Employee Morale is an important part of organisational climate. It is a vital ingredient of organisational success because it reflects the attitudes and sentiments of organisational members towards the organisation, its objectives and policies.

These attitudes and sentiments largely affect productivity and satisfaction of individuals. Morale is the total satisfaction a person derives from his job, his workgroup, his boss, his organisation and his environment.

Learn about:

1. Definitions of Employee Morale 2. Meaning of Employee Morale 3. Concept 4. Nature 5. Importance 6. Measurement 7. Determinants


8. Factors 9. Methods 10. Types 11. Motivation and Morale 12. Indices of Low Morale 13. Features of Low Morale 14. Disadvantages of Low Morale 15. Benefits of Existence of High Morale.

Employee Morale: Definitions, Meaning, Methods, Types, Features of Low Morale, Disadvantages and Benefits


  1. Definitions of Employee Morale
  2. Meaning of Employee Morale
  3. Concept of Employee Morale
  4. Nature of Employee Morale
  5. Importance of Employee Morale
  6. Measurement of Employee Morale
  7. Determinants of Employee Morale
  8. Factors of Employee Morale
  9. Methods of Employee Morale
  10. Types of Employee Morale
  11. Motivation and Morale
  12. Indices of Low Morale
  13. Features of Low Morale
  14. Disadvantages of Low Morale
  15. Benefits of Existence of High Morale

Employee Morale – Definition Provided by Jack Halloran

Dictionary meaning of morale is a state of mind with reference to confidence, courage, hope, zeal, etc. So, it is a feeling, emotion of the individual that develops his self-concept / personality. Morale, in this sense, refers to individual morale. But, morale does not imply individual only.

It is also a group morale. Individual person’s personality / morale affects others in the group. When every individual in the group affects each other a new personality develops. This personality is group morale.


Jack Halloran (1978) talks about individual morale and group morale. Whereas an individual’s morale is a single person’s attitude towards life, group morale reflects the general tone or esprit de corps of a collective group of personalities. Each person either heightens the prospect of the esprit de corps or lowers the concept of a cooperative effort.

Group morale is everyone’s concern, and it must be practised continually, for it is ultimately achieved and is constantly changing. Group morale demands mutual respect for one another.

In organization, morale refers to group morale as people work in group, team and each person has an influence over other’s morale in the team/group. In other words, morale is the summation of feelings, emotions of employees working in a team towards job, supervisors, company, working conditions, peers, pay, promotion and so on.

Morale may be high or low. Similarly, attitudes (i.e., feeling, emotions etc.) of the people in the group may be positive or negative. If, the positive attitudes are more than the negative attitudes, morale is high, and morale is low when positive attitudes are less than the negative attitudes of the people.


Morale can be measured in an organization through attitude surveys, interviews with individual employees and ascertaining critical incidents of employees. Morale of employees is also reflected in wastes, spoilage, absenteeism, employee turnover, tardiness, grievances, exits, accidents and sickness. In case of high morale, magnitude of such factors is less and magnitude increases when morale is low.

One of the important activities of the personnel department is to keep line management informed about the attitudes of workers and the human problems of the organisation. Such information is the basis of sound policy and guide to constructive action. Inventories of employee attitudes (commonly known as- morale surveys) are increasingly being used to measure morale.

Since morale or attitude survey of employees supplements the labour audit in very much the same sense as the physical inventory aids in the financial audit; it is imperative to study the concept of morale.

Employee Morale – Meaning

Morale has been recognised by military authorities as one of the most important factors in winning or losing wars. Napoleon rated morale so high as to say that morale conditions made up 75 per cent of the success or failure in a military situation. High morale leads to success and low morale brings defeat in its wake.


In a military sense high morale means:

“The state of mind which makes a soldier contented with his surroundings; confident of himself, his comrades, and his leaders; and determined to execute all of his missions with effectiveness and efficiency. It relates to the condition of an individual or group with regard to courage, confidence, and enthusiasm in the performance of duty.”

