A project report on training and development of employees. This report will help you to learn about:- 1. Introduction to Training and Development 2. Training Needs 3. Objectives 4. Types 5. Benefits 6. Designing a Training Programme 7. Importance 8. Methods 9. Training for Different Cadres 10. Development of Employees.
- Project Report on the Introduction to Training and Development
- Project Report on the Training Needs
- Project Report on the Objectives of Training
- Project Report on the Types of Training
- Project Report on the Benefits of Training
- Project Report on Designing a Training Programme
- Project Report on the Importance of Training
- Project Report on the Methods of Training
- Project Report on the Training for Different Cadres
- Project Report on the Development of Employees
Project Report # 1. Introduction to Training and Development:
To cope up with the fast changing technology and needs of the society, training and development of employees is very essential. Training is a process of learning, in which emphasis is given for job instruction, job relation, and job knowledge programmes in addition to managerial skills.
Training is a short term process and is imparted for a definite purpose, while development is a long term educational process, utilising a systematic and organised procedure for learning conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.
Training may be defined as the “steps for increasing the knowledge and skill of the workers for a definite purpose”. The workers are provided facilities to learn new skills, technical knowledge and new attitude towards the work. The basic purpose of training is to bring about a change in the behaviour of the workers.
Training is not the same thing as education. Training is limited in scope. It is concerned with increasing skill in doing a specific job. Education aims at the general development of the workers. Education generally means formal instruction in an educational institution.
Today training is an absolute necessity. Even today in many concerns no systematic training is imparted to their workers, which results in absenteeism, accident, labour turnover, bad workmanship and spoilage of tools and plants etc. All these drawbacks ultimately increase the cost of product.
In the beginning, if systematic training is imparted to workers, the above mentioned drawbacks can be minimised considerably and the cost will thus reduce to a large extent. Therefore, initial cost of training will be repaid in this form. The owner will receive large profits. The workers can get higher wages and they will feel mental satisfaction.
Therefore, to attain a very high standard on the average, it is essential to impart training right from unskilled worker to the specialised executive in every concern. Today due to modern advancement and mass production, a very high skill is required, which can only be developed by proper training.
Whenever a new machine arrives or a new method is required to be introduced the man concerned must be given necessary training for fitting them to the jobs. This system of training is now very common in all large government and private concerns.
Almost all major manufacturing concerns impart necessary training to their new employees. These firms have their own apprenticeship schools to fit the employees in special jobs.
There they will not learn wrong practices. Wastage will be minimised and employers are sure about the trained personnel. This result is the increase of industrial proficiency and productivity.
Human resource development is the process of increasing the knowledge, skills and capacities of people. This is important for individual and enterprise as well as for a nation to develop its human resources.
Project Report # 2. Training Needs:
1. For Top Management:
(a) Conceptual skill, Decision making;
(b) Organisation and communication; and
(c) Industrial relations.
2. For Middle Management:
Specialised courses in various management and productivity techniques.
3. For Lower Management:
(a) Social and administrative aspects;
(b) Productive technique;
(c) Production Engineering and Industrial Engineering; and
(d) Company information.
Training is required on account of the following reasons:
1. Job requirements:
New employees need to be provided orientation training to make them familiar with the job and the organisaiton.
2. Technological changes:
Increasing use of fast changing techniques require training into new technology.
3. Organisational Viability:
In order to survive and grow, an organisation is required to continually adopt itself to the changing environment. In the age of globalisation, firms must upgrade their capabilities so as to face international competition. Existing employees need refresher training to keep them abreast of new knowledge. Training programmes foster the initiative and creativity to employees and help to prevent obsolescence of skills.
4. Internal Mobility:
Training becomes necessary when an employee moves from one job to another job due to promotion or transfer. Training is necessary to prepare employees for higher level jobs.
Identifying Training Needs:
All training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organisation and individual employees. In order to identify training needs, the gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specified, and the problem areas need to resolve through training should also be identified.
