Here is a compilation of term papers on ‘Management’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Management’ especially written for school and college students.
Term Paper on Management
Term Paper Contents:
- Term Paper on the Definitions of Management
- Term Paper on the Concept of Management
- Term Paper on the Nature/Features of Management
- Term Paper on the Features of Management Process
- Term Paper on the Scope of Management
- Term Paper on Managerial Skills
- Term Paper on the Approaches to Management
Term Paper # 1. Definitions of Management:
Management has been defined in various ways based on the view point, beliefs and comprehension of the authority. Different authorities define management by focusing on certain aspects of management.
The following quotations will highlight their main themes. They are:
Fredrick Winslow Taylor:
“Management is the art of knowing what you want to do………….. in the best and cheapest way.”
John F. Mee:
“Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum prosperity with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and give the public the best possible service.”
These two quotations focus on productivity and they consider that it is the duty of the management to increase productivity.
Lawren A. Appley:
“Management is the development of people and not the direction of things….Management is personal administration.”
“Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. It is the art of creating environment in which people can perform and individuals could co-operate towards attaining of group goals. It is the art of removing block to such performance, a way of optimizing efficiency in reaching goals.”
Appley’s quotation concentrates on personnel administration. That of Koontz specifies that management’s responsibility is to create and facilitate environment for effective performance. Further it specifies that management is interested in optimizing efficiency.
“….management is simply the process of decision making and control over the action of human beings for the express purpose of attaining pre-determined goals.”
This definition advocates that management is decision-making and it is the duty of the management to concentrate on achievement of objectives.
“Management is the function of executive leadership anywhere.”
Donald J. Clough:
“Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership.”
So these two quotations insist that the main theme of management is leadership and decision making.
Dalton E. Mc Farland has Defined Management:
“….as that process by which managers create, divert, maintain and operate purposive organisations through systematic, coordinated, co-operative human effort.”
Theo Haimann and William G. Scott:
“Management is a social and technical process which utilises resources, influences human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish organisation goals.”
“Management is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs action towards common goals.”
George R. Terry:
“Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, actuating and controlling performance to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human beings and other resources.”
The focal point of these definitions is that management is considered as a process which integrates and facilitates group performance. The grouping of definitions attempted is neither rigid nor standardised. There are different approaches to management. It varies from productivity to process.
The productivity oriented definition draws inspiration from engineering. A human relation relies on psychology. Decision-making, draw heavily on systems approach and complex quantitative techniques.
So these various ideas on management makes us to come to the following conclusions:
(1) The discipline of management is unable to develop fully its own theory and tools of analysis.
(2) Further the dependence on other disciplines and the evolutionary nature of management theory is responsible for the non-development of a single unassailable definition of management.
So at present the acceptable definition is that of Harold Koontz and George R.Terry.
The first definition is widely used and accepted one.
It concentrates as the following:
(1) Management is group performance.
(2) It is the duty of the management to create the environment for performance and facilitate it.
(3) It is the duty of the management to remove obstacles to performance and to achieve optimum efficiency.
George R. Terry’s definition advocates the following:
(1) Management is a distinct process.
(2) This involves planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
(3) It utilises both human and other resources.
(4) This process is used to achieve predetermined objectives.
Term Paper # 2. Concept of Management:
The term management concepts are no more than ideas developed by generalising from reality. To avoid misinterpretation and confusion they must be stated clearly and concisely. In management literature there is no precise classification of concepts. For better understanding the concepts are classified into two groups.
A. Concepts by early thinkers.
B. Concepts by modern writers.
A. Concepts by Early Thinkers:
He is known as the father of scientific management and he introduced the concept of “scientific method”.
(b) Frank Gilbreth:
He gave the concept of “one best way” of performing any activity.
(c) Henry Fayol:
He suggested the concept of “Process of functions”.
(d) Mary Parker Follett:
He was responsible for using “co-ordination” as the essence of management.
(e) Oliver Sheldon:
Introduced the concept of “proper balance” between things of production and the humanity of production.
B. Concept by Modern Writers:
(a) Chester I Barnard:
Used the concept of “co-operation”. According to him an executive is a critical person and he has to establish a climate of cooperation among sub-ordinates and work groups.
(b) Douglas Mc Gregor:
He introduced the concept “Basic nature of man”. This means the way a person manages others is dependent on his assumptions about “the basic nature of man.”
