in terms of the Training and Development programmes conducted for the development of the people working in the organisation which ultimately result in the development of the organisation itself. 

Training – Meaning and Definitions

The word ‘Training’ consists of eight letters.


To each of these eight letters, if we attribute some significant meanings in the following way, the concept of training and its objectives can be understood more properly:

(1) The letter ‘T’ implies talent, tenacity, tactful and technique. Training should help to enhance talent, tenacity, tactfulness and technique.

(2) ‘R’ stands for reinforcement, rationality and renewal.

(3) ‘A’ for action, awareness, alertness. Training is expected to create awareness, alertness in the trainees and make them action oriented. They are essential qualities for improving the capacity, abilities, efficiency of the employees.


(4) ‘I’ implies idea or idealism, imagination and innovation.

(5) The letter ‘N’ in the word ‘Training’ suggests ‘Novelty’. There should be strong desire in the trainees to learn new things to acquire new skills, abilities, talents, etc.

(6) The last I – ‘I’ in the word training can be taken to mean Interest, ‘Intensity’, ‘Innate’ desire to learn.

(7) ‘N’ – This other ‘N’ in the word training implies ‘Nurturing’ of talents, skills etc.


(8) ‘G’ is the last letter in the word ‘Training’ and it stands for ‘gaiety’, ‘gaining’. Because of training, a trainee gains knowledge and skills.

Thus, training helps the trainees to acquire the above mentioned qualities which are very useful for trainees themselves and for their management also.

Training is a process in which all sided efforts are made to improve skills, aptitudes, abilities etc. of individuals. They may be employees, candidates, apprentices and so on. Training definitely helps the trainees in updating their talents and skills and developing new ones. It helps to increase the efficiency and productivity of the trainees. For qualitative development of all employees, training is absolutely essential and organisations will do well to take interest and give importance to training activities.

When candidates are recruited from outside or selected or promoted from inside, it is expected that they must perform their jobs with maximum efficiency and competence. Therefore, after selecting the candidates, the next logical step is to train them for better performance. Training is required to be imparted to the employees to keep them updated, effective and efficient.


At present, it is observed that all organisations, of whatever types they may be, need to have well trained, experienced and skilled people to perform various activities which have to be done or performed. If the jobs are of a complex nature, training becomes inevitable. Employee training is, therefore, not only a desirable activity but it is an activity which an organisation must commit resources to if it is to maintain a visible, efficient and knowledgeable work force.

The term or concept of ‘Training’ has been defined by many experts in the field of management taking into consideration different aspects.

Some of the definitions of training are given below to help understand its meaning and nature:

According to Elmer H. Burack and Robert D. Smith, “Training is a planned, organised and controlled activity designed to express some aspect or aspects of present job performance. Training is skill oriented and it is usually intended for the short run welfare of the economy (i.e., organisation). Training is also a key ingredient in the motivation of individuals. An untrained, unskilled employee feels very insecure, lacking the self-confidence necessary for comfortable group relations”.

Prof. Milkovich and Prof. Boudreau stated the definition of training as follows – “Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour, knowledge, and/or motivation of present employees to improve the match between employee characteristics and employment requirements”.

According to Prof. Arun Monappa and Prof. Mirza Saiyadain, “Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organisation to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by the organisation”. They further opined that “broadly speaking, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”.


According to Prof. A. M. Sharma “Training may be defined as any organisationally planned effort to change the behaviour or attitudes of employees so that they can perform jobs on acceptable standards. Training provides knowledge and skills required to perform the job”.

Prof. C. B. Mamoria defined the concept of training as “A process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It is an application of knowledge”. He further made it clear that training gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour and attempts to improve their performance on the current job or prepare them for an intended job.

Training – 8 Important Objectives

The main objective of training programme is to enhance the skill and knowledge of trainees and to fill the gap between the existing and desired pool of knowledge, skill and aptitude. According to Jeff Harris, “training of any kind should have as its objective the redirection or improvement of behaviour so that the performance of the trainee becomes more useful and productive for himself and for the organization of which he is a part.”

The following are the important objectives of training:

i. To help the trainees to enhance their knowledge and skill in relation to job and organization.

ii. To prepare the employees to meet the changing requirement of job and organization.


iii. To develop positive attitudes among the employees towards their superiors, colleagues, subordinates and towards entire organization.

iv. To prepare employees for higher level jobs.

v. To assist employees to perform well in their present positions or exposing them to the latest concepts and techniques.

vi. To assist the employees in maximizing the production and productivity.

vii. To assist the employees in minimizing industrial accidents and damages to machines.

viii. To assist the employees in minimizing the operational errors and maximizing the confidence of handling the work.

