Everything you need to know about employee absenteeism. Employee’s presence at work place during the scheduled time is highly essential for the smooth running of the production process in particular and the organisation in general.

Despite the significance of their presence, employees sometime fail to report at the work place during the scheduled time, which is known as ‘absenteeism’. Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation.

Absenteeism means an individual remain absent without any information or intimation to his superior. Whether it is one day or more, the issue of absenteeism and unscheduled leave has always been of importance to businesses interested in their bottom line.

Absenteeism can occur at mass level also. Normally, 6-8 % absenteeism is found in all industry. If it beyond consecutively, then the matter is serious.


According to Webster’s Dictionary, “Absenteeism is the practice of habit of being an “absentee,” and “absentee” is one who habitually trace away”

Absenteeism in Indian industries is not a new phenomenon. It is the manifestation of a decision by employees not to present themselves at their place of work, at a time when it is planned by the management that they should be in attendance.

Many research reports reveal that there has been a phenomenal increase in absenteeism in some industrial sectors.

In this article we will discuss about employee absenteeism. Learn about:- 1. Meaning and Types of Employee Absenteeism 2. Definition of Employee Absenteeism 3. Peculiar Feature 4. Causes and Impact 5. Management 6. Measures for Control 7. Absenteeism in India.

Employee Absenteeism: Meaning, Types, Features, Management, Causes, Impact and Measures



  1. Meaning and Types of Employee Absenteeism
  2. Definition of Employee Absenteeism
  3. Peculiar Feature of Employee Absenteeism
  4. Causes and Impact of Employee Absenteeism
  5. Management of Employee Absenteeism
  6. Measures for Control of Employee Absenteeism
  7. Employee Absenteeism in India

Employee Absenteeism  Meaning and Types

Meaning of Employee Absenteeism:

Employee’s presence at work place during the scheduled time is highly essential for the smooth running of the production process in particular and the organisation in general. Despite the significance of their presence, employees sometime fail to report at the work place during the scheduled time, which is known as ‘absenteeism’.

Labour Bureau, Shimla, defined the term ‘absenteeism’ as “the failure of a worker to report for work when he is scheduled to work.” Labour Bureau also states that “absenteeism is the total man-shifts lost because of absence as a percentage of the total number of man-shifts scheduled to work.”

According to Webster’s Dictionary, “absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an ‘absence’ and an absentee is one who habitually stays away”.


Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Absenteeism means an individual remain absent without any information or intimation to his superior. Whether it is one day or more, the issue of absenteeism and unscheduled leave has always been of importance to businesses interested in their bottom line. Absenteeism can occur at mass level also. Normally, 6-8 % absenteeism is found in all industry. If it beyond consecutively, then the matter is serious.

Absence from the duty in the following cases – should be included in absenteeism:

a. If employee is on CL/SL/EL—should be include in absenteeism

b. If employee in on Official Duty—should be include in absenteeism


c. Without Pay—should be include in absenteeism

How to Calculate the Rate of Absenteeism:

Rate of absenteeism = (No. of man days planned to work / No. of man days planned to work) X 100



Rate of absenteeism = (Man days lost during a period / Average no. of workers x no. of works Days) X 100

Types of Employee Absenteeism:

There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach.

1. Innocent Absenteeism:

Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures.


2. Culpable Absenteeism:

Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a labour relations context this means that progressive discipline can be applied.

For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism. Many organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counselling and treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance.

Employee Absenteeism Definition Given by Different Authors: Webster, Sclingman and a Few Others

The term absenteeism simply means remain absent from job.


Absenteeism has been variously defined by different authorities as follows:

According to Webster’s Dictionary, “Absenteeism is the practice of habit of being an “absentee,” and “absentee” is one who habitually trace away”

According to the Labour Bureau, “Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absences as a percentage of the total number of man shifts schedule to work.”

In other words, it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he is schedule to be at work, it is unauthorised, unexplained, avoidable and willful absence from work.

According to Sclingman, “Absenteeism is the time lost in industrial establishments by the avoidable or unavoidable absence of employees.”

In simple words “Absenteeism is the absence of employees from the work without any prior notice.”


It may be noted that:

(a) If a strike or lockout is in-progress or if a worker is laid off he is not treated as an absentee.

