Employee Discipline aims at promoting adaptability among employees so that they may adjust themselves according to the requirement and give their best to the organisation.
It also aims at enabling the employees to behave in the desired fashion, to have respect for their seniors, to follow rules, regulations and procedures, to increase output at the least cost, to boost morale of the employees, to make them feel more confident, to improve human relations and IR, to discourage violation of rules and regulations by employees, and so on.
In the words of Ordway Tead,
“discipline is the orderly conduct of affairs by the members of an organisation who adhere to its necessary regulations because they desire to cooperate harmoniously in forwarding the end which the group has in view, and willingly recognise that, to do this, their wishes must be brought into a reasonable unison with the requirements of the group in action.”
1. Definitions of Employee Discipline 2. Meaning of Employee Discipline 3. Concept and Aspect 4. Objectives 5. Approaches
6. Principles of Effective Discipline 7. Procedure for Disciplinary Action 8. Types 9. Requirements of Effective Discipline 10. Discipline Management Process 11. Indiscipline.
What is Employee Discipline:- Definitions, Objectives, Principles, Process, Management and Other Details
- Definitions of Employee Discipline
- Meaning of Employee Discipline
- Concept and Aspect of Employee Discipline
- Objectives of Employee Discipline
- Approaches to Employee Discipline
- Principles of Effective Employee Discipline
- Types of Employee Discipline
- Requirements of Effective Employee Discipline
- Employee Discipline Management Process
- Employee Indiscipline
- Procedure for Disciplinary Action
Employee Discipline – Definitions Given by Some Eminent Authors like Richard D.Calhoon, William R. Spriegel and Ordway Tead
According to Richard D. Calhoon, “Discipline may be considered as a force that prompts individuals or groups to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an organization”.
William R. Spriegel and Edward Schultz define discipline as “The force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective, it is force or fear of force which restrains an individual or a group from doing things which are deemed to be destructive of group objectives. It is also the exercise of restraint or the enforcement of penalties for the violation of group regulations”.
In the opinion of Ordway Tead, “Discipline is the order, members of an organization who adhere to its necessary regulations because they desire to cooperate harmoniously in forwarding the end which the group has in view”.
Thus, discipline can now be defined as a condition in the organization when employees conduct themselves in accordance with the organization’s rules and standards of acceptable behaviour.
According to Dr. W. R. Spriegel, “discipline is the force that prompts an individual or a group to observe the rules, regulations or procedure which are seemed to be necessary to the attainment of an objective. It is force or fear which restrains an individual or a group from doing certain things which are deemed to be distractive for group objectives. It is also the exercise of restraint or the enforcement of penalties for the violation of group regulations.”
Thus discipline can be said as an attitude of mind, a product of culture, and a particular environment which promotes an individual to willingly cooperate in the observance of the rules of the organisation to which he belongs.
This conforming or willingness to work for the objectives of his organisation have to come from within though at times they may have to be improved by an external agency.
Employee Discipline – Meaning
Discipline is defined by Calhoon as “a force that prompts individuals or groups to observe the rules, regulations and procedures which are deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an organization”.
The verb discipline is defined as “to bring under control” or “to train to obedience and order”.
Klebster’s Dictionary gives three meanings of the word discipline:
(i) It is the training that corrects, moulds, strengthens or perfects
(ii) It is control gained by enforcing obedience.
(iii) Punishment, chastisement.
In the work situation there is usually an attempt to modify the offending employee’s behaviour so that it more closely accords with the management’s requirements. Whist the possibility of sanctions is ever present, the focus is on problem solving. Thus, “Discipline” means orderliness, obedience and maintenance of proper subordinating among employees and a check or restraint on the liberty of individual.
It is at once a training that corrects, moulds and strengthens the individual behaviour. It is also a force which prompts an individual or group to observe certain rules, regulations and procedures that are considered to be necessary for the attainment of an objective.
Discipline is essentially an attitude of the mind, a product of culture and environment. The approach to discipline will depend on the supervisor and the general ethos of the organization, but most people now recognize that many of the old sanctions, relatively easy to apply, are no longer appropriate Inculcating self-discipline is the right approach and the superior’s own example, consistency and integrity will do much to achieve acceptable behaviour. Where the superior is respected, he can expect tacit support.
Discipline is at its best when it has been developed from within and not imposed from outside; and at the same time it has to be reformative and not punitive. It should be founded on leadership, loyalty, and love. Wisdom of Soloman (617) mentions clearly that for the true very beginning of wisdom is the desire of discipline; and the core of discipline is love.