Training – Importance

1. Importance to organization


2. Importance to individuals

3. Importance to personnel and human relations, Intra-group and inter-group relations and policy implementation

1. Importance of Training to Organisation:

a. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all level of the organisation.

b. Improves the morale of the work force.

c. Helps people identify with organisational goals.


d. Improves relationship between boss and subordinates.

e. Learns from the trainees.

f. Aids in organisational development.

g. Helps prepare guidelines for work.

h. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organisation.

i. Aids in development for promotion from within.


j. Organisation gets more effective decision making and problem solving skills.

k. Aids in increasing productivity and or quality of work.

l. Helps keep cost down in many areas e.g. production, personnel, administration etc.

m. Improve labour management relations.

n. Eliminates subordinate behaviour such as hiding tools.

o. Helps employees adjust to change.

2. Importance of Training to Individuals:

a. Helps the individual in making letter decisions and effective problem solving.

b. Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalised and operationalised.

c. Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.

d. Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict.

e. Increase job satisfaction and recognition.

f. Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills.

g. Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and say in his/her future.

h. Develops a sense of growth in learning.

i. Helps eliminate fear in attempting task.

j. Satisfies personal needs of the trainer and the trainee.

3. Importance in Personnel and Human Relations, Intra-Group and Inter-Group Relations and Policy Implementation:

a. Improves communication between groups and individuals.

b. Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion.

c. Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action.

d. Improve interpersonal skills.

e. Improves morale.

f. Builds cohesiveness in group.

g. Makes organisational policies, rules and regulations viable.

h. Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co-ordination.

Training – Process for Identifying Training Needs

The process of identifying training needs may follow logic as given below:

1. If training succeeds, it must result into learning.

2. The natural consequence of learning is change.

So the organization must ascertain-

i. The change it is showing in and for the managee.

ii. The functionality of this envisaged change for the managee in the organizational context and the specific ways in which it is so functional.

iii. The degrees to which this change aligns with-the managee and the organizational goals or objectives.

3. In the managee’s learning process, training is like a supplement, much like a vitamin pill for those who don’t eat balanced food.

4. In the normal source of learning, work itself must be recognized as the primary learning system.

Work content and design must be the focus of the organization and the manager.

5. The work content must provide an appropriate incentive for learning.

6. If the door to learning is locked from inside, how does the manager or the organization, see through that door to assess the managee’s need to learn and gain insights into the managee’s desire to learn?

7. Assessment of training needs is best based on-

i. Individual needs of the managee.

ii. Organizational needs, so that the knowledge, skills, awareness, etc., acquired by the managee can be used productively.

iii. If we learn something new, we usually experience a strong inner urge to use it as soon possible to see how it works. In the normal course, if learning has been effective and has actually resulted in change in the managee. If the managee has an almost compulsive need to use the new things he has learnt, learning will be more effective.

If the managee’s work situation does not permit the use of what is learnt, it can frustrate the managee and lead to his alienation from work. He may begin to explore alternate avenues to use the learning for the organizational work. This can be more disruptive if the alternate use of what is learnt is in activities at the work place itself, this can also upset the rhythm of other people’s work.

8. Appropriate learning can help-

i. Cover up managee’s deficiencies in relation to current job assignments. Such areas for improvement are best identified jointly during counseling sessions. The manager must help to identify the weak or deficient areas of the managee must acknowledge such deficiency in his/her knowledge, skills or awareness, besides demonstrating the willingness to make it up through learning.

ii. Develop the managee’s potential for higher additional responsibility. However, uncovering an individual’s aptitude for growth and development is not easy. Besides, the direction in which the potential needs to be developed is not easy to pinpoint.

iii. Very few organizations have systematic career planning at the individual managee level.

iv. In bureaucratic systems prior identification of efforts in enhancing-individual potential is not agreed. Although, it is possible to take appropriate initiatives in these directions once the managee has been chosen for a new or higher responsibility.

Existing ongoing systems, modified or improved existing systems, newly introduced appropriate systems. This is usually the most productive area for training. Such training requires high volumes to cover large number of people working on or in connection with the concerned systems. Mere sprinkling of training around a small sample of managees may seem like waste.

9. Orient the new or the existing managees in areas concerning the organization’s culture, values and goals.

This includes-

i. Meticulous induction training for new entrants to the work force.

ii. Periodic reinforcement for the existing staff-

This area also calls for covering large volumes of individuals and group in the organization.

10. Training must be meticulously planned, which means that-

i. Training content is carefully determined, so that it provides a learning focus and responds to some specific purpose(s).

ii. Training pedagogy is appropriately chosen depending on whether it aims at imparting knowledge, developing skills and reinforcing awareness.

iii. The whole process, including training content and pedagogy is funneled through fitters relevant to the organization context and culture.