(b) A worker who reports for duty even for a part of the day or a shift is not treated as an absentee.

(c) A worker on a regular scheduled vacation is not counted as scheduled to work or absent

The number of workers who are schedule to work and the number of workers who are actually available for work, would give the figure of absenteeism. The employee who quits without notice should be consider as absent from schedule work until his name is dropped from the active list but preferably this period would not exceed one week in either case.

An employee is to be considering Schedule to work when the employer has work available and the no reason to expect well in advance, that the employee will not be available for work at the specialised time. Any employee may stay away from work, if he has taken live to which he is entitled or any other ground, but, without any previous sanction of leave. Thus, absence may be authorised or unauthorised, willful or casual by circumstances beyond once control.


For calculating the rate of absenteeism two facts are taken into consideration:

(1) The number of persons schedule to work and

(2) The number of persons actually present.

The difference between the two gives the figure of absenteeism.

But their term absenteeism does not include the following absence:

(1) The absentee on account of authorise leave with prior notice


(2) Lay-off, it means the failure, refusal or inability of an employer to give employment due to following reasons to a workman whose name appears on the muster rolls of his industrial establishment and who has not be retrenched-

i. Shortage of coal, power or raw material

ii. Accumulation of stocks

iii. Break-down of machinery

iv. Natural calamity

v. For any other connected reason


(3) Retrenchment- Dismissal or termination –

i. Strike or lock-out which is legal one.

ii. A worker, who reports for duty even for the part of the day/night.

iii. A worker who is on a regular scheduled vacation is not to be treated as an absentee.

Employee Absenteeism Peculiar Features

Research studies undertaken by different authors reveal the following features of absenteeism:

(1) The rate of absenteeism lowest on the pay day and increases on the following day.


(2) The days before and after a holiday, high rate of absenteeism.

(3) Absenteeism high among workers under the 25 years of age and above 55 years of age.

(4) Absenteeism is higher in the night shifts than in a day shift.

(5) It is higher in coal and mining industries than other industries.

(6) Absenteeism is seasonal, higher in the month of March, April and May when land had to be prepared for the monsoon sowing and also in the harvest season i.e. in the month of Sept. and Oct.

(7) Employees with longer service seemed absent themselves for a long duration, whereas those with shorter service absent themselves more frequently.

(8) It is higher in unskilled and semi-skilled workers than skilled employees.

(9) It is observed that frequency of an absence is associated with “status perception” rather than job satisfaction, higher status-low absenteeism and lower status-higher absenteeism.

(10) Greater absenteeism is associated with large working group in industrial establishment.

(11) Operative employees are absent more frequently than their supervisors.

(12) Absenteeism is higher among women employees than in men employees.

(13) Bad weather also increases absentee of employees who live at distant location.

(14) Absenteeism is differing from place to place, industry to industry, occupation to occupation, department to department, individual to individual. There is no uniformity in absenteeism.

(15) Absenteeism in traditional industries is seasonal in character.

Employee Absenteeism Causes and Impact

Causes of Employee Absenteeism:

(1) Sickness- The top most reason among employees is sickness. 50% absenteeism is on account of genuine personal/family member’s sickness.

(2) Accidents and Occupational Diseases- The industrial accidents and occupational diseases cause absenteeism.

(3) Lack of Interest- Whenever the employed is not at all interested in the job assign to him, frequently the remains absent from the job.

(4) Lack of Responsibility- If the employees do not have direct, clear-cut and definite to responsibility, they remain more absent.

(5) Poor production planning or material control or poor flow of work- Whenever there is poor or faulty production planning or there is not proper control on materials required for production or there is poor flow of work then obviously the rate of absenteeism will be higher because the workers will get the excuse in the above circumstances and will remain absent.

(6) Impersonal attitude- When an individual does not get a chance of freedom of expression of his opinions, views, ideas, suggestions, attitudes and his grievances are not heard by the superior, it becomes anti-social just because of impersonal attitude of the superior/management and frequently remains absent. Moreover if the superior does not have sympathy, positive and personal attitude, towards the subordinates, they will remain more absent.

(7) Bad Working Conditions- If the working conditions are in hygienic, dirty or bad workers are not able to work under such conditions. Unhealthy working environment is one of the leading cause among the workers to remain absent from their jobs.

