Induction is the process of welcoming, introducing and socializing the new entrants to the existing group of people. It is also called orientation programme. It is done to make the new employees feel welcome at the new workplace and with his senior employees.
Induction is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into his surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies and purposes of the organisation.
Large organizations do give formal orientation to its employees. It is a well-structured and systematic orientation programme. An informal orientation is given in small organizations by the supervisors.
Orientation programmes help the new employees to learn the organizational values, beliefs, norms and systems. Eventually, the new entrants fully integrate with the organization and attain job satisfaction, higher productivity and continue to serve the organization for a long time.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Induction is the welcoming process to make the new employee feel at home and generate in him a feeling of belongingness to the organization.”
Learn about:- 1. Meaning of Induction 2. Definition of Induction 3. Objectives 4. Purpose 5. Elements 6. Procedure 7. Methods 8. Importance 9. Programme 10. Advantages and Barriers.
Induction Meaning: Definition, Objectives, Importance, Procedure, Methods and Programmes
- Meaning of Induction
- Definition of Induction
- Objectives of Induction
- Purpose of Induction
- Elements of Induction
- Procedure of Induction
- Methods of Induction
- Importance of Induction
- Induction Programme
- Advantages and Barriers of Induction
Induction is the process of welcoming, introducing and socializing the new entrants to the existing group of people. It is also called orientation programme. It is done to make the new employees feel welcome at the new workplace and with his senior employees. It helps overcome a ‘reality shock’. Reality shock is experienced by the new employees when there is a gap between his/her expectations and the real situation. It facilitates interaction amongst employees and helps them to get to know each other and develop a better inter personal relationship and rapport with colleagues.
Induction is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into his surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies and purposes of the organisation. In other words, it is a welcoming process — the idea is to welcome a newcomer, make him feel at home and generate in him a feeling that his own job, however small, is meaningful and has a significance as a part of the total organisation.
1. Create the Best Impression:
The first impression is the ever-lasting impression, it is said. Likewise, in the professional domain too, companies have to put in additional efforts to make the new joinees feel special yet at home.
The first in-depth point of interaction between the employer and the employee is the induction programme, which provides the employees with a taste of the company’s flavour. This has to be a carefully designed and measured programme, which has considerably changed from the days of ‘know-the-company’ form of presentation slides.
2. Give the Magic Touch:
Giving a human touch and weaving in other elements like team building and communication skills is the new-day mantra, which will polish employees to assimilate well into the company has also giving the organisation an overview on the employee’s nature/behaviour.
Every individual knows about the company he is opting for, so the induction programme should go far beyond the obvious. The company should ensure that the transition process between the earlier company and the new one is smooth and unhindered.
Induction Meaning – Definitions Given by Different Management Scholars from Time to Time
Different management scholars have defined induction differently from time to time.
Armstrong has defined induction as, “a process of receiving and welcoming an employee when he first joins a company and giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly and start work.”
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Induction is the welcoming process to make the new employee feel at home and generate in him a feeling of belongingness to the organization.”
According to R.P. Billimoria, “Induction is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies and purposes of the organization”.
Michael Armstrong defined induction as “the process of receiving and welcoming an employee when the former joins a company and giving him/her basic information needed to settle down quickly and happily and start work”.
K. Aswathappa defined orientation as “a systematic and planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization. It is also called induction”.
Induction is a technique that facilitates rehabilitation of new employees into the new environment, and introduces them to the organizational objectives, policies and practices. Orientation may be formal or informal. Large organizations do give formal orientation to its employees. It is a well-structured and systematic orientation programme. An informal orientation is given in small organizations by the supervisors. Orientation programmes help the new employees to learn the organizational values, beliefs, norms and systems. Eventually, the new entrants fully integrate with the organization and attain job satisfaction, higher productivity and continue to serve the organization for a long time.
i. General information – The organizational values, beliefs, norms and systems, safety measures, grievance procedures, standing orders, suggestion schemes, facilities such as canteen, restrooms, vehicle parking space, etc.
ii. Organizational information – This includes the vision, mission and history of the organization, management, company policies and rules, organization structure, infrastructural facilities, probationary period, product line, employee discipline, safety and health measures, etc.
iii. Departmental information – The head of the department, production process, supervisors, trainers, colleagues, employee counsellor, etc.
iv. Personal information – Nature of job, scale of pay, working hours, training and development programmes, promotion, transfer, rest breaks, insurance and welfare benefits, separation, etc.