For managerial purposes morale has been defined in many ways, although all the definitions revolve round the attitude and willingness to work to achieve the objectives. Aldrich defines morale as a readiness to co-operate warmly in the tasks and purposes of a given group or organisation. Industrial morale has also been defined as the possession of a feeling, on the part of the employee, of being accepted and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals.

It is really a collection of employee attitudes, feelings, and sentiments towards his employer or company, his job relationship and his supervisor. It is also described as ‘an attitude of satisfaction with desire to continue in, and willing to strive for, the goals of a particular group or organisation’. It is a by-product of satisfactory group relationships. It is a mental process, often subtle, but once started it permeates in the entire group, creating a mood which results in the formation of a common attitude.


High morale makes for effective work and economical operation. It results from job satisfaction and generates job enthusiasm. A clear conviction is present among all the workers of the Tightness of everything in the organisation – the leaders or executives, their aims and them­selves – generating a moral force, so that all work for the common good. It is indeed a manifestation of their strength, dependability, pride, confidence and devotion. All these qualities of mind and character taken together are summed up in the term Morale. In any organisation worth the name, high morale is essential.

Low morale of the workers indicates the presence of mental unrest. This mental tension does not only hamper the production but also leads to ill health of the working men. Industrial accidents, labour turnover, strikes, ‘gheraoes’ and lock-outs are some of the obvious consequences of industrial tension.

These industrial troubles lead to mental strain of the workers. The effects of such strain do not remain limited within the factory but also affect the workers’ normal personal and social beha­viour. In extreme cases it may lead individuals to frustration and increase the susceptibility to indulge in anti-social activities.

On the other hand, high morale is associated with less industrial troubles, few man-days lost, improvement of quality and quantity of production, less complaint of disobedience. High morale also contributes to the reduction of accidents, elimination of fatigue and provides an opportunity to the workers for better adjustment in the work situation. Whether in a group morale is high or not can best be judged from the attitude of the individuals.


When, for instance, a group of workers regard its leaders as capable and considerate, their methods as efficient, their policy as fair, and their ultimate aims as something right and worthwhile-something with a thrill – morale of high order is present. Emphasis is upon the drive to do good work rather than job satisfaction or contentment. High morale is the hallmark of good human relations in an organisation; yet it cannot be bought or ordered into existence.

Employee Morale – Concept

If a number of persons are asked to respond to a given situation, their responses will certainly differs slightly or to a greater extent. If any psychologist undertakes the study of such varied responses he may come across so many factors that might have affected the responses. These may be intelligence, interest, satisfaction, atmosphere in which the respondent lives, his likes or dislikes for the situation and so on.

Summarily we can say that one’s behavioural attitude towards another or a group, or a job or a society, or an organisation is affected by so many factors. If a person is not subjected to any situation or job the observer cannot assess such an attitude. Thus we can say that the behavioural attitude of any person is a cumulative effect of so many factors. For some, such an effect may be severe and for some it may not be that severe. But this severity can be judged only if the behavioural attitude of the person is keenly observed.

This behavioural attitude as an effect of various factor may be known as “Morale”. The term morale is a nomenclature of the abstract phenomenon. As we know sweetness is a primary quality of sugar, but this sweetness cannot be known unless sugar is subjected to some treatment.


Sweetness of sugar can be known only if he/she is subjected to some task. If it is done, the performance of that person can be observed (not performance appraisal) and his enthusiasm towards it, which represents his behavioural attitude, can be observed and the degree of morale can be assessed.

Following are some definitions of morale made by experts:

“Morale is a feeling, somewhat related to spirit, enthusiasm or zeal”. – Dale Yoder

“Morale is a mental condition or attitude of individuals or groups which determines their willingness to co-operate.” – Edwin B. Flippo .

