After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Job Analysis 2. Methods of Job Analysis 3. Uses 4. Process.

Meaning of Job Analysis:

For the purpose of manpower planning, job is studied carefully regarding activities involved in the job. This study is known as ‘job analysis’. Job analysis can be defined as the systematic exploration of the activities within a job.

Job analysis involves compiling a detailed description of tasks, determining the relation­ship of the job to technology and other jobs and examining the knowledge, qualifications or employment standards accountabilities and other incumbent requirements.

Job analysis is the careful study about the activities of an employee on a particular job to determine different operations involved and other facts, which are helpful for job description and job specification.

Methods of Job Analysis:


1. Observation Method.

2. Individual interview method.

3. Group interview method.

4. Structured questionnaire method.


5. Technical conference method.

6. Critical incidents.

Purposes of Job Analysis

Uses of Job Analysis:

1. Organisational Design:


Authority, Responsibility, Accountability.

2. Manpower Planning:

Future job requirement, Skill Requirements.

3. Procurement of Manpower:


Matching job requirement and skills.

4. Orientation:

Expectations to perform a given job more effectively.

5. Performance Appraisal:


Performance standards, Review of perfor­mance.

6. Training and Development:

Updating skills, changing job requirements.

7. Job Design:


Engineering the design, methods improve­ment, man-machine system.

8. Job Evaluation:

Classification of jobs, salary structure.

9. Career planning and counseling:


Future prospects, vocational guidance reha­bilitation.

10. Labour Relations:

Helpful to resolve disputes relating to work load, work procedure etc.

Process of Job Analysis:

Main steps involved in job analysis are:

1. Organisational Analysis:

Information in the form of organisation charts, job speci­fication, work flow charts etc. are collected to obtain an overall view of various jobs in the organisation to judge the linkages between jobs and organisational goals, interre­lationships among jobs and the contribution of various jobs.


2. Organising Job Analysis Programme:

The company must:

(a) Decide who will be in charge of the programme,

(b) Allocate the budget, and

(c) A time schedule.

3. Deciding the areas where Job Analysis Information is to be used:


This area can be decided on the basis of the needs, priorities and constraints of the particular organisation. How the job information will be used and for what purpose, will deter­mine the extent to which jobs are to be analysed.

4. Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis:

To save time a representative sample of jobs is selected for the purpose of detailed analysis.

5. Understand Job Design:

Analyst should study the current job description and job specification, procedure manual, flow charts etc.

6. Collection of Data:


In this step data on the characteristics of the job, qualifications and behaviour required to do the job effectively is collected from the concerned em­ployees, supervisors or from outsiders. Care should be taken to use only those tech­niques for job analysis which are acceptable and reliable in the given situation.

Some of the techniques for data collection are:

1. Direct observation,

2. Interviews,

3. Questionnaire,

4. Past records, and


5. Critical incidents.

7. Developing a Job Description:

Job description is prepared on the basis of informa­tion collected in the previous step. It describes in brief the tasks, duties and responsi­bilities which need to be discharged for effective job performance. It also includes working conditions, social environment, machine tools and equipment, and relation to other jobs.

8. Preparing a Job Specification:

In this last step of job analysis job specification or employee specifications are prepared. This is a written statement specifying the per­sonal attributes in terms of education, training, experience and aptitude required to perform the job.