The word discipline comes from two very nice words- “discipulus” meaning pupil and “discare”- to learn. Discipline then is the devotion of a disciple towards his learning. In self-discipline obviously the emphasis is to know where one is going and to focus one’s attention on one’s purpose. Discipline in this sense refers to the development of the individual.
In “positive” discipline, there is willingness to comply that comes from the desire to cooperate in achieving the common goal of the organization The emphasis here is on cooperative efforts to secure compliance to organizational norms.
On the other hand, “Negative” discipline involves force or an outward influence. It is the traditional approach to discipline and is identified with ensuring that subordinates adhere strictly to rules and punishment is meted out in the event of disobedience and indiscipline. The fear of punishment works as a deterrent in the mind of the subordinate. Approaching discipline from this kind of a perspective has been proving increasingly ineffective. Employee Discipline.
Employee Discipline – Concept and Aspect
In the words of Ordway Tead, “discipline is the orderly conduct of affairs by the members of an organisation who adhere to its necessary regulations because they desire to cooperate harmoniously in forwarding the end which the group has in view, and willingly recognise that, to do this, their wishes must be brought into a reasonable unison with the requirements of the group in action.”
The objectives of discipline are:
(1) To gain willing acceptance of the rules, regulations, standards and procedures of the organisation front the employees.
(2) To promote morale and efficiency among the workers.
(3) To develop the feeling of cooperation among the workers.
(4) To develop a sense of tolerance and respect for human dignity.
(5) To maintain good industrial relations in the organisation.
Aspect of Discipline:
There are two aspects of discipline, positive aspect or negative aspect. In the positive aspect, discipline means a sense of duty to observe the rules and regulations. It is called as self- discipline. It can be achieved through rewards and effective leadership. It involves creation of an atmosphere in the organisation whereby employees willingly can form to the established rules and regulations.
On the other hand, in negative aspect of discipline punishments are used to force workers to obey rules and regulations. The objective is to ensure that employees do not violate the rules and regulations. Negative disciplinary action involves techniques such as fines, reprimand, demotion, layoff, transfer etc. Negative discipline does not eliminate undesirable behaviour rather suppresses it.
Employee Discipline – 9 Important Objectives: To Punish Guilty Employee, To Accomplish Goal, To Develop a Responsive Workforce, To Reduce Supervision and a Few Others
1. To Punish Guilty Employee:
The purpose of discipline is to punish those employees who violate the rules and regulations. Discipline impose predominantly on the threat of punitive action in the organisation.
2. To Accomplish Goal:
Discipline is maintained by an organisation with the aim to obtain a willing acceptance of the rules, regulations and procedures of an organisation so that organisational objectives can be attained. In fact, all efforts that are directed towards the maintenance of discipline must end-up with the accomplishment of organisational goals; in case it is not done the imposition of discipline will be of no beneficial.
3. To Develop a Responsive Workforce:
Discipline is maintained to make the employees conform to the standards in the organisation. This obviously facilitates the employees in avoiding reckless and insubordinate behaviour and keeps them responsive and disciplined.
4. Change Employee Behaviour:
Organisations aim at bringing in the desired behaviour among the employees through discipline. The existence of the discipline policy can help the employees check their behaviour against the standards and develop a spirit of tolerance and a desire to make adjustments and changes in their behaviour, if is necessary.
To illustrate, discipline may caution the low performers of the organisation and can compel them to alter their behaviour so as to meet the performance standards.
5. To Foster Employee Relations:
To foster good employee relations in the organisation is the main objective of discipline. Discipline issues often cause a lot of strain in the union-management relations. However, through objective and transparent disciplinary process, unions are made convinced about the fairness of the process and get their continued cooperation in the future in organisations.
6. To Reduce Supervision:
Employee Discipline aims at close supervision in the organisations. Discipline system and policies develop self-discipline among the employees, which, in turn, eliminate the necessity of closely supervising the performance and behaviour of the employees. Therefore, discipline, organisations can bring reduction in the cost of supervision without compromising on its quality.
7. Ensures Consistency in Action:
It aims to ensure consistency in the disciplinary actions of different managers while dealing with acts of indiscipline of similar nature and intensity. They try to ensure consistency in the disciplinary actions of the supervisors in different periods of time.
8. To Enhance Morale and Motivation:
Enhancing employee motivation and morale through a fair discipline system is the main aim of every organisation. When the employees perceive that the discipline policy of their organisation is fair and legitimate, they willingly work hard to avoid any disciplinary action against them.