Employee Morale – Nature

Generally, the term ‘morale’ is used to describe an overall ‘climate’ prevailing among the members of a group. It is not an absolute concept which can convey a specific meaning. Like the word ‘health’, the word ‘morale’ by itself does not convey any favourable or unfavourable meaning. It has to be qualified with the degree, as high morale or low morale. Thus, it is a relative concept.

We can only refer to the degrees of morale. Thus, morale is the degree of enthusiasm and willingness with which the members contribute their efforts towards the organisation goals. If the enthusiasm and willingness to work of a group are high, we will say morale is high and vice-versa. We cannot say that there is morale or no morale among the members of a group.


Therefore, morale has to be qualified like the word ‘health’. Just as good health is essential for any individual, high morale is necessary for any organisation. Morale is dynamic in nature. Managers cannot establish high morale once and then forget about it for months and years. High morale is to be built and maintained by continuous efforts.

Morale represents the collective attitude of the workers – High morale represents attitude of satisfaction with desire to continue in the group and willingness to strive for the goals of the group. It is a manifestation of direction and indirect satisfaction, sense of contentment and need fulfilment through work. Morale is both an individual and a group phenomenon. In the latter case, high morale is reflected in good team work and team spirit. Under conditions of high morale, workers have few grievances, frustrations and complaints as they are clear about the goals—individual and organisational, and their relationship with others in the organisation.

Morale is multi-dimensional in nature in the sense that it is a complex mixture of several elements. It recognises the influence of job situation on attitudes of individuals and also includes the role of human needs as motivational forces. Morale is mostly regarded as a long-term phenomenon. Raising morale to a high level and maintaining it is a long-run and continuous process which can’t achieved through short-run measures such as gimmicks, contests or one-shot actions.

Employee Morale – Importance

A willing worker, a satisfied worker is mentally so set that he can devote more attention, apply more skills, overcome the difficulties and achieve high productivity. All these are the effect of high morale. If there is low productivity, and no congenial relation between the staff and supervisors and management the progress is bound to be affected adversely. Therefore existence of high morale amongst the employees is of utmost importance.

Secondly, the employees are the representatives of the organisation. If they are respected by the society in general, it gives name to the organisation and good reputation comes with it. Such a reputation also makes the organisation successful.

Thirdly, if the employees have high morale, it is the positive effect of positive approach of management towards allied factors. Organisations behavior, policy and minimum disputes are evidenced from the existence of high morale. Such respect can be commanded by the workers having high morale.


Fourthly, a satisfied worker refrains himself from living away from the job. This reduced the absenteeism and thereby high turnover is achieved.

Fifthly, if industrial disputes and employee grievances are avoided which is possible by raising employee morale, it adds to the reputation of organisation.

Thus, existence of high morale in the employee individually or in group is most important for the progress and high reputation of organisation.

Employee Morale – Measurement: 6 Main Ways for Measuring Employee Morale

1. Surveys:

One of the easiest ways to measure employees’ morale is conducting employee satisfaction survey. Such surveys should be anonymous, and should ask very specific questions such as “Are you content in your current position?” “How likely are you to stay with the company?” The survey should also provide blank space for the employee to provide suggestions and information that is not specifically asked in the survey.

2. Periodic Interviews:


The organization can also conduct periodic interviews so as to gauge the overall employee satisfaction. Such interviews provide chance to discuss employees’ strength and weaknesses with him. It also enables the employee to discuss his ideas on how the organization can assist him to raise productivity or satisfaction level experienced by him.

3. Productivity:

Measuring the overall productivity of workforce on a monthly basis and over extended period of time helps the organization to assess employees’ performance. Generally, employees who are satisfied with their job tend to perform better and contribute to rise in organization’s overall productivity. If there is noticeable drop in production level, it could be a sign that employee morale is low and the organization needs to examine ways in order to increase employees’ overall satisfaction.

4. Observation:

The employee morale is measured by observing their activities and behavior. However, in practice, managers may not have adequate time to carefully observe the behavior of the employees. Hence, managers generally assess morale by measuring employee productivity. However, this method is not reliable as morale may be high but productivity may be low and vice versa.