Following types of analysis are generally carried out to identify the training needs:
1. Organisational analysis.
(a) Analysis of objectives.
(b) Resource utilisation analysis.
(c) Organisation climate analysis.
2. Task or Role Analysis.
3. Manpower Analysis.
Project Report # 3. Objectives of Training:
A good training has the following objectives:
1. To increase productivity.
2. To make first line supervisors a more effective tool of management.
3. To bring out more cordial relations, i.e., employee and employer relations.
4. To increase morale and team spirit among the workers.
5. To increase effective co-operation and co-ordination at all levels.
6. To impart various social and supervisory skills.
7. To develop the individual to utilize the knowledge and experience and inherent abilities for higher performance.
8. To accept more shop floor responsibility.
9. To increase knowledge (Technical know-how) and economical use of resources.
Project Report # 4. Types of Training:
Training can be imparted in several ways depending upon the requirement.
Various types of trainings can be classified as follows:
1. Purpose of Training:
Orientation, Technical, Attitude Modification.
2. Location of Training:
On the job, class room.
3. Level of Trainees:
Workmen, Supervisors, Executive, Senior executive trainings.
4. Training Characteristics:
Apprentice, Refresher, Extensive.
5. Number of Trainees:
6. Technique of Training:
Formal, Discussions, Models, Role playing Group discussions.
Project Report # 5. Benefits of Training:
1. To Organisation:
(a) Improvement in performance.
(b) Improvement in working methods.
(c) Reduction in wastage and spoilage.
(d) Reduction in learning time.
(e) Reduction in supervisory burden.
(f) Improvement in moral and reduction in grievances.
(g) Reduction in accident rates.
(h) Reduction in machine breakdown and maintenance cost.
(i) Improvement in quality of work.
2. To Employees:
(a) Improvement in knowledge and skills.
(b) Increased productivity which results in enhanced earnings.
(c) Lesser chances of accidents.
(d) More opportunity for growth/promotions,
(e) High morale.
(f) Increase in self-confidence.
Project Report # 6. Designing a Training Programme:
Following steps are followed while designing a training programme:
1. Decide training objectives.
2. Deciding the responsibility for organising the training programme. The incharge of the training programme is required to do detailed planning for organising the programme.
3. Selecting and motivating the target group.
4. Preparing the trainers.
6. Practice by the trainee.
7. Follow-up. It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of the training programme.
Principles of Learning:
For developing an effective training programme, following principles are followed:
1. Every human being is capable of learning.
2. People learn faster by doing than by hearing alone.
3. Learning is active, and not passive.
4. People learn faster when they are informed of their achievements.
5. Learning is a cumulative process.
6. Learning is closely related to attention and concentration.
Principles of Training:
Following principles help to make training more effective:
1. Clear objectives.
2. Clearly defined training policy.
3. Motivated employees.
4. Training is more effective when there is reinforcement in the forms of rewards.
5. Organised training materials.
6. Several short sessions spread over a long period are more effective.
7. Good trainers should be developed both from inside and outside the organisation.
8. Self-graded tests and programmed learning can be used to provide feed back.
9. Trainees should be allowed to practice himself.
10. Training should be conducted as far as possible in the actual job environment by adopting appropriate techniques.
Project Report # 7. Importance of Training:
Looking at the development of various aspects, the following advantages can be cited from training:
1. Increase in Production:
By productivity we mean more production with less cost. Workers after training gain efficiency as they know many new techniques and understand to do the work in a good way.
2. Better Use of Raw Material and Plant & Machinery:
A trained worker can make the better use of machines as he knows the scientific way of working. This prevents misuse of material and decreases the cost.
3. Development of Employees’ Morale:
Training develops efficiency of worker hence he feels self-contention. He feels proud of his work. This enhances his morale.
4. Supervision and Direction:
The trained workers do not require to be inspected or directed for their work, hence supervision expenses are reduced. Trained workers supervise their own work and get directions themselves.
5. Increased mobility of Employee:
Trained workers are developed mentally. His doors are open for promotion. Trained worker could be transferred for good job.