Induction Meaning – 3 Important Objectives: Reduce Stress and Anxiety, Avoid Reality Shock and Put the New Recruit at Ease
Objective # 1. Reduce Stress and Anxiety:
When a newcomer joins an organisation, he is a stranger to the people, workplace and work environment. He may feel insecure, shy and nervous. The first few days may be anxious and disturbing ones for him. He may have anxiety caused by not following the usual practices prevalent in the organisation, or the ‘haphazard procedures, and lack of information.
These may develop discouragement, disillusionment or defensive behaviour. Induction leads to reduction of such anxieties; dispels the irrational fears of present employees and hold colleagues responsible for assisting the newcomer so that he may feel confident.
Objective # 2. Avoid Reality Shock:
There is another reason for effective induction. It helps minimize what might be called the reality shock some new employees undergo. This reality shock is caused by the incompatibility between what the employees expect in their new jobs and the realities they are confronted with.
The newcomer may expect:
a. Opportunities for advancement;
b. Social status and prestige — (i) the feeling of doing something important, (ii) the recognition of this by others and (iii) responsibility;
c. Opportunities to use special aptitudes and educational background;
d. Challenge and adventure;
e. Opportunity to be creative and original, and
f. Lucrative salary.
But when these expectations are often not fulfilled and, therefore, result in frustrating experiences for new employees, experiences of which include jobs with low initial challenge, inadequate feedback and inadequate performance appraisals. This result is “reality shock.”
Orientation can help overcome this problem by providing for more realistic expectations on the part of new employees and more understanding on the part of the supervisors.
Objective # 3. Put the New Recruit at Ease:
Finally, the purpose of induction is to introduce the new employee and the organisation to each other, to help them become acquainted, and to help them accommodate each other. The newcomer is explained what is expected of him and for this, he is explained the rules, regulations, policies and procedures that directly affect him.
He is made aware of how his job fits into the overall operation of the organisation, his own duties and responsibilities, and to whom he should look for when he has any problem.
Induction Meaning – Well Design Elements: Physical; Organizational; Health and Safety Information; Explanation of Terms and Conditions and a Few Others
The rationale for induction is to ensure the effective integration of staff into or across the organization for their mutual benefit. Research has shown that tailor-made induction programmes help increase staff retention.
A well designed induction contains the following elements:
i. Orientation (physical) – This describes the facilities available in a company and their location. A few examples of the facilities are recreation room, welfare bureau, cooperative society, medical dispensary, etc.
ii. Orientation (organizational) – This shows how an employee fits into the team and how his role fits with the organization’s strategies and goals. A new recruit must know his/her role, the teams to which he/she is likely to be assigned, ways of improving performance learning opportunities, be aware of the career advancement system, etc.
iii. Health and safety information – Certain job profiles need information about possible health hazards and occupational safety. Employees are often required to work in an environment having toxic smells, high sound levels, dust, or other factors that may lead to health hazards. These employees must be informed about such issues prior to the commencement of their work. This is a legal requirement and hence, is obligatory for every company.
iv. Explanation of terms and conditions – This refers to the terms stated in the offer or appointment letter. The induction faculty members should explain these terms and conditions lucidly using examples to the employees.
v. Details about the organization – Details of the organization’s history, products and services, culture, and values must be provided to the employee. This information not only helps an employee understand the organization well, but also gives him a feeling of pride.
vi. Job outline and role requirements – One should know one’s job and its importance, intricacy, and qualitative requirements. Moreover, it is very important for one to have clarity about his/her role.