5. Turnover Rate:


Employee turnover rate is another way for the organization to measure how satisfied their employees are with the workplace. A relatively low turnover rate can signify that employees are happy and that the organization is doing the right things to keep morale high. However, high turnover rate can be a sign that employee satisfaction is low, forcing many to move on to better paying jobs, or jobs in a better work environment.

6. Absence Rate:

How often employees remain absent from work can also indicate level of employee morale. When employees enjoy their job, absence rate goes down. Conversely, if employee does not enjoy his job, he is likely to take extra time off or leaves.

Employee Morale – 5 Major Determinants: Confidence in the Purpose of the Group, Confidence in Leadership, Congenial Working Conditions and a Few Others

Morale is essentially a matter of human behaviour as evidenced by the attitude adopted towards the organization.

The major determinants of morale are as follows:

1. Confidence in the Purpose of the Group:


It is obvious that employees put their soul into the work when they are inspired by the purpose of the organization. Just as a soldier is prepared even to lay down his life, an employee will work with all his sincerity at command. Once workers are made to feel that they are part of an organization which has a worthwhile purpose, their morale will be high.

2. Confidence in Leadership:

Leadership of the right type builds up high morale. An inspiring leader can easily motivate the employees to united action. The management or the executives should be men of insight and understanding and abundant sympathy to win over the employees. Thus, high morale depends on the capability, impartiality and fair-mindedness of leaders in dealing with the problems of workers.

3. Confidence in the Fellow-Workers of the Group:

There should be no ‘informers’ or ‘labour spies’. Every employee should have confidence. Group spirit breeds high morale. Such workers find work more satisfying and tend to pull in the same direction.

4. Confidence in Organizational Efficiency:

An efficient organization is basic to a high degree of morale.

For an organization to be efficient the following factors are necessary:

i. The lines of authority and responsibility must be clearly defined.

ii. Grievance procedures and face-to-face discussions will remove clouds of misunderstanding and lead to good industrial relation.

iii. Participation in management infuses in them a sense of responsibility.

iv. Adoption of a tolerant attitude towards employees will heighten their morale.

5. Congenial Working Conditions:

a. Reasonable Economic Rewards:

A good pay or wage structure which provides for automatic rise in wages with a rise in cost of living, provision of medical and educational facilities, recreation and tour facilities boost the morale of employees.

b. Security of Job and Opportunity to Rise:

A feeling of security of job and income will provide the employees a good deal of mental relief.

A sound promotional policy which does not allow them to languish in the same post till their retirement but which offers them ample opportunities for advancement builds up their morale.

c. Work Environment:

The importance of work or office environment also has its impact on the morale of its employees. A leaky, dingy and dilapidated structure adversely affects their morale while provision of all facilities, up-to-date machines and tools, provision of safety devices which prevent accidents build up the morale. Thus, a congenial work atmosphere heightens morale of the employees.

Employee Morale – Factors: External and Internal Factors

Morale is not something that can be built overnight. Employee morale is developed over a period of time as a result of sound personnel policies and procedures, good supervisory practices, and other influencing factors. The factors influencing morale should receive full and careful attention by management, and continuous efforts should be made to build good morale and to develop the type of work environment that will contribute to good morale.

Several authors describe in different manner the important factors which have a bearing on morale; and they relate to management practices, employee factors and forces and factors outside the organization.

It is important to note that employee morale, attitudes and job satisfaction are closely related concepts. Hence, let us have a close look to the concepts of attitudes and job satisfaction.

Morale is a vital ingredient of organizational success for it reflects the attitudes and sentiments an individual or group has towards the organizational objectives. Morale can be defined as “the state of the spirits of a person or group as exhibited by confidence, cheerfulness, discipline, and willingness to perform assigned tasks.”