(c) Peter F. Drucker:
He is responsible for introducing the concept of objectives. This is increasingly used in solving organisational problems.
(d) Rensis Likert:
His concept was “supportive”. This means highly effective managers viewed by their subordinates in their supervising relationships.
(e) C. Northcote Parkinson:
An official wants multiple subordinates which mean officials make employees work for each other.
Each of these concepts concentrates on an important aspect of management.
These concepts facilitate managers to communicate effectively with other managers and organisational members. Further they provide valuable insight into “how to attain the objectives” of organisations. They are to be differentiated from principles. Principles referred to as the laws or fundamental truths of organisations and management concepts are designed primarily to provide better definitions and understanding of organisations and management process.
Secondly Principles prescribe a particular course of managerial action but concepts do not suggest particular courses of action. Finally concepts are the building blocks of theory and principles and have been used in formulating and explaining the theory and principles of management.
Term Paper # 3. Nature/Features of Management:
Having understood what management is let us now consider some important characteristics of management:
(i) Essential ingredient of all organised work.
(ii) Management is distinct process.
(iii) It is an integrating force.
(iv) It aims at achieving pre-determined objectives.
(v) It is universal in character.
(vi) It is intangible.
(vii) It utilises inter disciplinary approach.
(i) An Essential Ingredient of Organised Work:
It is an essential accompaniment of all organised work. The history of humanity bears testimony to this. All forms of organisation make use of management. Various activities like scientific advancement transportation system, community development and cultural events are all established through joint human endeavour. The application of management process to group activities brings about coordination among individuals and groups.
(ii) Management is a Distinct Process:
It is a distinct social process and consists of series of actions that result in the accomplishment of desired objectives.
Basic elements of this process are:
(a) Decision of a course of action.
(b) Obtaining the necessary physical resources for performance.
(c) Enlisting the support of everyone in the organisation to achieve the desired results.
(d) To see that the job is properly accomplished.
(iii) Management is an Integrating Force:
In every organisation there are two types of resources known as human and material. The integration of these two produces the desired results. Of the two the human resources are the most precious and difficult to manage. So every management must try to achieve for preservation and efficient functioning of organisation in any society.
(iv) Management Aims at Achieving Pre-Determined Objectives:
It is the duty of the management to direct performance towards the achievement of pre-determined objectives. These objectives are the final goals of any organisation towards which all activities are directed systematically and purposefully. The efficiency of the management is evaluated in the light of its achievement with minimum cost and maximum profit.
(v) Management is Universal in Character:
The principles of management and its techniques are universal in character. This means they are equally applicable in the fields of business, military, government, education and religion. These principles are to be considered as working guidelines and they are to be turned to the needs of the organisation.
(vi) Management is Intangible:
Management is invisible and intangible. Its presence can be felt only by the results achieved by the management like increased production and sales, informed decisions and heightened morale of subordinates. Here the point to be noted is not to confuse with management and managers. It is the approach of managers which is to be taken as management.
(vii) Management uses Inter-Disciplinary Approach:
The history of management is one century old. Management has relied on other fields like engineering, sociology, psychology, anthropology and mathematics. Operations research has drawn from maths, individual motivation, group dynamics has drawn from psychology and anthropology and systems analysis have facilitated decision making.
Term Paper # 4. Features of Management Process:
In trying to define management it was concluded that one of the most accepted definitions of management is that of George R.Terry.
His definition focused on the following aspects:
(a) Management is a distinct process.
(b) It is a functional process.
(c) It utilises both human and other resources.
(d) It aims at achieving predetermined objectives.
In this article attempt is made to discuss elaborately management as a process and its principles.
So this raises two important questions:
(a) What is a process?
(b) Why management is considered as a process?
A process consists of some distinct stages or steps which occur in a sequential manner. It is defined as a series of actions or operations conducting to an end.
The features of a process are:
(i) The chronological sequence is the essence of process.
(ii) The stages are interrelated as the end of one stage is the beginning of the next stage i.e., the output of the previous stage is the input of the next stage.
Management is called as a process because it comprises of a series of functions that lead to the achievement of certain objectives.
The features of a management process are:
(1) Management is a continuous process. A manager has to perform functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. The performance of a manager does not stop once the functions are completed. The functions are not only inter-related and interdependent but also they are continuous. The functional cycle is never-ending and is repeated again and again.
