After reading this essay we will discuss about the methods used for training and development of employees.
Essay on the Training of Employees:
Training may be defined as the “steps for increasing the knowledge and skill of the workers for a definite purpose”. The workers are provided facilities to learn new skills, technical knowledge and new attitude towards the work. The basic purpose of training is to bring about a change in the behaviour of the workers.
Training is not the same thing as education. Training is limited in scope. It is concerned with increasing skill in doing a specific job. Education aims at the general development of the workers. Education generally means formal instruction in an educational institution.
Importance of Training:
Looking at the development of various aspects, the following advantages can be cited from training:
1. Increase in Production:
By productivity we mean more production with less cost. Workers after training gain efficiency as they know many new techniques and understand to do the work in a good way.
2. Better Use of Raw Material and Plant & Machinery:
A trained worker can make the better use of machines as he knows the scientific way of working. This prevents misuse of material and decreases the cost.
3. Development of Employees’ Morale:
Training develops efficiency of worker hence he feels self-contention. He feels proud of his work. This enhances his morale.
4. Supervision and Direction:
The trained workers do not require to be inspected or directed for their work, hence supervision expenses are reduced. Trained workers supervise their own work and get directions themselves.
5. Increased mobility of Employee:
Trained workers are developed mentally. His doors are open for promotion. Trained worker could be transferred for good job.
6. Helpful in Extension Programmes of Enterprises:
Training makes workers developed mentally and morally and they are able to bear the new responsibilities. Hence, if concern wants extension, it gets the responsible person in workers easily.
7. Decreases Accidents:
Workers learn the use of different instruments well through training. This decreases accidents.
Methods or Techniques of Training:
It is compulsory to impart training to the workers of any concern.
The following methods are used for training:
1. Apprentice Method:
This is the oldest form of training. Under this method the apprentice learns the secrets of work through trained specialists. They take the work from them as well as they give necessary direction. The training period is fixed according to the nature of work. Such time limit covers the period of 6 months to one year. The expenses of training goes half to apprentice and half to the concern. At times the apprentice is given the remuneration. This is the most expensive method of training.
2. On-the-Job Training or In-Plant Training:
Under this system worker is given the work and while working he is given various instructions and directions because the worker can gain easily the specific knowledge about the work at that time. While working he sees other working, but seeing the work, understanding and talking is not enough but he must perform the same and repeatedly, if he wants to be an expert.
As he learns the trade, the guidance list becomes less for him. This kind of training makes him know the circumstances and necessities quickly. Hence, supervision is close and efficient. This is a practical training. Under this training labour gets the right momentum for the working and he finds himself much interested.
3. Training by Supervisors:
Supervisors instruct the workers while working, they supervise their work time to time. This gives a chance to know them intimately. Supervisors know their abilities well.
4. Internship Training:
Under this method apprentices are imparted theoretical and practical training. Here technical institutes and vocational houses co-operate. After theoretical training they are sent for practical training to the vocational houses.
5. Vestibule Training:
In this method, training is imparted away from the site of factory but on all the makes of the machine used in industry so that worker may train himself on all models. That place has an atmosphere of the factory and the same working conditions prevail as in factories. After the training, the apprentice is kept in factory on service. Experienced foremen teach the practical work.
Essay on the Development of Employees:
Management development includes all those activities and programmes which have substantial influence on changing the capacity of the individual to perform his present assignment better.
Management development is a planned and continuous process of learning and growth designed to induce behavioural change in individuals by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent qualities through the acquisition, understanding and use of new knowledge, insights and skills. This learning process involves the implication that there will be changed behaviour on the part of the individual given the adequate training and education.
Purpose of Executive Development:
Executive or management development is needed to achieve the following objects:
1. There is a rapid pace of technological development. Many automatic machines and equipment’s have been introduced. The manager must have working knowledge of the uses of new technology.
2. Change in the socio-cultural environment is taking at a fast speed. The manager must have up-to-date knowledge of these environment to understand the behaviour of people in a proper perspective.
3. There is tough competition in the market and the consumers have become conscious of their rights. It is no longer easy to misguide the consumers. To understand the needs of the consumers properly, executive development can be of great help.
4. Management development can be used to impart knowledge to the managerial personnel in the latest management concepts, principles, techniques and practices.