11. Training can be a powerful input into the organization’s culture, processes, work ethics as well as organizational climate. Impact of such training can be either positive or negative – it can either strengthen or confuse the organization’s culture. It is often not neutral.

Where training is to be used as a medicine for remedying the managee’ deficiencies in relation to a job, tasks or role, a simple step-by-step procedure can be followed to identify training needs:

Step 1 – Listing each attitude, skill and knowledge area required for effectively performing the specific job, role or task by the managee or the manager or both.

Step 2 – The manager and the managee together rate the contribution of each task to performance of the total role. They also rate the managee’s current level of proficiency on each listed attitude skill or knowledge area to perform high contributing tasks.

Step 3 – The manager and the managee identify areas of knowledge, skill or attitude deficiency by comparing the data generated at step one or two. They also determine the priority learning needs-areas of learning that will most efficient in terms of improving the managee’s overall performance.

Step 4 – Identifying and prioritizing the areas of learning that will result in improving the managee’s performance, the manager-if needed in consultation with the managee-locates or structures specific learning events or opportunities that will fulfill the priority needs.

The manager must ensure that the planned learning event happens, as planned, without any hiccup or manor deferment. Although a training event has been planned in dialogue with the managee during the training need identification stage, it is extremely important to brief the managee before he commences training.

During such a briefing, the manager helps the managee to recall the purpose which the particular learning event was:

a. What is expected out of the learning event?

b. What are the final-results of such an event for the managee that he has the responsibility to realize as much as possible?

c. What kind of approaches and initiatives on the managee’s part will be productive and appropriate?

During this briefing, the manager can also indicate to the managee specific plans to provide opportunities after the learning event, for him to make use of the new knowledge. Post event, the manager engages in a debriefing discussion, stock is taken against each part of the planning done during the briefing phase.

The manager may ask questions that will help the managee to share what is learnt. The managee is shown where the new learning, obtained during the learning event, should make a difference in his performance; and procedures for providing support to him during the transition are clearly outlined. The two also agree on a monitoring procedure.

Training – Process (With Steps for Conducting a Training Programme)

Training refers to various methods used to give new or present employees the information or knowledge, the skills and their proper application needed to perform their jobs, tasks etc. efficiently, properly and effectively, while process means a series of actions and motions to achieve particular goals or objectives.

When we consider “training process” as a topic, we have to consider various actions, steps required to be taken for imparting training to the concerned individuals, candidates or employees.

Generally, it is found that the following steps are important in a training process:

(1) Identification of training needs.

(2) Deciding the objectives of training to be given.

(3) Designing of the training programme or programmes.

(4) Selection of trainees and trainers.

(5) Selection of training methods and tools.

(6) Administration and implementation of training programmes.

(7) Evaluation of training.

It may be observed that all the above mentioned steps in the process of training are inter­related. Certain stages can be started simultaneously. But the ultimate object should be to give proper and necessary training to the present and new employees by following a suitable training process so that they can perform their jobs effectively and efficiently and help their organisation to achieve its objectives or goals.

Steps for Conducting a Training Programme

Once the need for training is felt, an organization has to chalk out a plan or prepare a programme as to the modus operandi of conducting training programme.

The following are the important steps to be followed while conducting a training programme:

1. Preparing the Instructor or Trainer:

The first and the important step to be followed in conducting the training programme is selection of a trainer or an instructor. An in-efficient trainer produces in-efficient trainees. Therefore, trainer should be efficient and experienced one. He should know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. He should have an aptitude for teaching and must be capable of using appropriate technique for training the employees.

2. Preparing or Selecting Trainee:

Selection of a target group and creation of desire for learning are important steps to be followed. The type and method of training depends on type of persons to be trained. Therefore it is necessary to decide type of employees to be trained like new or old employees, skilled or unskilled and male or female workers. Selection of venue for training is also an equally important factor that helps in motivating the employees for attending the training programme.

3. Preparing for Teaching:

Preparing for teaching involves getting ready for teaching or training. It means planning the programme, deciding the contents of training, preparing the training materials, choosing appropriate method for training, fixation of time etc. Training materials may be preparation of study notes, case studies, charts, diagram, brochures and other audio-visual aids for effective presentation.

4. Presentation:

Presentation means act of showing or giving the information to the trainees. Information may be presented in the form of lecture, discussion, demonstration of notes, charts, diagrams etc. The trainer may also use, audio-visual aids, film slides, overhead projectors for such purposes.

It should be observed that presentation should be clear and complete. Trainer should see that each and every trainee is active in the session and opportunity should be given to them to ask questions to ensure that they have followed the contents of the programme.