(8) Inadequate Welfare Facilities- Welfare facilities such as residential accommodation, transportation service canteen, restroom, washing room, library, sports club, recreational facilities, drinking water, lifts, cleanliness etc. are not available sufficiently, workers will remain more absent. Under the Factories Act 1948 there is some basic welfare facilities are mentioned, which must be provided by the employer. If these minimum facilities are not available workers remain more absent.

(9) Lack of Trained Labourers- If the workers are not trained, they will make lot of mistakes and errors while performing their jobs they are not confident on the job, therefore there is high rate of absenteeism among the untrained employees.

(10) Insecurity of Employment- Whenever there is no security of employment, any time the workers will be removed or terminated from the job, there will be no dedication or involvement in the job on the part of the employees and there is more absentee in case of such employees. Insecurity of employment is one of the major causes among the employees for absentee.

(11) Frustration- There is a no. of reasons for frustration among the workers such as wrong placement, lengthy working hours, lack of promotion opportunities etc. These causes great frustration among the employees and therefore employees prefer to remain more absent.

(12) Undesirable Habits- In Indian context workers are coming from villages and generally fall into bad company, caught in the bad habits such as gambling, taking drugs, intoxication etc. Because of this undesirable habit they prefer to remain absent.

(13) Mal-Adjustment with Factory Environment- Employees coming from rural areas are not able to adjust with urban life, such as heavy traffic, different languages, noises, strict discipline, formal and strange atmosphere etc. causes heavy strain on body and mind and so employees remain more absent from their job.

(14) Social and Religious Ceremonies- There is a no. of social and religious ceremonies such as festival, marriages, birth days, deaths, parties anniversaries etc. for celebrating these social and religious ceremonies employees remain absent.

(15) Bad Weather- In Indian context there is a different weather in different parts of the country, causes absentee among the employees. If weather is not good or favourable, employees are unable to join their duties and remain absent.

(16) Unsatisfactory Housing and Transport Facilities- If there is no proper housing and transportation facilities the employees will be always in worry about it, therefore they remain absent.

(17) Industrial Fatigue- If the industrial environment is such which create tiredness and employees feel exhausted therefore they avoid being regular in factory premises. The feeling of tiredness and exhausted is inactiveness to work/to work with negative attitude. Industrial fatigue can be defined as reduction in the ability to do work because or previous work.

(18) Indebtness- Generally workers are not financially sound the debts and borrowing of employees, keep them away from the work. They borrow the money from their colleagues, superior, friends and from company also, their money lenders are in factory only. They are not able to refund the debts timely, prefer to escape from their duties.

(19) Improper and Unrealistic Personnel Policies- Improper and unrealistic personnel policies in the field of promotion, demotion and transfer are one of the leading causes to keep away the workers from their jobs.

(20) Inadequate Leave Facilities- The personnel manager in consultation with top management has not provided the sufficient no. of leaves (types of leaves and the days given) workers taking more leaves and remain absent from their jobs.

(21) Miscellaneous Causes-

(a) Search for another job

(b) Personal business

(c) More visitors come to home

(d) Dissatisfied with supervisors

(e) Bore with monotonous work

(f) Poorly defined responsibilities

(g) Poor wages and salaries

(h) Lack of recreation facilities

(i) Shift system

(j) Frequently change in the job

(k) Part time jobs etc.

Impact of Employee Absenteeism:

The impact of absenteeism is twofold:

(1) On workers.

(2) On employer.

(1) On Workers:

(i) No work, no pay is a general rule. If the workers remain absent their remuneration will be is proportionately reduced.

(ii) Workers’ wages, bonus, incentive reduces proportionately or sometimes not allowed or sometimes, if it is given, will be taken away back.

iii) No doubt absenteeism affects the efficiency of workers. The workers who join after a long period of absence would normally be much less efficient.

(2) On Employer:

(i) Absenteeism affects both on quantity and quality of production. Both reduce to a greater extent.

(ii) If affects the discipline of the employees and ultimately of the whole business organisation.

(iii) Because high rate of absenteeism required surplus employees for maintaining specific production targets or levels.

(iv) Absenteeism affects the image and reputation of the industrial establishments.