(2) The functions of management are circular in nature. The specialty of management is that all functions are the sub-functions of each other. A preceding function of management influences the succeeding function. It is a circular process and not a linear process. It starts with planning and proceeds to other functions of organising, staffing, directing and controlling in a circular pattern. Finally controlling leads to planning and other functions.
The following diagram illustrates the point:
(3) Management is a social process. It has to deal with human resources inside and outside the organisation. The management decision has far-reaching social consequences. The decisions of the government affects the society at the national level and the decisions of an organisation influences the functioning of the society at the micro level. So management is a social process.
(4) The management functions are composite in nature as they are to be considered in totality and not in isolation. A manager has to perform the various functions simultaneously in a continuum. Management functions are manifested in results accomplished. So management is a composite process.
Term Paper # 5. Scope of Management:
It is difficult to define precisely the scope of management still an attempt can be made to outline the scope of management.
(a) Management is a functional process which involves the function of planning, organisation, direction and control.
(b) It has various functional areas like financial management, personnel management, production management, marketing’s management and materials management.
(c) Because of its inter-disciplinary approach study of commerce, economics, sociology, psychology, mathematics and ethics is very essential.
(d) Management principles are of universal application.
(e) The techniques of management can be improved by proper research and development. This has been testified by the history of human development.
Management is a Science or an Art:
Generally, a controversy exists that management is a science or an art.
The beautiful observation made about this is “management is the oldest of arts and the youngest of sciences”. This is again testified by the history of human civilisation or it co-existed with it and developed on scientific lines very recently.
Now let us try to understand first whether management is a science or not? A science is a systematized body of knowledge relating to an area of study and contains some general truths explaining past events.
Its features are:
(a) It is a systematized body of knowledge and uses scientific methods for observation.
(b) Its principles are developed on the basis of continued observation and experiment.
(c) The principles of science are exact and they are universally applicable.
(d) Science studies the cause and effect relationship.
Management is viewed as a science in at least three different ways:
1. As an organised body of knowledge have its own distinct boundaries and fields of activity.
2. It has a set of concepts and principles moulded into a theory having descriptive, explanatory and predictive properties.
3. As an objective and national approach to the deployment of means for purposes of accomplishing certain ends.
The objects of reducing management into a scientific discipline are:
(a) To minimise the purely intuitive content of management behaviour.
(b) To provide a systematic frame of reference for management practice.
(c) To evolve a further research and feedback.
(d) To formalise a logical and rational approach for optimising resource use and productivity through objective decision making.
Management as an Art:
The term art means “applying skills and knowledge in accomplishing an end through deliberate efforts”. Art is considered as the know-how to accomplish a desired result. After knowing a particular art, practice is needed to reach the level of perfection. Management is considered as art because it applied both knowledge and skill to achieve objectives.
The essential elements in art are creative power and skill in performance. Art is an application of science. In science theory teaching is coupled with practical laboratory work. In art the principle is put into practice. Management is one of the creative arts as it is the organiser and utiliser of the total resources.
Management is both science as well as an art. The science of management provides certain general principles which can guide the managers in their professional performance. The art of managing consists in tackling every situation in an effective way.
As a matter of fact, neither science should be over-emphasised nor art should be discounted as they are mutually interdependent and complimentary. In essence the science of management draws nurture from the practice of management as an art and the art of management is guided by the science of management.
The only criticism against this statement is that management is not a science. It is not or par with exact or natural sciences. It is true and it is not possible for management to be exact because it is intimately intertwined with human behaviour and with environmental uncertainty.
There can be no exact science of human behaviour and co-operative endeavour with which management has to deal. It can be an exact science dealing with both facts and values, objective and subjective matters, predictability and uncertainty, stability and change. Finally management is an art and it is supported by a science of management.
Management as a Profession:
Can we call management as a profession or not. The answer is it can be called as a profession.
This can be explained by the following discussion:
“Profession is a calling in which one professes to have acquired some special knowledge used by way of either instructing guiding, advising others or serving them.”
An authority by name Kennth Andrews have come out effectively on the elements of profession of management.
(b) Competent application
(c) Social responsibility
(d) Self-Control and
(e) Community action.