5. Performance Try out:

In this step trainee is asked to perform the work independently. His performance is observed and mistakes are corrected and if need be proper guidance is given for following the correct step. As soon as he learns the technique, he is put into actual work and will be asked to work independently.

6. Follow-up:

The final step of the training programme is follow up i.e., assessing the effectiveness of training programme. This is done through collection of opinion or feedback from participants which helps to understand the weakness or errors. On the basis of feedback collected necessary corrective action can be taken.

Training – Needs

Andrew. F. Sikula has observed that the need for the purpose of training is to ensure increase in productivity and it is believed that increased human performance often directly leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit.

The need for training in part depends upon the company’s selection and promotion policies. Companies that attempt to employ only people who already have the needed skills, place less emphasis on training. On the other hand, firms that stress promotion from within may have to take special steps to ensure that employees develop the skills which will be needed.

Two trends have contributed, in recent years, to more attention to the development of skills. Fewer and fewer skills are now regarded ‘inborn’ that cannot be taught. It is hoped that one can learn almost all aspects of a job by reading. That is why we find nowadays almost all technical details of a job written out in the instruction manuals. Second, the accelerated rate of technological change—in the plant, office, and market place—is making many skills obsolete. Workers have to be retrained to do new tasks.

The following are the important needs of training:

1. Job Requirement:

Contents of the job itself may require employees to undergo training to show better performance. Qualification, knowledge and skill possessed by the employees some time may not suit to the requirement of job. Under such circumstances gap between the job requirement and employee’s requirement need to be fulfilled which is being done through training. Thus, training is required to fill this gap by modifying and molding the employee’s skill, knowledge, attitude, behaviour etc., to the tune of job requirement.

2. Organizational Requirement:

Training is also needed to fulfil the requirement of an organization. Organizations have to adopt changes in tune with changing environment for survival and growth. Globalization and liberalization have made business firms exposed to an open competition and for the sake of which need is felt by them to modernise and update their technology. Modernisation and up-gradation of technology call for training the existing as well as newly recruited employees to equip them to the changing environment.

3. Technological Development:

Technological development also calls for training of employees. Technological changes are found in mechanisation, automation and computerisation. Increasing use of modern technology and modern appliances is found in almost all the offices irrespective of their nature and type. Thus, it became inevitable for any organisation to train its employees to fall in line with the changing technology, skill etc.

4. Change in the Job:

Change in the job due to promotion or transfer of an employee also needs training. Whenever an employee is promoted to a higher position, there falls the need for training to discharge duties. Further, training is also expected when an employee has to acquaint with new method or technique of doing the work in the wake of transfer.

5. Improvement of Quality and Increase in Productivity:

The purpose of training is improvement of quality since better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. Trained workers can work with more confidence and show better performance than un-trained workers which in turn help in maximising the production and productivity. Trained workers help an organization save in terms of money, materials and time on supervision and thus enable maximum productivity.

Some Other Needs of Training:

Training of employees is essential because force is an invaluable asset to an organisation.

1. Personal Growth – Employees get personal exposure while they learn something through training. Management development programs seem to give participants a wider awareness, an enlarged skill and enlightened altruistic philosophy, and make enhanced personal growth possible.

2. Increase Productivity – Increasing productivity is the basic thrust of training program. By the training, one can operate smoothly which will lead to give optimum output. At this way the performance or productivity of the organisation as a whole will be increased.

3. Improve Organizational Culture – Culture is shared values of organisation, which may be imagined after well awareness of the organisational policy. Training enables employees to see in favourable direction which helps to improve culture.

4. Improve Health and Safety – Proper training can help to prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees.

5. Less Wastage – Untrained workers may waste more materials, damage machines and equipment and may cause accidents. Accidents generally occur due to deficiency in the operator and not in the machine. A trained worker will know the art of operating the machine properly. He will also use the material and other equipment in a systematic way causing less wastage. The control of various wastes will substantially reduce the manufacturing cost.

6. Easy Adaptability – The technological advancements will require new approach to work. The methods of work are constantly undergoing a change. This will necessitate the adaptability of workers to changing work environment. A trained worker can be more adaptable to change than an untrained one. The former can easily learn new work techniques with a little bit of guidance. There may not be any need to employee few workers for running new machines. The trained persons will adapt to new situation more easily because they have basic technical knowledge.

7. Reduced Turnover and Absenteeism – Labour turnover and absenteeism are mainly due to job dissatisfaction. When a worker is properly trained he will take keen interest in his job and can drive satisfaction from it. A satisfied person may not like to leave his job and try at a new place. Training helps in reducing labour absenteeism by increasing job satisfaction among them.