5. Managers must be trained adequately to motivate the workforce.
Methods of Management Development:
1. Special Courses and Lectures:
Special courses may be organised by the company for the development of their executives. Some organisations also arrange some courses or lectures by the staff of some universities and institutes.
Sometimes, the business concerns may send their employees to attend courses of one or two week’s duration conducted by the Institutes of Management, Administrative Staff College of India, National Productivity Council, All-India Management Association, NUT and other institutes.
Under this method, the managers attend the conference programmes in which they pool their ideas and experience with certain problems which are a common subject of discussion.
For example, the conference may discuss specific problems such as planning, delegation, communication, uses of managerial control, co-ordination, relationship between business and society, etc. Such programmes are very useful methods of manager development, if there is active participation of all the participants in the discussion.
3. Case Studies:
The case study method was popularised by the Harvard Business School, USA. It is one of the common forms of training to the employees. In this method, the instructor describes the actual situation or problems of a specific concern and the participants are encouraged to take part in the objective discussion of the problem. This method increases the trainee’s power of observation and also his analytical ability.
4. Sensitivity Training:
This method aims to influence an individual’s behaviour through group discussion. In group discussion, the trainees freely express their ideas, beliefs and attitudes. The trainees are enabled to see themselves as others see them and develop an understanding of others views and behaviour.
Further, the participants are trained to become patient listeners and also resolve conflicts, if any. In addition, the trainees become sensitive to one another’s feelings and develop increased tolerance towards others.
5. Role Playing:
Role playing focuses on such problems as giving an assignment, correcting an employee, dealing with a complaint, safety principles and practice, etc. It can be a matter of a supervisor dealing with an individual or with a group.
The role playing lasts 20-30 minutes after which data are collected about the performance results and a discussion takes place about the solution, the issues, and the behaviour of the group members in the role playing.
6. Position Rotation:
The major objective of position rotation is the broadening the background of the trainee in the business. On the job experience and understanding are narrow in the sense that the trainee acquires skill and knowledge in the one job. If the trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another he acquires a general background. In a planned rotation programme, the job switches are made in periods of from six months to a year.
The advantages of position rotation are:
(i) It provides a general background and thus an organisational point of view.
(ii) It encourages inter-departmental cooperation,
(iii) Fresh viewpoints are periodically introduced to the various units,
(iv) It promotes organisational flexibility through generating versatile human resources,
(v) It has all the advantages of on-the-job coaching.
7. Committees and Junior Boards:
Committees and Junior Boards which are also called ‘multiple management’ are important tools of training. The trainee by becoming a member of the committee, gets an opportunity to interact with experienced managers and to know the problems of the organisation and the viewpoints of different managers to solve them.
Besides committees, the method of Junior Board consisting of younger executives (middle level managers) as members can also be used for the purpose of managerial development. The members in the Junior Boards deliberate upon the same problem faced by the Company Board of Directors.
All the decisions and suggestions made by the Junior Boards are placed before the meeting of the Board of Directors of the Company and the Board of Directors consider them before taking final decisions. Some advantages of this method are, increased employee efficiency, reduced labour turnover and lower absenteeism.
Essay on the Difference between Training and Development:
The terms ‘training’ and ‘development’ appear to be synonymous. But there are some differences in the contents and techniques of employee training and development. According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job, management development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competence in their present jobs, but also capacities for future managerial tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.”
Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. It imparts specific skills for specific purposes. It is mainly job-oriented. Training is given to both new and old employees throughout their stay in the organisation.
In contrast, management development includes the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competence in their present jobs but also capacities for future managerial positions.
It may be noted here that the term ‘training’ refers to the programmes that facilitate the learning process which results in development (consequence of training). Hence, the terms ‘training’ and ‘development’ are applicable to both managers and executives and non-managerial personnel.
The points of distinction between the two are given below:
1. Training is the act of learning basic skills and knowledge necessary for a particular job or a group of jobs. Development, on the other hand, means growth of the individual in all respects. An organisation works for the development of its executives in order to enable them to gain advanced knowledge and competence.
2. The term ‘training’ is used in the context of imparting skills to operative workers. But the term ‘development’ is used in the context of management development.
3. Training programmes are directed towards maintaining and improving current job performance, while development programmes seek to develop skills and competence for future jobs.