(v) Delay in work. None of the work will complete in time.

Employee Absenteeism – Management

A. Managing Employee Absenteeism through Time Keeping and Monitoring Employee Movements:

I. Inputs of Time Keeping:

1. Employee Code Number:

Whenever an employee joins the organizations as a trainee; probation; permanent he/she is allotted a code No._____________ which shall be referred in all the official transactions in addition to his name.

2. Shift Working:

All the operations has a system of general shift working for 8 hours in a day, each area has got separate timings match to their functional requirements. The time will be notified to the employee concern at their respite departments.

3. Attendance Register:

At all the departments they should maintain an attendance register, for all the employees for marking attendance. The personnel concerned shall comply with all statutory formalities and forward the particulars after closing the wage period to HRD corporate for necessary payment of salary.

4. Weekly Off:

As per statutory obligations, that whenever an employee works for six days at a stretch he/she is entitled for a rest day i.e. 7lh day otherwise calls weekly of. In case of emergency operations personnel could work continuously however in any case it should not be postponed beyond the 10th day.

5. Additional Duty:

Due to exigencies of work load or to take care of absenteeism, the office or operations might engage employee beyond the scheduled employee hours, whenever employees are advised to work additional duty due to production schedule or any other valid reasons, such employee shall be given compensatory off in some other working day.

II. Employee Movement Passes/Punch Cards:

Whenever an employee intends to leave the premises or sent on official work before schedule ending or the shift, he/she shall be allowed in writing to leave the premises by the authorized official, the same is called employee movement pass/punch cards.

Identifying Excessive Absenteeism:

Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee’s sick-leave days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor suspects that an employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance records.

If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation. The employees’ files should be reviewed and the employee’s immediate supervisor should document all available information on the particular employee’s history.

B. Managing Employee Absenteeism through Organizational Approaches:

i. Individual Communication:

After all available information has been gathered, the supervisor should individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than average or questionable (or pattern) absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns regarding attendance to the employee’s attention.

It is also an opportunity to discuss with the employee, in some depth, the causes of his or her attendance problem and possible steps he or she can take to remedy or control the absences. Employee’s responses in this regard should be noted carefully. The HR department may take the initiative to formally inform the employees with high absenteeism records, either communicating officially or through their respective supervisors.

ii. Proof of Illness:

Sometimes it is helpful in counselling employees with excessive innocent or culpable absenteeism to inquire or verify the nature and reasons of their absence. HR department should take care in terms of verifying the cause of absence by making it mandatory to submit proof of illness from concerned and recognized medical authorities as and whenever required.

iii. Counselling Innocent Absenteeism:

Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism, no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee’s right to be sick.

The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows:

1. Initial counselling(s)

2. Written counselling(s)

3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification

4. Discharge

1. Initial Counselling:

Presuming that supervisors have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already identified an employee as a problem, it is essential that supervisors should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on the employee’s attendance. If the absences are intermittent, focus should be given on meeting the employee each time he/she returns to work. If absence is prolonged, managers should keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition.

2. Written Counselling:

If the absences persist, managers should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary.

3. Reduction(s) of Hours and/or Job Reclassification in Case of Medical Reasons:

In case of identification of any serious medical problems, the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfil the requirements of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid on jobs of such type if they become available.

4. Discharge:

Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered.

Employee Absenteeism Measures for Control: Well-Defined Recruitment Procedure, Healthful and Hygienic Working Conditions, Motivation of Workers and a Few Others

Absenteeism is a serious problem for a management because it involves heavy additional expenses. Reserves and understudies are kept in readiness to take the place of the absentees. Failing which the overhead cost of idle equipment has to be faced. Industrial employees don’t usually ask for leave of absence in advance or even give notice during their absence as to how long they would be away. The management is generally uncertain about the probable duration of an employee absence and cannot take appropriate measures to fill the gap.

As regards measures to be adopted to remedy the situation. The labour investigation committee was of the opinion that “proper condi­tions of work in the factory adequate wages, protection from accidents and sciences, and facilities for obtaining leave for next and recreation consultancy the more effective means of reducing absenteeism”.

