Though developing continuously, management attention shall continue to be focused on:

1. Systems Theory:

Business organisations are open systems which continuously interact with the environment. Managers keep constant watch on environmental factors (technological, social, political, legal, demographic, economic and international), analyse their impact on organisational policies and adapt to environmental changes.

2. Organisation Structures:

Organisation structures have improved from traditional, bureaucratic, task-oriented structures to modern, people-oriented structures.

While designing the organisation structure, managers take care of:


1. The changing environment.

2. Its increasing size and complexities.

3. Changing needs of employees.

4. Increasing professionalism of management.


5. Multiple goals rather than single goal.

3. Human Behaviour:

To satisfy human needs, management attention is shifting towards areas such as job analysis (job description, job specification and job enlargement), transaction analysis, management by objectives and management by exception. Coordination, cooperation and harmony in organisational relationships is the need of present and future.

4. Management of Change:

Change is a continuous process. Organisations should be equipped to face challenges and incorporate them in the current managerial practices. As a result of environmental changes, new management thinking is developed with emphasis on new ideas and techniques to solve managerial problems. They develop new relationships amongst various elements of the organisation structure.