To call anything as profession it should possess the following features. They are:
(i) Existence of organised and systematic knowledge
(ii) Formalised methods of acquiring training and experience.
(iii) A body to regulate the conduct and behaviour of members.
(iv) There should be a code of conduct.
(v) Service to society is given preference over monetary rewards.
Let us now try to correlate the features to consider management as a profession:
(a) Existence of an Organised and Systematic Knowledge:
Management has its own systematised body of knowledge. It has its own principles, concepts and tools. It is an expanding body of knowledge. Managers are trying to improve their skills and knowledge to solve complex and intricate problems of business more efficiently.
(b) Formalised Methods of Acquiring Training and Knowledge:
Its importance have been identified and realised by people in various parts of our country and globe.
Further it has been understood that an individual can enter a profession only after acquiring theatrical knowledge and practical training. Almost all the universities have started imparting management education. There are prominent institutes of management which impart training on management.
(c) Existence of Association to Regulate Conduct and Behavior:
To maintain high quality of profession there should be a representative body of professionals. The association has to develop and enforce professional ethics amongst its members. In India this is done by All India Management Association (AIMA) at New Delhi. Similarly in other countries also there are associations of this type.
(d) Existence of Code of Conduct:
For every profession there are certain standards of conduct and professional ethics. Traditional professions like medicine, law have their own associations. For medicine Medical Council of India is there and for Lawyers there is Bar Council of India. They have the authority to prescribe minimum qualifications for taking up these professions and they even administer an oath of service to humanity by its members.
They always come out with necessary rulings on code of conduct of members as and when required. In management no code of ethical standards is in existence but the increasing emphasis is placed on social responsibility of managers.
(e) Service to Society:
The object of the profession is to function in such a way to suit the requirements of the society and to use its resources in an optimum way to achieve growth and development.
Based on the above discussion it can be stated that management is gradually moving towards professionalization of management based on the following points:
(i) It has a body of knowledge that is transferable.
(ii) The basic principles of management can be identified, mastered and practiced.
(iii) It follows a scientific approach.
(iv) There are some specific skills and techniques used by management.
(v) It adheres to a code of ethics.
(vii) It is a required discipline.
Management is heading towards professionalism in response to changes taking place in society in the back drop of ‘scientific temper’ in all areas of human activity. The only missing aspect of professionalism is the absence of effective enforcement of professional organisation. So we can safely call it that it is moving towards professionalism.
Term Paper # 6. Managerial Skills:
Management is an art and the manager is to possess the following skills to be a successful one. They are the innovative, creative, technical, human and conceptual skills of an individual. Various authorities suggest different skills for the successful managers.
But a manager has to possess the following skills:
(i) Technical skills
(ii) Human skills
(iii) Conceptual skills
(iv) Decision-making skills
(i) Technical Skill:
A manager should possess the ability and knowledge in using the resources, techniques and procedures in performing his job based on requirements of the organisation and situation. He should be aware of skills to be employed in his particular enterprise and should be capable of asking intelligent questions about the use of techniques in his organisation. He should have a sound knowledge about the role of each skill employed and the interrelations between the skills. So that he can identify the strength and weaknesses of the organisation.
(ii) Human Skills:
This means the ability of the manager to interact effectively as an individual and as a member of the group. He must have the spirit of co-operation and co-ordination. He should have the mind to look at people with empathy. His inter-personal skills of functioning with superiors, subordinates and peers must be good. He should be aware of human skills and this to be developed throughout his career. He has to understand the capabilities and potentials of people for effective performance.
Human skills are equally important at all levels of management because performance is to be achieved through effective group performance. A manager is to resolve conflicts, motivate, lead and communicate effectively with others.
(iii) Conceptual Skill:
This refers to the ability of the manager to see the organisation as a whole and to co-ordinate and integrate both internal and external factors. They have to see how the parts and variables fit together to form a system. These are needed for planning and strategy formulation. This is needed at the top level of management. This will not be needed in the lower levels. This will facilitate better decisions in the interest of the organisation.
(iv) Decision Making Skill:
This means the ability of the manager to arrive at a practical solution to a problem. He has to design a workable solution to problems in the light of realities they face. He is to be a problem shooter, par excellence. This is possible only when he has good understanding and analytical potentials. So a successful manager should have a fair blend of these skills.
