After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Concept of Need 2. Classification of Needs 3. Priority.
Concept of Need:
When a machine goes out of order, we understand that it needs something like oil or repairs or replacement of certain parts etc. In the same way, human behaviour should have some reason and if his behaviour is not well, we suppose that some of his wants are not satisfied.
Needs create tension in worker. Needs are created by person’s culture and for its fulfillment, needs force him to work. For example, a hungry man’s primary motive is to satisfy his hunger.
Through needs of meals, he feels tension but what meals he will take, depends on his culture i.e., a Bengali will like to eat meat and fish while a Rajasthani will prefer vegetarian meals. To earn his meals, he will do some work which will fetch him wages and by that money he will satisfy his hunger. Series of needs go on. After the fulfillment of one need, another arises.
Classification of Needs:
These can be classified under two heads:
(i) Primary needs, and
(ii) Secondary needs.
(i) Primary needs:
These are the basic needs of an individual and are found in whole humanity but its intensity differs from man to man. These are essential for everybody otherwise he cannot remain alive, such as meals, air water, sleep, rest, sexual desire etc.
(ii) Secondary needs:
This is proved by psychological investigations that man works not only for his primary needs but also for other needs which are related to his mind or soul. These needs are learnt by experience and atmosphere.
Secondary needs are of two kinds:
(a) Social needs.
(b) Egoistic needs.
(а) Social needs:
People want to live with respect in the society. He wants that he should have relations with different groups of people and they should help during difficulties. These are produced by the social desires existing in men and instigated to lead social life.
(b) Egoistic needs:
These are related to human self-thoughts which are mostly dependent on human nature. These are simulated from the people’s personal value and ideals. These instigate a person to self-expression and self-accomplishment.
Priority of Needs:
Psychologists are of the opinion that priority of needs has a definite order. Famous scientist A.H. Maslow has given a definite order to the needs while developing his theory of motivation. He said that person first satisfies basic needs.
The definite order of the needs is:
(a) Basic physical needs,
(b) Safety and security,
(c) Belongingness and love,
(d) Esteem and status, and
(e) Self realisation and self-accomplishment.
He said that a person satisfies his needs in this order. This conception of Maslow is known as the Maslow’s need priority model.
Above first two needs are called the “low strata” needs while the rest are called “high strata” needs.
Low Strata Needs:
A person satisfies first all the necessities of the first kind i.e., bodily needs. A hungry person puts his full efforts for earning bread. After coping up the bodily needs, he tries to fulfill his second need of security and safety. This is the reason that he collects grains and some money for future use. He manages for pension and social security.
High Strata Needs:
Bodily needs are limited but rest three needs are unlimited.
Every man wishes respect and fame. He thinks that he is able and other persons should also think him so and respect him. In more industrially developed countries, the people care more for esteem and status.
The fifth need is self-realisation and self-accomplishment. It means that a person should be what he desires. After the four needs are satisfied tries for achieving this.