On the contrary to it when an act of indiscipline getting a fair and quick punishment, they feel proud of their disciplined behaviour. This feeling provides a sense of satisfaction, motivation, and commitment to the employees. Eventually, it brings improvement in then morale.
9. To Exercise Better Control Over Employees:
One of the main objective of discipline is to supplement the efforts of managers and supervisors to exercise effective control over subordinates. Since the authority to take disciplinary action is normally vested with the supervisors, it creates fear in the minds of the employees and forces them to comply with the instructions of their supervisors.
Employee Discipline – 5 Main Approaches: The Hot Stove Rule, Negative Discipline, Positive Discipline, Human Relations and Judicial Approach
There are several approaches to discipline, though ‘positive’ discipline approach and ‘negative’ discipline approach have been in much limelight.
The main approaches are as follows:
1. The Hot Stove Rule:
One view of discipline is referred to as the hot stove rule. In case a person touches a hot stove, he/she is likely to sustain burn injuries. Hence, the hot stove rule involves –
a. Warning system – It is expected of a good management to warn its subordinates the consequences of the undesirable behaviour.
b. Immediate burn – In order to maintain discipline, action should happen immediately so that the accused should see the connection between the act and discipline.
c. Consistency – As the hot stove burns everyone alike, any employee who performs the same undesirable act will be disciplined similarly.
d. Impersonality – Disciplinary action is not pointed towards a person; it is meant to eliminate undesirable behaviours. Punishment should be impersonal in application.
2. Negative Discipline/Progressive Discipline Approach:
Negative discipline is also known as punitive, enforced, autocratic or coercive discipline. In it, violators of rules and regulations suffer penalties. The purpose of negative discipline is to scare others, that is, to keep others in line and to ensure that they do not indulge in undesirable behaviour. It is deterrent in nature.
It involves the use of techniques such as reprimands, fines, lay-offs, demotions, transfers and the like. In progressive discipline, a sequence of penalties is administered, that is, each subsequent one is slightly more severe than the previous one.
For example, while the first violation may attract an oral warning within 24 hours of return to work and a written record of the act to be kept in the file of the employee concerned, the second violation may invite written warning which is to be kept in the employee’s file.
The third violation may result in two-week lay-off without pay and the record of the same to be kept in the employee’s file. The fourth violation may attract dismissal of the employee concerned. Proper documentation of everything is very important in this approach.
3. Positive Discipline Approach:
In the foregoing two approaches, the focus is on the past behaviour. However, employees disciplined in a punitive way may not necessarily build commitment into their jobs. Hence, a better approach, known as positive approach, came into prominence, which is future-oriented and aims at solving the problems in consultation with employees in such a way that the problem does not arise again.
It aims at reformation. In some organisations, instead of issuing a warning, if an act of indiscipline is committed, only a reminder about behaviour is issued. For repeated violation(s), instead of imposing fine or suspension, a ‘decision-making leave’ is sanctioned.
If the employee, even after the aforesaid leave, does not commit to the rules, his/her services are terminated. This approach recognises that people make mistakes. Although it de-emphasises punitive action, it uses the most punishing consequence of all, being discharged.
Positive discipline emphasises the concepts of self-discipline, team spirit, respect for rules, regulations and procedures, regard for supervisors, greater freedom for development, and willingness to cooperate and coordinate.
It believes in talking to the employee and counselling him/her to behave. Positive approach is thus a soft approach and evokes better response when the management applies the principle of positive motivation.
4. Human Relations Approach:
Human relations approach, which is also known as humanistic approach, is a soft approach and aims at healthy interpersonal relationship between the employees and their supervisors. In it, efforts are made to enable the accused employee to improve his/her behaviour. Hence, the problem is thoroughly analysed, its root cause is found out and remedial steps are taken.
5. Judicial Approach:
In this approach, the relevant Acts such as the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, and the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, play an important role in the maintenance of discipline. Employees know the consequences of violating the provisions of the Acts and, therefore, take due precautions in respect of their work behaviour. There are many labour laws which also help directly or indirectly in maintaining discipline in an organisation.
Thus, we see that each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages. Although it cannot be said that which of the discussed approaches is foolproof, positive discipline approach appears to be a relatively better option because it is not restrictive in nature and prompts employees to fall in line with the rules, regulations, procedures and guidelines issued by their respective organisations.