Both full-time and part-time staff need an induction programme. Companies should have tailor- made programmes ready for groups with specific needs. It is wise for every company to make its new recruits or even the existing ones, go through it once in a while.
Induction Meaning – 5 Basic Step Procedure: Report, Welcome, Administrative Work, Departmental Orientation and Verbal Explanations
An organisation has no obligation to make integration of the individual into the organisation as smooth and anxiety-free as possible. Whether that is achieved through a formal or informal placement orientation programme depends on the size of the organisation and the complexity of the individual’s new environment.
Many organisations develop formal orientation programmes. These might include a tour of the offices or plant, a talk about the history of the organisation, and short discussion with a representative of the Personnel Department who will describe the organisation’s benefit plans.
Other organisations may utilise an informal orientation programme which might include being assigned to another senior employee who will not only introduce the new worker to other workers but show him other things too.
There is no model induction procedure. Each industry develops its own procedures as per its needs.
The procedure should basically follow these steps:
a. First, the new person needs time and a place to report to work.
b. Second, it is very important that the supervisor or the immediate boss meet and welcome the employee to the organisation.
c. Third, administrative work should be completed. Such items as vacations, probationary period, medical absences, and suggestion systems should be covered.
d. Fourth, the departmental orientation can be conducted. This should include a get — acquainted talk, introduction to the department, explanation of the functions of the department, and job instruction and to whom he should look for help when he has any problem.
e. Fifth, verbal explanations are supplemented by a wide variety of printed material, employee hand books, flyers, employee manuals, house journals, picture stories, comics and cartoons, pamphlets, etc. along with short-guided tour around the plant.
Orientation programmes usually cover things like employee compensation benefits, personnel policies, the employee’s daily routine, company organisation and operations, and safety measures and regulations.
The new employee’s supervisor is often given an orientation checklist, personnel policies, the employee’s daily routine, company organisation and operations, and safety measures and regulations. This helps to ensure that the supervisor has covered all of the necessary orientation.
Induction Meaning – 3 Typical Methods: General Guidance by Human Resource (HR) Department, Specific Induction by Supervisor and Follow Up Induction
There are no set methods or procedures to be followed for induction. Different formal and informal methods can be used according to the outlook of the organisation. Generally, informal methods are used by small firms and big business houses adopt formal methods of induction. Duration of induction may vary from weeks to months.
A typical induction may consist of following methods:
General induction is about organisation. This first phase of induction is carried out by HR Department. Some general guidelines which are common for all employees are given in this phase.
Contents covered in this phase are:
i. Origin of company, vision and mission.
ii. Operations of the firm.
iii. Information regarding reporting time, overtime, uniform, disciplinary rules, etc.
iv. Employee service details e.g., pension plans, criteria for promotion, safety rules, etc.
It is better to take some time for giving guidance about all these aspects rather than telling everything in one day because that may lead to information overload.
Specific induction is about job and work environment. This second phase of induction is conducted by job supervisor. Different supervisors provide induction to different employees; it is not common for all.
Contents covered in this phase are:
i. Knowledge about department and work place.
ii. Introduction to peers.
iii. Information about location of canteen, washrooms, time clock, attendance place, etc.
iv. Timing of entry, exit, lunch period and rest intervals,
This induction may be conducted by supervisor or HR department. Its purpose is to check whether employee is satisfied or not. In follow up induction, employees’ feelings about job, peers and work are tried to be known. His suggestions for changes in induction programme or for any other change are invited. This information may be helpful for improving induction programme and to evaluate the strong & weak points of employee.
In this way, induction programmes may be carried out by organisations, however the content matter of programme will vary with the organisations. Follow up induction must be conducted to assess whether the employee has been able to adjust to work environment or not. It also helps to ascertain his satisfaction level. Through follow up, the misunderstandings can be clarified.