Morale hugely affects the productivity and job satisfaction of individuals. When people are enthusiastic in their work environment, they are said to be having high morale. Morale is an employee’s zest for working or the lack of it. A person with a high morale feels his work is worth doing well and derives satisfaction from accomplishing his tasks. A high morale also enables a worker to ignore minor irritants and work under pressure without blowing up.

The factors which affect employee morale can be categorised into two groups:

1. External Factors:

These are the factors external to the organization. These are comprised of the personality of the individual employee, his psychological make-up, level of intelligence, physical health, family background and relations with social groups and friends.

Every human has his unique characteristics that influence his perceptions, attitudes, etc. that in turn affect his morale. Since these factors are outside the control of managers, they can do little to change, control or influence them. But these factors have a huge impact on the employee morale.

2. Internal Factors:

These factors are under the domain of control of management.

These include:

(i) Organizational Goals:

One of the biggest factors that can have profound influence on the morale of employees is the organizational objectives. If the employee feels that the goals set by the management are worthwhile, valid and useful, then he develops a positive feeling towards the job and the organization. Allowing workers to participate in setting goals enhances the morale of the employee to a larger extent.

(ii) Organizational Structure:

Structure is another influential factor of morale. In a sound structure where lines of authority are clearly specified and responsibility is precisely defined and where there is candid communication among the people, morale tends to be high. Normally high morale prevails in a decentralized structure.

(iii) Nature of Work:

The nature of work the employee does is the biggest factor that affects his morale. Dull, monotonous and repetitive jobs make an employee feel depressed and adversely affect his morale. On the other hand, challenging tasks may motivate him to do well and boost his morale. The nature of the job should match with the skills, competence and willingness of the individual to perform it.

(iv) Management Philosophies:

The treatment of subordinates by their leader can have an effect on the morale of the employees. Further, the style of leadership also affects morale. It is generally felt that a participative style will enhance morale and an authoritarian style will have a negative impact.

(v) Working Conditions:

Morale is also a direct function of the conditions in the place of work. Morale will be generally high when employees are placed in a clean, safe, comfortable and pleasant environment. Conversely, workers will feel suffocated if they are made to work in a congested environment.

(vi) Compensation:

The remuneration workers receive for their work is the main factor which motivates them to work. If the employees are satisfied that they are being compensated properly, then they will have a high morale. Inadequate compensation leads to low morale, lower job satisfaction and may result in low productivity.

(vii) Work Groups:

Each individual has his unique perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about the work environment, organization and people. Social forces and work groups also exert strong influence on his individual perceptions and attitudes and to this extent the morale of individual employees will also be affected.

Employee Morale – 5 Important Methods: Common Workers’ Opinion Analysis, Exit Interview Method, Attitude Measurement and a Few Other Methods

The main methods of measuring morale are as follows:

1. Common Workers’ Opinion Analysis:

One very popularly used method of measuring the morale is the common workers’ opinion analysis method in which the opinions of the average workers are collected and analysed. For this, certain scientific questionnaires are prepared that reveal the workers’ opinions regarding various aspects of the industry as well as towards the authorities.

The workers do not have to reveal their names in answering these questionnaires. This has the initial advantage of assuring the workers of secrecy regarding their views. When the questionnaires are received back after having been filled and duly completed by the work­ers, it becomes possible to see the various scores an which the workers have complained.

If some particular object or subject is a matter of complaint in a large majority of cases, then efforts can be made to rectify it. Success in this method depends upon the degree to which the questionnaire is scientific, and upon the degree of truth in the workers’ responses.

2. Exit Interview Method:

In this method, those individuals are directly interviewed who have departed from the unit in question for various reasons. One main advantage of this method is that it reveals the reasons whereby the workers feel compelled to seek jobs elsewhere, so that future desertion on the part of present employees can be discouraged.

Another feature of this method is that having left the employment of a particular concern or the unit, the ex-employee feels free to give expression to his/her frankest view on any and every aspect of the business. Another advantage of this method is that the views of departed employees cannot result in any harm to the administration or to those in authority.