Employee Discipline – 15 Principles for Effective Discipline in an Organisation
Today, the manner in which discipline is maintained is often quite different because the employees are better educated and no longer accept the supervisor’s disciplinary action as being absolute. Unions also exert considerable influence in the manner in which disciplinary action is administered.
Therefore, for effective discipline in an organisation, the following principles must be considered:
1. Think out how to reduce the need to discipline to a minimum like constant and sincere interest in each worker’s welfare on and off the Job.
2. Discipline should be constructive
3. Disciplinary action should not be initiated unless there is obvious need for it.
4. Discipline not to be administered on a routine basis. Each case to be treated individually.
5. Have all the facts and circumstances
6. Give the employee a chance to present his side of the story.
7. Know what is in the worker’s mind. It helps to discover the way of his action.
8. Never discipline an employee in the presence of others.
9. Do not attempt to discipline a group to reach a few offences.
10. Take action as soon as possible after the concurrence.
11. The right timing is important
12. The discipline measure should be sufficiently served to meet the situation. Consistency in disciplinary action is very important.
13. If you have made a mistake, be willing to admit it.
14. Once disciplinary action is taken resume normal attitude towards an offending employee.
15. Every action taken requires auditing in due course to find out-
(i) Whether the situation stands corrected.
(ii) Whether the employee now has a desire to do right and the employee feels that the action was for his own betterment.
(iii) Did the action produce the desired effects on the rest of the employees?
Employee Discipline – 3 Types: Positive, Negative and Progressive Discipline
The positive concept of discipline assumes a certain degree of self-discipline. It involves the creation of an attitude of mind and an organisational climate in which employees willingly conform to rules and regulations. This discipline is achieved when management applies the principles of positive motivation and an appropriate leadership is exercised by superior.
Positive discipline requires certain pre-requisites to be fulfilled:
(i) The aim is to help and not harm to the employee
(ii) Communicate requirements of Job and rules to the employees
(iii) Performance standards to be fair and consistent from Job to job
(iv) Superior builds a climate of responsibility and observes self-discipline so that others may follow him, the principle being ‘example is better than precept’.
(v) He recognizes individual differences among his men and varies his methods.
An employee gains sense of security when he knows how far he can go and what the limits and he is helped to conform. Positive discipline is also known as Cooperative discipline or determinate discipline.
2. Negative Discpline:
In this type of discipline the employees are forced to obey orders or do work according to rules by the use of penalties, threat, fear or force. This kind of discipline ensures only the minimum performance on the part of employees, so that they may avoid penalties. This discipline is also known as Punitive, Corrective or Autocratic Discipline.
The approaches of negative discipline are:
(i) ‘Big Shick’, Rule-thro ‘fear’, ‘Be lough’ line
(ii) Punishment to be deterrent i.e., make one an example for others
(iii) No emphasis on why
(iv) No supervisory fact is essential for it.
(v) A mere dealing with misconduct
3. Progressive Discipline:
It is liberal in nature and it progresses sequentially, chronologically and systematically through a prescribed series of steps. These steps are an oral reprimand, a written reprimand, a second written warning, temporary suspension and dismissal or discharge to comply the principle of ‘Natural Justice’.
Employee Discipline – Requirements of Effective Employee Discipline
Requirements of effective discipline are different in the present climate of “knowledge era”, where employees, are’ better educated and do not acquiesce unquestioningly to autocratic behaviour. Unions also influence on disciplinary matters.
For effective discipline the following principles need to be considered:
i. Discipline should be constructive, and emphasis on work efficiency rather than adaptation of rules and regulations.
ii. Disciplinary action should not be initiated unless there is imperative need for it
iii. Discipline is not to be administered unthinkingly. Each case should be treated keeping the specifics in view.
iv. All facts regarding a case should be collected to gain proper appreciation of the case.
v. Employee should be given a fair chance to explain his side of the story.
vi. Attempt should be made to know the worker’s perception. It helps better appreciation of the situation. Also, admission of mistake on the part of the offending party should be encouraged.
vii. Employee should not be disciplined in the presence of his colleagues or subordinates.
viii. Right timing of action is important. Action should be taken as soon as possible after the occurrence of questionable behaviour.
ix. Corrective measure should be adequately served in order to be effective.
x. Consistency in disciplinary action is important.
xi. Once disciplinary action is taken normal attitude should be resumed towards the offending employee.
xii. Occasions of ‘disciplining’ should be reduced to the minimum by showing constant and sincere interest in each worker’s welfare on and off the job.
xiii. Admission of mistake should be encouraged On the part of the offending party.
xiv. Every action taken requires auditing in due course to judge its efficacy, specifically in terms of –
(a) The extent to which the situation was corrected.