Induction Meaning – Importance from New Comers and Companies View Point
Induction has a great importance from new comers and companies’ point of view, the following points indicated the importance of induction:
1. To Acquaint the New Employee about the Details of the Company:
In induction detail information regarding the company since its history up to the latest developments in it is to be given to the new comers therefore, from the very first day he feels proud of the company in which he is working.
2. Building Confidence among the New Employees:
The new comers are totally unaware about the company, his job, nature of it, people with whom he has to work. He is very shy and has fear about the company. He may have lot of doubts and suspicion in his mind regarding working environment, about his own adjustment in it, about companies policies etc.
An effective induction programme definitely helps the new employee by giving factual information about the company and helps him how to adjust with the new, unknown environment and the people and builds confidence amongst them.
Another important aspect of induction is to provide the information regarding companies rules regulation, policies, product, services practices companies further prospect etc. Therefore new employees are aware about all this and feel comfortable and confident.
4. Acquainted with the Terms and Conditions of Employment:
The induction programme is important from the new employees point of view because this programme gives the information regarding the terms of employment/jobs working conditions, remuneration facilities, amenities social security measures promotional opportunities, rules regarding transfer, code of discipline, uniform code, organizational discipline, leaves, holidays, working hours, shift system etc. all this information is very important for the new employees.
5. Developing Team Spirit, Honest Involvement etc. among the New Employees:
Induction programme is very important for inculcating team work, team spirit, honest involvement in work, hard work, positive and co-operative attitude towards the work. Working as a responsible worker sense of oneness togetherness all such feeling help the new employee to adjust himself with the job and new working environment and can later on enjoy the job satisfaction and builds high morale.
6. Company Goals/Targets can Achieve Timely:
Induction programme achieved can directly or indirectly helps in achieving goals, targets on time and the organization to run smoothly, effectively, efficiently and profitably.
7. Self Dependent:
Induction programme gives every information about the company to the new employees, therefore they can work independently without much dependence on their superior or immediate superior. Induction is the basis of democratic management style and practice.
Due to the induction, the activities of the new employee would go in right direction. They will be positive towards the work and the company therefore they have decided to use his entire potential talent, creativity, quality, their expertise, their knowledge information etc. only for the company in which he is working. And the business organization is benefited by this can earn good profit.
Induction Meaning – Programme: Constituents, Types, Requisites and Evaluation
Induction procedure and programmes, whether formal or informal, facilitate new employee adjustment and they, are a part of the total process of organizational assimilation. An organization is interested in having a smooth and anxiety-free integration of the individual into the organization.
Many organizations develop formal orientation programmes which may be spread over periods of time ranging from a day or two to few weeks or even months. Much will depend on the size and resources of the organization. Larger organizations may have a formal programme on the first day of work with talks, films, etc.
Many organizations benefit from extending this initial activity with less formal induction at the place of work. Some organizations use an informal orientation programme and assign the new employee to another senior employee for smooth induction.
There is no model induction procedure and programme. Each organization develops its own procedures and programmes as per its needs.
However, a typical induction programme and orientation programme should cover a variety of subjects. Firstly, the employee will want to know something of the organization itself, its structure, philosophy and the main aspects of its business. Secondly, he will be concerned with those things that affect him immediately like the conditions of employment and facilities available.
Information on rules and procedures, safety precautions, payment systems and first-aid or medical arrangements is important. The general layout of the offices should be explained and special mention should be made of essentials such as toilets and catering services. In order to give a clear picture, a conducted tour of relevant sections serves better. Those with certain functions should be identified by name or by introduction for instance, the librarian, or salaries clerk and the employee should be introduced to those with whom he will be working.
Work itself is again an important aspect and so are the organization standards as to performance of duties, attendance and punctuality, behaviour etc. Other important matters are grievance procedure, discipline handling, recreation services, suggestion schemes etc.
“Indoctrination” refers to the guided adjustment of a new employee to the organization and its work environment. Employee indoctrination involves the process of recognizing one’s position in relationship to other persons, positions, departments, and factors within the environment. Induction and orientation are other related terms used to describe this employment sub function. Although these three – induction, orientation and indoctrination are synonymous ideas, personnel practitioners may differentiate at times among these three concepts.