There can be no doubt that some workers may have grievances against the administration of their job that has no relation whatsoever with actual and real conditions. But if many workers leave their jobs on the same pretext, then evidently it is necessary to put an end to the source of complaint in order to maintain a high level of morale.

In this manner, this method has proved extraordinarily useful in measuring the existing level of morale and suggesting methods of improvements. It also locates the cause of falling morale. If, however, most of the departed employees speak well and favourable of the work and the administration of the factory or business house, then there is very reason to believe that morale is at a high level.

3. Attitude Measurement:

Morale is an expression of attitude of the workers towards their work, the authorities and general administration or organisation. Hence, the workers’ attitudes can be known in order to evaluate their morale. For example, if the answers to the following queries were supplied by workers, then their attitudes in these respects could be known –

a. I work in the company under compulsion.

b. The authorities in the company believe in the policy of paying as little wages as can prac­ticably be paid.

c. If I can get the same salary in a different company, I am prepared to resign from my pres­ent position.

d. I have no respect for or faith in those in authority above me.

e. The conditions of work in which I work cannot be said to be good by any standards.

f. I find no freedom, pleasure or satisfaction in my work.

The workers’ attitudes can be discovered by requiring him/her to mark these queries right or wrong.

4. Sociological Method:

Nowadays, particularly in the case of group studies, the sociological method is very prevalent. Moreover, a method for measuring the morale can be used to dis­cover characteristics of the workers’ group organisation whereby the level of morale can be discovered.

Accordingly, the worker is given a questionnaire containing certain questions intended to throw light on the characteristics of group organisation. For example, the workers are asked to name and enumerate the individuals with whom they would like to work, or under whom they would prefer to work, or in which sort of company they prefer to spend their time or have anything to do with.

If the answers of many individuals to this question seem to speak favourably of any one individual, and the answers seem to show respect, love and confidence for the individual, then it is fairly evident that he/she is capable of becoming a good administrator.

If he/she is already in the administrative cadre, then it evidences a high level of morale in the workers, for respect and confidence in authority is a sign of high morale. But if he/she is not so situated, then the answers seem to show lack of confidence in the exist­ing administration, a lack of confidence that can be rectified by promoting the desired indi­vidual into the administrative block, or otherwise by advising the existing administrative group to mend its ways and adopt other more calculated ways to win the confidence and respect of their subordinates.

In this manner, it is evident that no single method can help fully in realising the condition of morale in any unit and in discovering the means of improving existing morale.

5. Company Records and Reports:

The records and reports of the company prepared for other reasons and purposes can be used to measure the morale of employees. These records can be analysed in the following manner: change of labour ratio, man-hours lost, absence and slack­ness, number of grievances reported by workers and resolved by the management, number and value of accidents occurred in the factory and so on. All these variables can be interpreted as an index of morale.

Employee Morale – 6 Important Types: Individual, Group, Morale towards Job, Morale towards Organisation, High Morale and Low Morale

It is evident that morale is an abstract quality of human being.

Whenever morale is to be assessed it is done in two ways-

(1) Individual Morale and

(2) Group Morale

The morale of either of the two may be-

(1) High and

(2) Low.

This morale is directed at two elements-

(a) Job and

(b) Organisation

The morale may be towards job as well as organisation. Morale may be either High or Low. This high or low morale is of either individual or a group.

Type # 1. Individual Morale:

The abstract quality represented by enthusiasm and zeal towards either job or organisation by an individual in solitude is known as individual morale.

Type # 2. Group Morale:

Human is a social animal. Every human likes to be a part of a section or group of persons and ultimately the society. It is not true every time that the persons comprising a group may have same attitude. But we know that birds of same feathers flock together.