8. Employee Development – Training also helps in the development of employees. It first helps in locating talent in them and then developing it to the maximum. The adaptability of a worker will help him in working on new and improved jobs. If a worker learns fast then he will be able to develop his talent and improve his performance. Training gives him an opportunity to show his work also.

Training – Training Budget

A training budget for a short training course helps to:

i. Control the money

ii. To monitor expenses and income

iii. Plan in advance how much money is needed to spend and how income can be generated to cover your expenses

iv. Account for any funds you have received from a funding organization, and complete the necessary acquittal process.

How a Training Budget is Prepared?

Before a budget is prepared we need to prepare a training plan. The training plan helps us to make a correct estimate of training expenses.

Once you have developed a training plan you can follow these steps to prepare a budget.

Steps of Preparation of Training Budget:

1. Identify Training Expenses

2. Calculate Budgeted Expenses

3. Identify sources of Income

4. Calculate budgeted income

5. Calculate budgeted profit or loss

Training – Basic Purposes

Training is a very important tool of effective management. The main purpose of training is to bring about positive change in the behavior of trainees.

It is indispensable part of managerial processes because of the following reasons:

(a) It reduces the need for close supervision. The supervisor can dele­gate responsibility and authority to his subordinates and inter­fere only in exceptional situations. Thus, suitable training reduces the burden on supervisors.

(b) It is required to improve competence of the organization. Train­ing focuses on knowledge sharing and knowledge creation on the part of trainees. The expertise obtained by a group of trainers can be imparted to the new recruits or promotees. Training expe­riences of the group also enhance competence levels of trainees and in turn makes the organization more competent.

(c) Trainers have sufficient interactions with trainees during the train­ing period. They, thus, can easily identify which of the trained employees have greater potential than others. Such employees can be further developed for future use.

(d) Finally, training has the responsibility to communicating to the new recruits the strategic plans of the organization. Personnel at all levels are asked to help the company in achieving the organi­zational goals.

Some Other Purposes of Training:

Training is a significant management tool which helps in bringing the change. If proper opportunities are given to employee for training, no doubt, he will be one step superior in his efficiency. Therefore, the primary purpose of training is to improve worker’s productivity and the organisation’s profitability.

It is needed to serve the other following purposes:

1. To establish a social relationship between the employee and his job.

2. To prevent obsolescence of skills at all level in the organisation.

3. To make the new recruited employees not only a competent and efficient but a better employee able to understand organisation’s policy and channel of communication.

4. To prepare employees for future high level assignments.

5. To enhance employees morale and confidence.

6. To bring down cost of production, absenteeism and labour turnover of the organization.

7. To develop healthy and constructive attitudes among employees of the organization.

8. To require refresher training to the existing employees so that they are aware about the latest developments in job operations

9. To reduce grievances and minimize accident rates.

10. To make employees more mobile and versatile.

A programme of training become essential for purpose of meeting the specific problems of a particular organisation arising out of the introduction of new lines of production, changes in design, the demands of competition and economy, the quality of materials processes, individual adjustments, promotions, career, development, job and personal changes and change in the volume of business. But on the other hand, training is the most neglected aspect of personal policy in Indian Industries.

Training – Components

A training system comprises various components. Examining the job or task to be performed is the fore­most requirement. While examining, you have to consider both the quality and quantity of the work. In order to produce the job to the desired degree of quality, accuracy, perfection, and finish, and to meet the set target, both knowledge and skills are required.

Identifying the job-related knowledge, specific skills, and competency is an essential task. Thereafter, you are required to break down the knowledge and skills into smaller details. The gap between knowledge and skills required to perform a task, and those in pos­session of the person, determines the training need, and hence, the content of the training programme.

A training programme must have some objectives. For example, the objectives of a course on internal audit of ISO 9001 quality management system are that after successful completion of the course, the participants shall be able to – (a) understand the quality management system and the scope of ISO 9001, (b) interpret the clauses of ISO 9001, (c) appreciate the importance of internal audit and gain auditing skill, and (d) perform the task of internal auditing fulfilling the requirements of clause on internal audit of ISO 9001.

After developing the course objectives, the trainer is required to design the syllabus considering the participant profiles and organizational needs. The course may be a repeat course or a new one. While developing the curriculum for a repeat course, the trainer must consider the feedback of the participants of earlier courses. However, for launching a new course, other institutes conducting the same or similar courses can be benchmarked.

Following this, the trainer must finalize the training methodology for conducting and making the training programme effective. In order to achieve this, generally, a 4M— multi-mode and multi-media (a combination of lecture, writing on the board, use of OHP or LCD, showing a scrip of film, etc.) methodology is adopted.

Pre-training also requires a lot of work, which includes training evaluation and validation. Thus, the responsibility of measurement, analysis, and improvement rests with the training organizer.