Indoctrination seeks to establish favourable employee attitudes towards the organization, its policies, and its personnel. Orientation procedures help to instill a feeling of belonging and acceptance that, in turn, help to generate enthusiasm and high morals.
By- products of a well-run indoctrination programme may be fewer rule violations, discharges, quits, grievances, and misunderstanding. However, dysfunctional aspects of indoctrination may also exist in the form of conformity, group thinking, and emphasis on peer loyalty instead of work achievement.
Induction needs are not limited to new recruits. An organization’s existing employees who are promoted or transferred also need help to settle quickly in to their new jobs. Sometimes job changes involve greater need than recruits for adjusting to the new jobs.
An induction programme includes the following constituents:
The first and foremost step in induction programme is to determine the objectives of it. These objectives must be specific, precise and clear cut.
(2) Determining the Schedule of the Induction Programme:
After determining the objective of the induction programme, the next step is to determine the schedule out of it. When it will start and when it will finish. The duration and timing of the induction has to be decided in advance.
(3) Determining the Venue of the Induction Programme:
Where the induction programme will take place has to be deciding in advance. Mostly the formal induction takes place at seminar or conference hall of the company where all the new employees assemble for it.
(4) Determining the Instructor of the Induction Programme:
For induction programme the instructor may be supervisor, line manager, job trainer, staff officer, senior manager or director. The selection of the instructor depends on the nature of the job, position of the new employee, type of information and instruction to be given.
(5) Determining the Subject Matter:
The subject matter or content in the heart of the induction. In a formal induction programme the following aspect are generally covered.
(a) Detail Information about the Organisation:
Since history of the company up to the latest position of the company, the entire information is given to the new comers for example, philosophy, operations of the company, its promoters, directors, its products or services, its markets, customers organization structure and hierarchy, plant layout of the organization etc.
(b) Companies Policies, Procedures and Practices:
Induction includes one of the important element is to give the information regarding the terms and conditions of employment, code of discipline, rules and regulations to be observed, grievance handling procedure, standards of work, dress or uniform code, timings of arrival and departure, leaves and holidays, about overtime work etc. The detail information regarding company policies, procedures and practices is given to the new comers by the instructor.
(c) Information about Job or Work:
An instructor has to give the job description including major task, duties, responsibilities, authority given, machine, tools required, and safety measures available. All these must be cleared to the new employees who ultimately resulted in smooth working of an organization.
(d) Detail Information about the Facilities and Amenities Available:
New comers are highly interested in what facilities such as transportation, residential accommodation rest room, drinking water facilities, washing room, sanitation, recreation facility, sports club, canteen etc. are provided to the employees along with this, what prerequisites, convenience, additional benefits or amenities are available to them they are very much interested in this also.
(e) To Provide Information Regarding Team Work:
In induction programme the new comers must be introduce to his immediate supervisor, his colleagues or co-workers, his subordinates etc. so that team work can be easily achieved. Employees are working in formal and informal groups which help them to generate team spirit in working environment.
(6) Determining and Preparing the List of Employees to be Inducted:
Another important component of the induction programme is preparing the list of employees to be inducted such as clerical staff, supervisory staff, technical employees, operative employees, non- operative employees managerial personnel etc. shall be clear even such new employees have to be informed in advance so that they may also be prepared themselves for the induction programme.
Types of Induction Programme:
Induction programmes are generally classified as organizational induction, departmental induction, job induction, and human induction.
i. Organizational induction – This is used when a new employee is oriented to the evolution of the organization, its vision, mission, goals, strategies, and setup. In addition, new recruits are also briefed about the history of the current state of the organization, its financial position, and accounting ratios.
ii. Departmental induction – This is used when a new employee is oriented to the particular department where he/she has to work and the interdependencies of various departments, the suppliers, and the customers. In addition, they are told about related departments such as planning, store, quality control, and maintenance departments.
iii. Job induction – The new recruits are oriented to the job or tasks they are supposed to perform. They should learn the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, criticality of the job, the function of the component in the assembly, quality parameters, inspection criteria, etc.
iv. Human induction – The new recruits are introduced to all the personnel with whom they would have to interact frequently. In case of salespersons, they are introduced to customers. The major customers are invited to the organization when the new recruits are introduced.