Term Paper # 7. Approaches to Management:
So far we have been discussing the development of management thought through the ages.
For easy understanding of the development of management, it may be classified as follows:
(i) Quantitative Approach
(ii) Systems Approach
(iii) Contingency Approach
Recent Trends in Management and Emerging Horizons of Management:
In approaches to management we have listed the approaches to management of these the last three approaches have become the recent trends and they are going to be the emerging Horizons of management. They are Quantitative approach, Systems approach and Contingency approach.
(i) Quantitative Approach:
Mathematical Approach, operations Research and Management Science approach. In this approach scientific tools for providing a quantitative base for managerial decisions were provided. F.W. Taylor advocated a logical sequence to management problems.
He advocated problem formulation, fact finding, modelling, developing tentative solution, testing etc. A natural extension of scientific management is operations research. The development of models required the skills in various disciplines like engineering, mathematics, statistics, physical sciences, behavioural sciences and cost accountancy.
This came into existence during Second World War. This technique was used by U.K. and U.S.A. for effective handling of military resources. After Second World War this was used for problems of management.
From 1970 onwards this approach changed its emphasis to broader perspective of decision making and model building. It also incorporated computerized information system and operations management. The latest emphasis of this approach marked a move towards more broad based management. A detailed discussion on O.R. Techniques is given in Decision making.
(ii) Systems Approach:
This was developed in 1960s. This approach provided the impetus for the unification of management theory. It could treat the various approaches like process, quantitative and behavioural as subsystems in an overall theory of management. Systems approach has attempted to bring all approaches to form an overall theory of management.
Systems Approach is based on the generalisation that an organisation is a system and its components are inter-related and inter-dependent. “A system is composed related and dependent elements which, when in interaction form a unitary whole.” The world as a whole can be considered to be a system in which various national economics are sub-systems.
In every economy there are various industries and in each industry there are various firms. Each firm has sub systems like production market, finance, personnel etc., So each system is divided into subsystems and they are interacting and interdependent.
Systems approach considers organisation as a system having the following characteristics:
(a) It consists of several sub-systems which are inter-dependent and interrelated.
(b) Each system has boundary which separates it from other systems.
(c) An organisation is an open and dynamic system. A system may be open or closed. An open system is sensitive to its environment. A closed system does not recognise external factors as it does not interact with the environment. A open system is vibrant and dynamic with the external environment.
In essence, the contributions of systems approach are:
(i) It provides management with concepts from every approach.
(ii) This approach refers to both general and specialised systems. General systems approach to management is primarily concerned with formal organisation concepts drawn from psychology, sociology and philosophy. Specific management systems deal with analysis of organisation structure, information, planning, control mechanism and job design.
(iii) Contingency Approach:
Other Name: ‘Situational approach’:
This approach advocates there is no one best way to handle any of tire management problems. The application of management principles and practices should be contingent upon the existing circumstances.
This approach consists of three major parts of overall conceptual framework.
(ii) Management Concepts, principles and techniques
(iii) Contingent relationship between the first two.
The avocations of contingency approach are:
i. It stresses that there is no one best style of leadership which will suit every situation.
ii. It guides the managers to be adaptive to environment variables while choosing their styles and techniques.
iii. This approach advises managers to be pragmatic and open-minded as readymade solutions for all situations are not available.
The limitations of this approach are:
(i) It does not recognize the influence of management concepts and techniques on environment.
(ii) Literature of this approach is still in the development stage.
Comparison between Systems Approach and Contingency Approach:
Systems approach lays emphasis on interdependence and interaction among systems and sub-systems. Contingency approach lays emphasis on the nature of interdependence and the impact of environment and organisational design and the managerial style.
(b) Treatment of Organisations:
Systems approach treats all organisations alike. It does not consider the size and socio-cultural settings. In contingency Approach each organisation is to be studied as a unique entity.
(c) Level of Study:
Systems approach studies organisation at the philosophical level. The contingency approach is action-oriented and pragmatic. It is based on empirical studies.
(d) Classical Principles:
Systems approach is not commenting on the validity of classical principles of management. Contingency approach rejects the blind application of the classical principles of management.
(e) Organisational Interaction:
Systems approach lay’s down the point that the organisation interacts with the environment. The focal point of consideration for contingency approach is the impact of environment on the organisation structure and managerial style.