Thus, the group members generally have maximum equal qualities. This is truer when the group is of workers working on a job. If all the members of group are co-operative there is always congenial relationship between them. Secondly such a group when undertakes any job they show collective enthusiasm and zeal (either high or low) towards the job. Such abstract quality demonstrated by a group collectively is known as group morale.

Type # 3. Morale towards Job:

This is behavioural attitude of an individual or a group of individuals demonstrated by them towards performing a job entrusted to them. This is known as morale towards job.

Type # 4. Morale towards Organisation:

When we think of morale of employees, the organisation for which they work becomes centre point. All loyalties and performances are directed to the wellbeing of the organisation. Secondly, the organisation through its politics and points of view towards the workers affect the morale of the employees. No doubt the employees work for organisation but what is important is the enthusiasm, zeal and loyalty with which they work. Thus, their attitude is known as morale forwards organisation.

Type # 5. High Morale:

The more the enthusiasm and zeal demonstrated by workers the more degree of existence of morale. If the factors affecting the attitude of employees are dealt with positive approach by the organisation i.e. the management, they bring satisfaction, security, self-respect and so on. All these contribute to high degree of morale.

Morale cannot be measured quantitatively, the degree or level of morale is assessed from the performance and productivity of the employees. If these two are achieved one can say that these exists high morale.

But then one should not forget that high productivity can also be achieved by force and coercion. If it so such a productivity is not stable. Thus high productivity and better performance demonstrated consistently can be taken as a measure of high morale.

Type # 6. Low Morale:

It is just the opposite of a high morale.

Employee Morale – Motivation and Morale

1. Motivation is a physical thing offered to employees in order to mobilise hidden capabilities and skills in the employees. Motivation makes the employee to work.

Morale is a mental thing that cannot be shown. It is experienced and felt by observing the zeal and willingness to work as an effect of employee satisfaction.

2. Motivation helps boosting the morale to some extent. It is a type of reward given to employees for good efficient work. Thus motivation assumes status or cause which will not last long.

Morale is a sentiment of satisfaction which creates interest in work that too, to perform it efficiently.

3. Motivation is a stimulant which temporarily moves one into action. As soon as its purpose is served the action takes its own way.

Morale is a composite of feelings, attitudes and sentiments that contribute to general feeling of satisfaction at work.

4. Motivation is a function of drives and needs.

Morale on the other hand is a function of freedom or restraint towards goal.

5. Motivation mobilises energy.

Morale mobilises sentiments and willingness.

Employee Morale – Indices of Low Morale: Employee Unrest, Absenteeism and Tardiness, Employee Turnover, Grievances and a Few Others

There are several indicators of low morale prevailing within the organization, the major ones being absenteeism and tardiness, employee turnover, grievances, fatigue and monotony, etc.

1. Employee Unrest:

Unrest may appear in different forms and influence both the individual and the group. It may be in ‘inarticulate’ form where the worker does not recognize that he is restless and dissatisfied. However, he may indulge in daydreams, be late for work, be absent or change jobs frequently and thus present a disciplinary problem.

The unrest may be in ‘articulate’ form where the worker tends to express his unrest openly and enter formal grievances. This individual form of unrest may take the group form and cause collective action which has been termed as ‘crowd behaviour’. Such situations may lead to strikes, work stoppages, and allied group activities.

Although these activities are temporary, they may sometimes continue longer and result in permanent unrest called ‘mass movements’. A great deal of unrest results from the workers’ feelings of inadequacy and insecurity.

2. Absenteeism and Tardiness:

When employees of an organization suffer from low morale, they tend to express their dissatisfaction by being absent and tardy. This poses problems to production schedules, especially where line and group production methods are involved. A great deal of absenteeism is caused by non-occupational illness.

Mental health problems also contribute markedly towards total absences. Absenteeism among manufacturing workers, shop workers and nightshift workers is higher than among non-manufacturing workers, office workers and dayshift workers respectively. Job satisfaction is found to be negatively related to absenteeism and vice versa.