(b) Extent to which the employee realized his mistake.
(c) Impact on organisational climate.
Employee Discipline – Discipline Management Process: 7 Step Process
The discipline management process can be described as a cyclical process comprising of the following steps:
1. Misconduct by an employee
2. Observation and early intervention
3. Identification of problem
4. Establishing clear expectations
5. Communication & feedback
6. Positive reinforcement & encouragement
7. Follow up and support
The disciplinary procedure starts with the observation/identification of the misconduct of an employee. It is followed up by early interventions from the managerial side followed by a thorough analysis of the problem. In 1990 Walter Kiechel proposed the “Red Hot Stove Rule” to administer discipline in an organization.
The manager then involves an interactive session with the “problem employee” and communicates clear expectations of ideal behaviour from the employee and makes an attempt to reinforce the same by instrumenting positive reinforcement and encouragement. This is followed by constant support and feedback.
Employee Discipline – Indiscipline: Factors, Forms and Principal Causes of Indiscipline
Indiscipline refers to the absence of discipline. Indiscipline, therefore, means nonconformity to formal and informal rules and regulations. No organization can afford indiscipline as it will affect the morale, motivation and involvement of employees. Indiscipline often leads to chaos, confusion, and reduces the efficiency of the organization. It often leads to strikes, go-slows, and absenteeism, resulting in loss of production, profits and wages.
Various socio-economic and cultural factors play a role in creating indiscipline in an organization. It is important for an individual to realize the fact that often indiscipline may arise because of poor management on his part.
Insensitive and thoughtless words and deeds from a manager are potent reasons for subordinates to resort to acts of indiscipline. Defective communication by the superiors and ineffective leadership devoid of tactful human relations approach can cause indiscipline among subordinates. Indiscipline may be an outcome of a manager’s non-response to employee grievances.
Unfair practices on the part of management like the wage differentials, unreasonable declaration of payment of bonus or non-payment, wrong work assignments, defective grievance handling etc. Another reason for indiscipline is perhaps the payment of low wages and extraction of more work due to which the employee becomes dissatisfied, dishonest and insubordinate.
Poverty, frustration, indebtedness start overshadowing his mind thus making him agitated and undisciplined. His mind and thoughts are more towards destruction than constructive discipline very often he doesn’t even get an opportunity to express his feelings and sentiments. He gradually begins to express his grievance by way of absenting himself, coming late to the place of work, inefficiency, insubordination, and other forms of misconduct.
Absenteeism, insubordination, violation of organizational rules, gambling, incompetence, damage to machinery and property, dishonesty and other forms of disloyalty lead to industrial indiscipline. These are all forms of misconduct against management. If an act of an employee is prejudicial or likely to be prejudicial to the interests of the employer or to his reputation, it is a misconduct.
It is very difficult to lay down exhaustively as to what would constitute misconduct and indiscipline. It would depend upon examination of facts. Most such offences against discipline relate to attendance, punctuality, regularity, insubordination, loafing, fighting, drunkenness, stealing, breaking or defacing property, negligence of duty, and so on. A list of the acts of omission and commission which may constitute misconduct is mentioned in the clause 14 of the Model Standing Orders applicable to industrial establishments, and clause 17 applicable to coal mines.
Non-performance of duty is a serious misconduct; and so is threat to use weapons. Under the act of negligence, an employee fails to give full care and attention on account of which the work becomes defective, and production suffers both in quantity and quality. Insubordination, assault or threat to superior officers, defamation, making false complaint are all acts of indiscipline. Non-performance of work during office hours, tempering with official records, misappropriation of accounts are acts of indiscipline which are considered to be of serious gravity.
Most of the disciplinary problems do not occur overnight, but they gradually develop and many of the tendencies toward misconduct or indiscipline could be remedied if proper and timely action is taken by the supervisors.
Taking long lunch hours, not actively working on the job, gossiping and whiling away time, carelessness and tardiness etc. show lax attitudes which have developed over a long period of time because they were tolerated. It is rightly said that first we develop habits and attitudes and later on they develop us. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to put out fires while they are small and yet to spread. A stitch in time would save nine!
Yet another crucial point is to probe, deeper in order to find out the basic underlying causes of indisciplinery problems. Instead of going by the outward symptoms and manifestations of misconduct, it is essential to pinpoint and alleviate the root causes of disciplinary problems.