Summarily, the components of training are as follows:

1. Examining the job

2. Identifying the knowledge and skills required

3. Breaking down the knowledge and skills into details

4. Training need identification

5. Developing training objectives

6. Designing the syllabus

7. Designing the training curriculum

8. Considering the participants’ profile

9. Selecting the training methodology

10. Conducting the training programme

11. Designing the training evaluation methodology

12. Measuring, analysing, and improving.

Training – Training Programmes are of Different Types

Training programmes are of different types which are described below:

1. Induction or Orientation Training

2. Job Training

3. Craft Training

4. Training for Promotion

5. Refresher Training.

Type # 1. Induction or Orientation Training:

Induction training refers to introduction of employees to the organization. Newly recruited employees need to be made familiar with the job, rules and regulations of the organization and with the colleagues working in the organization. This kind of training is arranged to familiarize the newly recruited employees to the organization and to create confidence in them soon after they report to duty.

For imparting training lecture on objectives and policies of the company and tour of the factory, distribution of broacher on rules, regulation and discipline of the company and film show on the achievement of the company may be arranged.

Type # 2. Job Training:

It is a training given to the employees who are already on the job. This type of training is given in order to enable the employees to perform better than earlier and to make employees more proficient in the given job. Employees handling machines and equipment used in a job need this type of training which helps them to reduce waste and industrial accidents.

Type # 3. Craft Training:

It is a training given to the employees to prepare them to handle different jobs. This training is given on the assumption that, if an employee is proficient to handle different jobs, absence of one employee may not affect on continuity of work of the organization. Therefore, to make the employees proficient in-different job, this kind of training is provided. But the extent and intensity of training differs from craft to craft.

Type # 4. Training for Promotion:

This type of training is provided when employees are promoted to higher post. The main objective of providing this training is to enable the employees to perform higher level jobs with confidence.

Type # 5. Refresher Training:

It is a training provided to refresh and revive the knowledge and to update the skill of the existing employees. With the passage of time, existing employees may forget the rules and regulations and method of doing the work thus concerning new rules and regulations. With the advent of new technique, old technique might have become obsolete. To update the skill and knowledge of the employees and to familiarize them with latest rules, regulations and technique of doing work, refresher training is found essential.

Training – 2 Main Methods: On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Methods

There are different methods of training employees.

They can be divided into two broad categories:

1. On-the-Job Methods – In these methods, the employees learn about their jobs while doing the work. Here they are assisted by their supervisors or seniors. Such methods encourage self-learning through practice. Job instruction or coaching, job rotation and learning while working as an apprentice or as assistant to a senior, are some of the common on-the-job training methods.

2. Off-the-Job Methods – These methods involve training employees away from the workplace. In this method experts may conduct the training. Employees are freed from their regular duties which enables them to concentrate on the learning. Lectures with demonstration, conferences, case discussions, video shows and films are some of the common methods used here.

There is another off-the-job method of training called Vestibule Training or Simula­ted Environment Training. Such trainings are in specially designed workshops which are a duplication of the actual condition of the workplace. In such workshops a large number of employees can be trained in a relatively short period of time.

Training – Top 3 Levels of Training

The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.

Training need arises at three levels:

1. Organisational Level:

Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs.

In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level.

2. Individual Level:

At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training.

The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:

i. Appraisal and performance review

ii. Peer appraisal

iii. Competency assessments

iv. Subordinate appraisal

v. Client feedback

vi. Customer feedback

vii. Self-assessment or self-appraisal.

3. Operational Level:

Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. Job analyst gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaire asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc.

Training – 3 Important Models

Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc., depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs).

The Training System:

A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.

The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of Training Need Analysis (TOA), formulating, delivering and evaluating.

There are 4 necessary inputs i.e., technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organisation’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis.

Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below:


Organisation are working in open environment, i.e., there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.

The three model of training are:

1. System Model

2. Instructional System Development Model

3. Transitional Model.

1. System Model:

The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to require standards.

The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:

i. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e., to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc. The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.

ii. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

iii. Develop – This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals fit objectives.

iv. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.

v. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

2. Instructional System Development Model (ISD) Model:

Instructional System Development Model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favourable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.

The Instructional system development model comprises of five stages:

i. Analysis:

This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.

ii. Planning:

This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behaviour of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart Knowledge i.e., selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.

iii. Development:

This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc., course material for the trainee including handouts of summary.

iv. Execution:

This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking and other training accessories.

v. Evaluation:

The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.

3. Transitional Model:

Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e., inner loop is executed.

Vision focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines.

Mission explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.

Values is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.

The mission, vision and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objectives, is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the/ training model is further implemented.

