Complication of Notes on Marketing: Complete Notes, Lecture Notes, Short Notes, Study Notes and Introduction to Marketing Notes!

Complete Study and Lecture notes on marketing especially compiled for BBA, BCom, MCom and MBA students. This article aims to give you an in-depth overview on some of the most important topics relating to marketing and marketing management.

Study Notes as an Introduction on Marketing


  1. Notes on Introduction to Marketing
  2. Notes on Market Segmentation
  3. Notes on Multi-Level Marketing
  4. Notes on Organization Structure
  5. Notes on the Channels of Distribution
  6. Notes on Direct Marketing
  7. Notes on Marketing Orientations
  8. Notes on Marketing Environment
  9. Notes on Societal Marketing
  10. Notes on Marketing Mix
  11. Notes on Product
  12. Notes on Retail Audit
  13. Notes on Marketing Ethics
  14. Notes on International Marketing Channels
  15. Notes on Virtual Marketing
  16. Notes on Marketing Information System
  17. Notes on Market Research
  18. Notes on Advertising Research
  19. Notes on Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)
  20. Notes on Rural Marketing
  21. Notes on Advertising
  22. Notes on Service Marketing Mix
  23. Notes on Retailing
  24. Notes on Strategic Marketing
  25. Notes on Demand Forecasting
  26. Notes on Business Markets
  27. Notes on Rural Marketing Mix
  28. Notes on Brand Positioning
  29. Notes on Online Retailing
  30. Notes on Personal Selling


Notes on Introduction to Marketing # 1. Introduction to Marketing:

Till 1950, marketing was usually sales-oriented and the selling concept stressed the need of high pressure salesmanship and advertising to secure maximum sales volume. Since 1950, we have customer-oriented marketing plans and programmes and this customer-orientation is called the marketing concept.

The essence of marketing concept is that customer and not the product shall be the centre or the heart of the entire business system. It emphasizes customer-oriented marketing process. All business operations revolve around customer satisfaction and service. Marketing plans, policies and programmes are formulated to serve efficiently customer demand.

Marketing research and marketing information service is expected to provide adequate, accurate and latest information regarding target markets and current consumer wants as well as dealer wants to the marketing managers and on the basis of such realistic information, they will take sound decision on any marketing problem. The entire marketing mix will be formulated on the basis of marketing research.


Two radical changes were brought about when the marketing concept was introduced after 1950 in the process of marketing:

1. We have a steady shift from the product-oriented or sales-oriented business enterprise to the customer-oriented business enterprise. Marketing and innovation are now the distinguishing features of a business organization from those of other types of social institution

2. We have also a gradual shift from caveat emptor (buyer beware) to caveat vendor (seller beware). This has clearly emphasized the social responsibility of business towards consumer and the need for consumer protection in the market place.  

According to American Marketing Association, “Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals”.


According to the Marketing Guru, ‘Philip Kotler’, “Marketing is typically seen as the task of creating, promoting, and delivering goods and services to consumers and businesses; it is defined as a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through mating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others.”

Sometimes, marketers confuse marketing with selling, since they consider marketing as an art of selling products. However, marketing is different from selling in many ways.

Short Notes on Marketing # 2. Market Segmentation:

The total market for many of the products is not homogeneous but too much heterogeneous because people have different needs and wants and therefore, marketer cannot derive maximum benefit from an analysis of marketing as a whole. For example, there may be total market for textiles, electrical appliances, refrigerators, etc., but within the total for each of these products, there might actually exist many sub-markets which differ virtually from each other.


Under textile markets, in one section of the population, there might be huge demand for cotton textile, in another for synthetic fibre textiles and yet in another for pure silk garments. This diversity may be due to differences in income of the people, taste, fashion buying habits or motives, etc. Further no two customers are identical in their demand.

Therefore, to take advantage of this situation, the marketers may divide the total market into smaller groups of consumers on the basis of significant difference in buyer characteristics or buyer responses to marketing programs.

By tailoring product designs, pricing policies, promotion and distribution channels to meet the needs of these small groups’ marketers often gain a competitive advantage. This kind of marketing strategy is also consistent with the marketing concept, which requires the identification of the consumer wants and needs and development of marketing programs to satisfy them.

According to Stanton, “Market segmentation consists of taking the total heterogeneous market for a product and dividing it into several sub-markets or segments each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.”