3. Employee Turnover:

The biggest indication of low morale in a company is a high rate of employee turnover. Workers may respond to severe unrest, discontentment and morale problems by deserting their jobs. Employee turnover up to a certain level is normal for any organization, but an exceptionally high rate of turnover indicates low morale and job dissatisfaction among workers.

The primary concern in turnover from a morale standpoint relates to workers who leave voluntarily for avoidable reasons. Employees may leave their jobs due to improper supervision, stressful relationship with co-workers, personnel policies, dissatisfaction with compensation, poor working conditions, insecurity, etc.

4. Grievances:

Grievances lead to lower levels of morale and may cause severe forms of unrest through social contagion. Grievances may be real or imaginary and may result from numerous reasons. Both management and labour may have grievances, and unrest on any side can lower the morale.

Typical examples are increase in demand for wages, complaints against a particular boss, objections regarding not getting a promotion, protests against implementation of certain rules and regulations, etc. The grievances may reveal more deep- rooted difficulties and problems than what appears on the surface.

5. Need for More Discipline:

If there is a need to impose more discipline than is normally required, it could point towards issues of low morale. Under ideal conditions, workers would understand the rationale of rules and regulations; discipline should be self-imposed. If the management feels a need to impose discipline, it points towards poor morale.

The need for discipline may be related to different fields such as attendance, punctuality, smoking, tardiness, etc. The major kinds of disciplinary actions include correction, oral reprimand, written reprimand, fines or discharge in case of severe indiscipline.

6. Fatigue and Monotony:

Fatigue has been defined as a reduction in ability to do work because of the pace of the preceding work. The rates of fatigue vary with the intensity of the motivation. Fatigue is not merely physical. Variables involved in this respect are length of work, speed of work and the extent of physical labour.

Repetition and lack of variety in a job make it monotonous and routine. Monotony depends upon an individual rather than on the job. One individual may find a job interesting while other may find it monotonous. If a person is placed on an unsuitable job that fails to interest him, it gives rise to monotony.

Employee Morale – 11 General Features of Low Morale

The measurement of morale is a very difficult task because it is basically a psychological issue and it is made up of several individual tendencies. Hence, in order to measure the level of morale in a worker, the management must observe characteristics of low morale in the behaviour of a particular employee.

The following are some of the general features of low morale:

1. Antagonistic attitude towards those in authority

2. Lack of obedience or forced obedience

3. Feelings of hatred, jealousy, doubt and disrespect, and lack of confidence towards those in authority

4. Disappointment, unenthusiastic insipidity

5. Lack of collective administration, unity and belief in one’s efforts

6. Mental turmoil and unhappiness

7. Lack of system and productivity in work

8. Tendency of circulating all kinds of rumours

9. Poisoning mind of others towards authority behind its back

10. Lack of appreciation of work

11. Mutual conflicts and non-cooperation.

Employee Morale – 7 Major Disadvantages of Low Morale

Low morale may lead to:

1. Lowering down the production

2. Increase in work slackness and absenteeism

3. Increase in grievances and complaints

4. Increase in labour turnover rate

5. Lack of peaceful industrial relations (hereafter IR)

6. More accidents

7. More industrial disputes and so on.

Real and high morale is the positive problem of a good organisation. That is why, every enterprise takes care of it nowadays.

Employee Morale – Benefits of High Morale

Employees with high morale like their jobs and always co-operate to achieve organisational goals. It comes from job satisfaction. High morale is indeed a manifestation of the strength of the employees, their dependability, confidence and devotion to the job.

Existence of high level of morale benefits the organisation in following ways:

1. The employees extend co-operation in achieving the goals of organisation that too willingly.

2. High morale generates loyalty towards the organisation through leaderships.

3. Employees follow the rules and regulations and thus behave in disciplined way.

4. It generates high interest in the employees towards the jobs and ultimately towards organisation.

5. The employees feel pride to be the part of organisation.

6. Rate of absenteeism is reduced.

7. Discipline is maintained highly.