Training – Design of the Training Programme

The design of the training program can be implemented only when a clear training objective has been created. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e., what the trainees are expected to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.

The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.

The trainees – A good training design should include a detail study of the needs of the trainees and their profiles. An effective training program is designed in view of the age, experience, needs and expectation of the trainees.

Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, positive insight for training program.

Trainees’ learning style – The design of the training program should be formed keeping in mind the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees to get effective results of the training program.

Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer forms specific training modules giving emphasis on the training needs of the trainees. The trainer prepares the priority list of the various topics which should be included in the training module.

Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. The main contents are divided into headings, topics and modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner –

i. Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance

ii. From easier to harder

iii. Maintaining a relationship with the previous and next topic.

Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques.

The method selection depends on the following factors:

i. Time allocated

ii. Domain of interest of the trainees

iii. Style preference of trainer

iv. Level of competence of trainer

v. Availability of facilities and resources, etc.

Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers etc.

Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are –

i. Time

ii. Accommodation, facilities and their availability

iii. Furnishings and equipments

iv. Budget and Design of the training, etc.

Training – Evaluation

Training Evaluation is the process of examining a training program which ensures whether the employees are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces. It is important to assess the result of any training program.

The objectives of training evaluation:

i. Evaluator must be clear about goals and purposes of evaluation.

ii. Evaluation must be specific.

iii. Evaluation should be based on objective methods and standards.

Criteria for Evaluation:

Methods of evaluation of training:

1. Pertaining Evaluation:

It is the process of judging a training program before it is actually implemented.

i. Collection of valid and reliable data on the trainees which include their skills, knowledge and attitude.

ii. Define goals and objectives of the training program.

iii. Answering the following Questions –

a. Is the content of the training appropriate for its objective?

b. Will it be able to meet a portion of the training needs?

c. Do all the participants agree to established needs?

d. Will the desired outcome be achieved on meeting the objectives?

e. Will the trainers and trainees be comfortable with the training methods?

2. Formative Evaluation:

It is a process of judging the value of a Training program while the training activities are taking place.

i. Observing the behaviour of the trainees and having talks with them about the training.

ii. Involving the trainees with group discussions to get feedback.

iii. Answering the following questions –

a. Are there any other areas in the training program which needs special attention?

b. Are there any need to revise the objectives for better implementation of training program?

c. Are all the training topics well covered?

d. Are the methods used in training program effective?

3. Summative Evaluation:

It is the process of judging the training program at the end of the training.

i. Trainees are asked to do demonstration lessons.

ii. Other people are asked to observe the behaviour of the trainees and asked to collect information about the effectiveness of training program through interviews and questionnaires.

Evaluation of Training Programme:

Training without evaluation is like travelling without knowing the destination. Training involves time, efforts and expenses and therefore it is important to evaluate the programme for its effectiveness. A cost-benefit analysis helps in analysing and evaluating any training programme. Any training programme should answer basic questions such as did the change occur? Is the change due to training? Will similar changes occur with new participants in the same training programme?

For the purpose of evaluation of organisational training, we can treat evaluation as a process that is carried out before, during and after training.

1. Pre-Training Evaluation:

(a) Assessing the present level of knowledge and skills of trainees and identifying training needs.

(b) Evaluation of training objectives – Find out whether there is fit between the training needs and training objectives.

(c) Evaluate trainees’ profile – Trainees level of knowledge, skills, attitude prior to training and post-training evaluation.

(d) Input evaluation – Evaluate human (trainers/training staff) and material resources in order to choose between alternate training methods.

2. Evaluation of Training:

(a) Assessing each session

(b) At the end of the day.

(c) Mid way through the course. The information obtained could be used for taking corrective action, if required.

3. Post-Training Evaluation:

(a) Immediate outcome – The changes in trainees’ knowledge, skills and attitudes which can be identified immediately after training.

(b) Intermediate outcome – Involves monitoring performance on the job.

(c) Long-term outcome – The changes observed in the functioning of part or all of the organization as a result of training.

According to Kirpatricks, training evaluation consist of four logical steps:

1. Response – How the participants feel about the training? Are they satisfied with training? Did they complete it?

2. Learning – To what extent has the participants learnt what was taught to them?

3. Behaviour – Any on-the-job changes in behaviour occur (say from rude behaviour to courteous behaviour) after participating in the training programme?

4. Results – What are the tangible results of the programme in terms of reduction in cost, improvement -in quality etc.? Did improvement in employee performance attributable to training?

Evaluation Methods:

1. At the end of the training programmes, the trainer takes feedback about the programme from the participants. Each participant is given an opportunity to express his views and observations regarding the programme and to what extent it will help him in his day-to-day activities in the organisation.