In most cases, management wishes to help the employee to overcome his difficulties. A further point is that management will wish to try to ensure that the malaise does not spread to other staff. Justice must not only be done; it must be seen to be done.
The main causes of indiscipline may now be stated.
Some of these are:
1. Non-placement of the right person on the right job which is suitable for his qualifications, experience and training;
2. Undesirable behaviour of senior officials, who may have set a pattern of behaviour which they expect their subordinates to follow; but their expectations are often belied, and an infringement of rules follows;
3. Faulty evaluations of persons and situations by executives lead to favouritism, which generates undisciplined behaviour;
4. Lack of upward communication, as a result of which the thoughts, feelings and reactions of employees cannot be conveyed to the top management. This may lead to aggressive or rebellious behaviour;
5. Leadership which is weak, flexible, incompetent and distrustful of subordinates is often an instrument which makes for the creation of indiscipline among the employees, particularly when a decision is taken in haste and withdrawn under pressure;
6. Defective supervision and an absence of good supervisors who know good techniques, who are in a position to appreciate critically the efforts of their subordinates, who can listen patiently to them, who are capable of giving definite and specific instructions, and who believe in correcting their men rather than in uprooting them;
7. Lack of properly drawn rules and regulations, or the existence of rules and regulations which are so impracticable that they cannot be observed; and the absence of service manuals and a code of behaviour;
8. The “divide and rule” policy of the management, as a result of which friction and misunderstanding are created among the employees which destroy their team spirit;
9. Illiteracy and the low intellectual level of workers as well as their social background; for example, there may be indebtedness, drinking habits, casteism and other social evils from which an employee may suffer;
10. Workers’ reactions to the rigidity and multiplicity of rules and their improper interpretation;
11. Workers’ personal problems, their fears, apprehensions, hopes and aspirations; and their lack of confidence in, and their inability to adjust with, their superiors and equals;
12. Intolerably bad working conditions;
13. Inborn tendencies to flout rules;
14. Absence of enlightened, sympathetic and scientific management;
15. Errors of judgement on the part of the supervisor or the top management;
16. Discrimination based on caste, colour, creed, sex, language and place in matters of selection, promotion, transfer, placement, and discrimination in imposing penalties and handing out rewards;
17. Undesirable management practices, policies and activities aiming at the control of workers; e.g., employment of spies, undue harassment of workers with a view to creating a fear complex among them, and the autocratic attitude of supervisors towards their subordinates;
18. Improper co-ordination, delegation of authority and fixing of responsibility; and
19. Psychological and sociological reasons, including misunderstanding, rivalry and distrust among workers and supervisors, an absence of fellow-feeling, a widespread sense of injustice, or apathy on the part of the management.
Employee Discipline – Procedure for Disciplinary Action: 6 Step Process
Although there is no specific procedure to be followed, the following steps to be taken into consideration:
(a) An Accurate Statement of the Disciplinary Problem:
The first step is to ascertain the problem by seeking answers to the following questions-
(i) Does this case call for a disciplinary action?
(ii) What exactly is the nature of the violation of offence?
(iii) Under what condition it occur?
(iv) Which individual or individuals were involved in it?
(v) When or how often did the violation occur?
(b) Facts Behaving on the Case:
Before any action is taken in a case it is essential to gather all the facts about it. A thorough examination of the case should be made within the stipulated time limit The facts gathered should be such as can be produced before a higher authority; and when needed.
(c) Selection of Tentative Penalties:
The application of the penalty to be impressed for an offence should be determined beforehand. Should it be a simple reprimand a financial or non-financial penalty? or should it be demotion, temporary discharge or outright discharge?
(d) Choice of Penalty:
When a decision has been taken to improve a penalty, the punishment to be awarded should be such as would prevent a recurrence of the offence. If the punishment is higher than it should be, it may encourage the violation of the same rule or another, if it is greater than it should be it may lead to a grievance.
(e) Application of the Penalty:
The application of the penalty involves a positive and assured attitude on the part of the management. If the disciplinary action is a simple the executive should calmly or quickly dispose of the matter. But when severe action is called for a fortnight, serious or determined attitude is highly desirable.
(f) Follow-Up on Disciplinary Action:
The ultimate purpose of a disciplinary action is to maintain discipline to ensure production by and avoid repetition of the offence. A disciplinary action should therefore be evaluated in the term of its effectiveness after it has been taken. In other words there should be a more careful supervision of the persons against whom a disciplinary action has been taken.