The encyclopaedia of social services suggests the following meas­ures to reduce the rate of absenteeism:

(a) The personnel management should encourage notification, especially in cases of sickness when the duration of absence is likely to be long.

(b) In case of personal and family circumstances e.g. illness of children in the case of married women employees which make absence unavoidable, leave should be granted liberally.

(c) To reduce unavoidable absence due to sickness and industrial accident, programmes of industrial hygiene and safety should be sound.

(d) Regularity in attendance can be encouraged to some extent by the offer of a bonus to other pecuniary inducements.

(e) Absenteeism is probably a natural human reaction to the routine of modern factory life.

There is a disagreement between man’s instincts and desires and the regular working habits that are impaired upon him.

Many experts in this field have suggested several measures to remedy absenteeism and its ill effects.

Walter Diets suggests that the management should endeavour to find out:

(a) Where does absenteeism occurs?

(b) When does it occur?

(c) Who is absent?

(d) Why don’t workers come to work?

J. E. Brandfoed makes other suggestion.

He says that management should:

(a) Analyse the cause of absenteeism,

(b) Put dies right man to the right job,

(c) Provide adequate training,

(d) Keep an adequate record,

(e) Delegate responsibility for absentee control,

(f) Penalize absences, and

(g) Reward regular attendance

However no single measure can be effective for controlling absenteeism but a skillful combination of various measures would definitely lead to the desired results.

These measures are:

Measure # 1. Adoption of Well-Defined Recruitment Procedure:

The selection of employees on the basis of linguistic or family con­sideration should be discouraged or avoided.

The management should look for aptitude and ability in the pro­spective employees and show not easily yield to pressure or personal likes and dislikes.

Application blanks should invariably be used for preliminary selec­tion and as tools for in.

The personal affair should play a more effective role as a coordina­tor of information, provided that he has required job knowledge in the function of selection.

Employers also should take into account the fact that selection should be for employees’ development. And their reliance on inter-media for the recruitments of employees should be entirely done away with. They should as far as possible, rely on employment exchanges.

Measure # 2. Provisions of Healthful and Hygienic Working Conditions:

In India, where the climate is hot and most of the work involves manual labour, it is essential that workers should be provided with proper to healthy working condition.

The facilities for cool drinking water, canteens, rest rooms, lighting, and ventilation lavatories need to be improved.

Where any one of these facilities is not available it should be provided. All these help in keeping the employees cheerful and increase productivity and the efficiency of operation throughout the plant.

Measure # 3. Provisions of Reasonable Wages and Allowances and Job Security for Workers:

Since the wages of an employee determine his as well as his family standard of living, this single factor is important for him than any other.

The management should therefore, pay reasonable wages and allowances taken into account the capacity of the industry to pay, the level of wages prevailing in different units of the same industry in the same area, the productivity of labour and the general effect of rising wages in neighbouring industries.

The allowances that may be paid to workers should include old age allowances, length of service allowance position allowance, special job allowance, good attendance allowance transportation allowance, and housing allowance so that the worker may have and know security of employment.

Measure # 4. Motivation of Workers:

Welfare and social security measures – The management should recognize the needs of workers and offer those adequate and cheap housing facilities, free or subsidised food free medical aid, and transpor­tation facilities to and from their residences, free educational facilities for their children and other monetary and non-monetary benefits.

As far security measures are concerned, the provisions of P.F., E.S.I. facilities, gratuity and pension, all these need to be improved, so that workers may have a sense of belonging.

Measure # 5. Improved Communication and Prompt Redressal of Grievances:

Since a majority of workers are illiterate, bulletin and written notices, journals and booklets are not understood by them. Therefore, timely illustration and instruction, meetings and counselling are called for written communication become meaningful only when workers can read and understand.

As regards Notice-boards too many notices should be avoided, only the essential one should be put on the board. Which should be placed near the entrance, inside the canteen, and in areas which are frequently visited?

As for grievance settlement the management should recognize that a delayed grievance may become a complicated case. A procedure for flair and prompt redressal of grievances is, therefore, essential.

Measure # 6. Safety and Accident Prevention:

Safety at work can be maintained and accidents can be prevented if the management tries to eliminate such personal factors as negligence, over-confidence, carelessness etc. and such material factors as un­guarded machinery and explosives, defective equipment and hand tools.