2. Each participant has to fill up “Feedback form” giving his observations on the content of the programme, time allotted for each topic, delivery of the subject, and involvement of the participants and usefulness of the programme. This information is useful in improving the contents and quality of training programmes.

3. Use of experimental and control groups – If the performance of the experimental group is better than control group, the training can be considered as successful.

4. Time series analysis which determines whether changes have occurred and continued as a result of the training.

5. Administration of pre-post training tests and comparison of the results.

6. Performance of the trainee – Interview with supervisor to know the progress made by the employee after attending the programme.

Training – Role of the Trainer in an Organization

Trainer imparts skills and knowledge to employees in order that they contribute to the organisation’s efficiency and be able to cope up with the pressures of changing environment.

Thus trainer can play the following roles in an organization:

1. Increase in Efficiency:

Trainer plays active role in increasing efficiency of employee in an organization. Trainer increases skills for doing a job in better way. Though an employee can learn many things while he is put on a job, he can do much better if he learns how to do the job. This becomes more important specially in the context of changing technology because the old method of working may not be relevant.

2. Increase in Moral of Employees:

Training increases morale of employees. Moral is a mental condition of an individual which determines the willingness to co-operate. High morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformation with regulation and willingness to cooperate with others to achieve organizational objectives.

3. Better Human Relations:

Training attempts to increase the quality of human relations in an organization. Growing complexity of organizations has led to various human problems like alienation, inter­personal and inter-group problems. Many of these problems can be overcome by suitable human relation training.

4. Motivating Trainees:

Motivation to learn quickly the process of learning while its absence may either stop the learning or slow the process of learning. Therefore, the callenge before a trainer is to motivate trainees adequately before he makes them to learn.

5. Keeping Up-to-Date Knowledge:

In order to be effective, a trainer is required to keep himself up-to-date in terms of knowledge and techniques for transferring that knowledge to trainees. Keeping up-to-date knowledge is must because in the fast-changing environment of today, not only rapid changes are taking place in knowledge but also in techniques which knowledge is transferred. If the trainer is not well equipped with such knowledge and techniques.

6. Handling Trainees of Diverse Nature:

Trainees may differ in terms of their educational background. With each discipline providing a different basis for measuring effectiveness, in terms of their functional areas with each functional area emphasizing on a specific way of working in terms of personality, attitudes and other personality constructs. In such a heterogeneous group. The trainer should have personal wisdom to achieve this objective.

7. Delivering Knowledge According to Requirement of Trainees:

A training and development programme is relatively more successful when the trainer deliver knowledge in a way that appeals the trainees.

8. Providing Non-Threatening Feedback:

A trainer is required to provide feedback to the trainees either individually to everyone or in the group. The trainer has to provide such a feedback in the most non-threatening way by creating a congenial environment and developing interpersonal trust with trainees.

In facing the above challenges, the trainer has to work as a friend, a facilitator, an expert and a feedback provider, rather than imposing and boasting his knowledge unnecessarily.

Training – 7 Important Advantages

Training programme is useful both to the organization and employees.

Its benefit to organization can be studied from the following points:

Advantage # 1. Increased Productivity:

Training of employees helps to increase production and productivity. Trained employees work well and show better performance. They need less supervision and reduce waste by making economy in the use of men, money and materials and help in maximising the profit which in turn help to increase productivity.

Advantage # 2. Better Use of Plant and Machinery:

Trained employees do not need supervision and guidance. They take maximum care of plants and machines and hence plants and machines can be fully used without causing any damage or accident to machines.

Advantage # 3. Reduced Supervision:

Trained employees do not require guidance and instructions frequently and hence their working performance need not be supervised by the supervisor.

Advantage # 4. Improved Quality of Work:

Experts teach the better way of doing the work in less time during the course of training. Therefore, trained workers can maintain the standard and quality by following uniform procedure which helps to improve the quality of work.

Advantage # 5. Reduced Cost:

Cost of production or manufacture tends to be less if such production work is undertaken by the trained workers. Because trained workers make economical use of money and materials and minimize waste and un-necessary expenditure. Spoilage and breakdown of machine is also reduced if it is handled by trained employees. Thus, trained employees help in reducing the cost.

Advantage # 6. Increased Morale of Employees:

Trained employees work fast and consequently earn more income. Increased income enhances job satisfaction and develops positive attitude among employee. Thus increased income and job satisfaction enhance morale of employees.

Advantage # 7. Change in Organizational Atmosphere:

A well designed training programme helps to establish good relation between the employer and employees. As trained workers work well and increase production and productivity, absenteeism and labour turnover are reduced. There will be an industrial peace, increase in the income of an organization and mutual trust between employers and employees. Thus, there is a total change in the atmosphere of an organization.