It is also important to remember that in any induction programme, certain prerequisites are required for its effectiveness and continuous use. Unless these prerequisites are fulfilled, the induction may not be effective.
The following are the prerequisites for a successful induction programme:
i. Extending a Warm Welcome:
The new entrants should be received and made to feel very much required in the organization. This good feeling will integrate them with the existing productive group and make them responsible and loyal to the organization.
ii. Deciding on the Needed Information:
The new employees feel estranged to the organization. Before the start of the induction programme, the organizers should decide well in advance the important information the employees must know at present and in near future to make them feel comfortable. In course of induction they should be provided with all necessary information.
iii. Revealing the Relevant Information:
The new entrants are anxious to know relevant important information about the organization, their job, internal environments and so on. In a right mode and manner of communication to feel comfortable and at ease, all the necessary information should be revealed.
iv. The Resource Person:
The effectiveness of induction programme depends upon who conducts it. It is so because the subject knowledge, communicative skills, ability to make an impressive presentation, capacity to make use of other electrical and electronic gadgets in teaching learning process and the context in which it should be done all relies on the resource person.
Like any other teaching and learning programme, an induction programme should also be evaluated to find and check its impact and make necessary corrective actions.
A systematic orientation program should have an evaluation and follow-up. Evaluating the costs and benefits of the orientation program can follow several approaches. Trainees can be asked to evaluate the benefits of orientation by administrating a questionnaire.
To measure how well the orientation program has met its objectives, the HR manager may use:
a. Testing or questionnaires to check if factual material was being learned.
b. The checklist
c. Evaluation forms or opinions
d. Discussions with immediate supervisors of newly oriented employees
e. Formal or informal interviews during probationary periods or at the end of a month’s employment.
f. Exit or terminal interviews
Induction Meaning – Advantages and Barriers
An induction is not of only beneficial to the employee but to the business organization also.
The following are the advantages of the induction:
An induction is a media or a channel of passing the entire information to the new employees, therefore they call as well informed employees. Well knowledgeable employees are the live asset of the organization. They are aware of all the information about the company.
An induction is a best face to face two way channel of communication. No doubts, suspension remains in the mind of new employees, their doubts, queries are cleared during this programme. This helps in establishing a rapport between the new employees and the company. All types of misunderstanding, confusion, doubts are removed by this programme.
Induction helps in building team work, team spirit both in formal and informal working groups which helps the company in long run.
Due to induction new employees can integrate into the existing working environment in a well manner and can develop a sense of honest involvement and belonging also. They work sincerely with positive attitude towards the work and organization.
Well planned induction helps to minimize labour turnover, absenteeism, disputes, and grievances, amongst the employees. He is well versed about the company policies, plans targets objectives and their new employees.
A formal induction programme also changes the attitude of the management looking towards their employees from negative to positive and start taking interest in their new employees. Its first impression about the company management may remain for a long time as a good image.
Once the new employees impressed by the organization through induction programme such employees are instrument in developing good public relation and enhancing a good image of the company. A Company can be successfully attracting this good successful employee in it. Induction enhances the good will and reputation of the company.
The main barriers in the successful conduct of induction programme of an organization are the following:
1. The supervisor who is in charge of the job of induction is not well trained or he is too bossy.
2. The new employee is overloaded with the forms to fill.
3. The new employee is overwhelmed with so much information in a short time.
4. The new employee is thrown into action so soon.
5. The new employee may develop wrong perceptions because of faulty process of induction.
6. The new employee may be asked to perform challenging tasks initially where chances of failure are high. This might discourage job involvement, interest and commitment.