As far the hazards to which industrial workers are exposed; supervisions should ensure that proper operational procedures and safety insemination are followed in the cause of work. Work groups should be taught safe methods of operation.

In addition to consistent and timely safe instruction written instruc­tion (manual) in the regional language of the area should be given to the work face.

The manual should contain such safely slogans as “think safe” “plan safe – plan safe” “be alert don’t get hurt”, “be safe” “protect-your-sight”; Luck would not prevent accidents in unguarded movement etc.

Measure # 7. Cordial Relations between Supervisor and Workers:

The supervisors should recognize that industrial work is a group task and cannot be properly done unless discipline is enforced and maintained. Cordial relation between the supervisors and the workers are -therefore essential for without them discipline cannot be maintained and productivity cannot be increased.

One of the consequences of unhealthy relation between supervisor and subordinates is absenteeism.

Superiors should be given a proper training in this field to create an atmosphere in which willing cooperation exists between them to and the work face; and workers would freely discuss their problem with their supervisor.

Measure # 8. Development of Workers Education:

The system workers education should be so designed as to take into account their educational needs as individuals for their personal evalu­ation, as operations for their efficiency and advancement as citizens for happy integrated life in the community; as member of a trade union for the protection of their interest.

According to National commission on labour the Educational pro­gramme should make a worker:

(a) A responsible committed and discipline operative.

(b) Understand the basic economic and technical aspects of the industry and the plant where he is employed so that he may take an intelligent interest in its affairs.

(c) Aware of his rights and obligation.

(d) Understand the organisation and functions of trade unions and develop qualities of leadership, loyalty, and devotion to so that he may intelligently participate in it

(e) Lead a clean and healthy life based on a firm ethical founda­tion and

(f) A responsible and alert citizen.

Employee Absenteeism – In Indian Industries (With Magnitude)

Absenteeism in Indian industries is not a new phenomenon. It is the manifestation of a decision by employees not to present themselves at their place of work, at a time when it is planned by the management that they should be in attendance. Many research reports reveal that there has been a phenomenal increase in absenteeism in some industrial sectors.

The absenteeism becomes a problem to organizational management particularly when employees absent from their work environment without giving sufficient notice and by justifying their stand by furnishing fake reasons.

The reasons for absenteeism are many. The factors contributing to absenteeism from work includes individual and environmental factors. These consists of sickness, accidents, occupational diseases, poor production planning (flow of work), bad working conditions and inadequate welfare conditions, lack of trained labourers, insecurity in employment, process, rigid control system, lack of supervisory support, lack of interest, lack of cohesive and cordial culture and so on.

The individual reasons may vary from organization to organization depending upon the organizational climate, employee’s attitude and influence of external organizational factors (market forces, social activities that influence the industrial culture prevailing in geographical zone etc.).

For Blue Collar Employees:

Absenteeism means – absence from his duty or work.

This could be in the form of-

1. Unauthorized absenteeism—without any information or intimation to his line manager or supervisor.

2. Authorized absenteeism—with information or intimation to his line manager or supervisor by taking prior leave applications.

3. Absenteeism on the work – It is caused in both conditions where work could not be completed in that particular day as per the organization’s target which was supposed to be completed within the time frame specified.

For White Collar Employees:

1. Unauthorized absenteeism is same

2. Authorized absenteeism can be called as on leave because maximum white collar employees can perform or complete his work on any other day also.

3. As far as legal is concerned, only unauthorized absenteeism shall be counted or as per standing order of the company.

Cost of Absenteeism:

Absenteeism is detrimental to any organization irrespective of any industry.

Magnitude of Absenteeism:

It has been observed that absenteeism does not exist only in Indian Industries but it is a universal fact. The difference is only in terms of magnitude. The rate of absenteeism varies from 7 per cent to nearly 30 per cent. The extent of absenteeism may differ from industry to industry and place to place. Absenteeism in Indian industry is not a new phenome­non. The Royal commission on labour reported that “high absenteeism prevails among industrial labour mainly due to their rural orientation”.

Since then a number of individual researches have investigated the problem and have pointed out that absenteeism in our industries varies from 7 per cent to 15 per cent. Its incidence is high in plantations and in mines and it is higher in Northern India than in Southern India.