6. Helpful in Extension Programmes of Enterprises:
Training makes workers developed mentally and morally and they are able to bear the new responsibilities. Hence, if concern wants extension, it gets the responsible person in workers easily.
7. Decreases Accidents:
Workers learn the use of different instruments well through training. This decreases accidents.
Project Report # 8. Methods or Techniques of Training:
It is compulsory to impart training to the workers of any concern.
The following methods are used for training:
1. Apprentice Method:
This is the oldest form of training. Under this method the apprentice learns the secrets of work through trained specialists. They take the work from them as well as they give necessary direction. The training period is fixed according to the nature of work. Such time limit covers the period of 6 months to one year.
The expenses of training goes half to apprentice and half to the concern. At times the apprentice is given the remuneration. This is the most expensive method of training.
2. On-the-Job Training or In-Plant Training:
Under this system worker is given the work and while working he is given various instructions and directions because the worker can gain easily the specific knowledge about the work at that time. While working he sees other working, but seeing the work, understanding and talking is not enough but he must perform the same and repeatedly, if he wants to be an expert.
As he learns the trade, the guidance list becomes less for him. This kind of training makes him know the circumstances and necessities quickly. Hence, supervision is close and efficient. This is a practical training. Under this training labour gets the right momentum for the working and he finds himself much interested.
3. Training by Supervisors:
Supervisors instruct the workers while working, they supervise their work time to time. This gives a chance to know them intimately. Supervisors know their abilities well.
4. Internship Training:
Under this method apprentices are imparted theoretical and practical training. Here technical institutes and vocational houses co-operate. After theoretical training they are sent for practical training to the vocational houses.
5. Vestibule Training:
In this method, training is imparted away from the site of factory but on all the makes of the machine used in industry so that worker may train himself on all models. That place has an atmosphere of the factory and the same working conditions prevail as in factories. After the training, the apprentice is kept in factory on service. Experienced foremen teach the practical work.
Project Report # 9. Training for Different Cadres:
In an industry, the training of the following cadre of employees is essential:
(B) Supervisors and Foremen.
Training procedure for each cadre of employee is as under:
(A) Craftsmen Training:
Craftsmen, i.e., technician’s or artisan’s or operator’s training is now-a-day very important. This is also called skilled worker’s training.
This is the actual manpower, who works on the machines for production. Hence apprentices will be given instructions about the jobs, operations, quality, output and about activities of other departments.
A person under training is called Apprentice.
To train apprentices, the following methods are in use:
1. By Experienced Workers:
In this method, new worker is put to work with the experienced worker. New worker learns from experienced worker by watching and then copying him. Whenever necessary, experienced worker gives him necessary instructions. This method is useful where experienced or skilled worker requires a helper.
1. Skilled worker may not have skill of imparting instructions.
2. Skilled worker’s own work is likely to suffer and hence quality and output may reduce.
3. Skilled worker may not be interested to train the new worker, because he has no incentive for that job.
2. On the Job Training:
Under this method, supervisor gives instructions to the new worker about the job to which that worker is attached. He explains the use of machines and tools and the procedure for the performance of the job. The new worker is then put on the job on a separate machine nearer to some skilled worker’s machine. While working, whenever new worker feels any difficulty, he can take the help and guidance of skilled worker.
This is inexpensive method.
1. New worker is likely to pick up some of defective methods of the fellow workers.
2. Every skilled worker may not have skill in imparting instructions.
3. If his earnings are on piece wage system, he will not be interested to devote his own time.
3. Training by Supervisor:
In this method, it is the duty of supervisor to train the new workers as and when they are sent to his department.
1. Supervisor can explain clearly and in a better way to the workers.
2. As the new work is allotted for his department, therefore, he will take interest in his training, so that in future his department products should be of good quality and quantity.
3. In this system, no additional equipment for training is required.
Because supervisor has to do the work of training, therefore, his normal work is likely to suffer.
4. By Apprenticeship Method:
This system is applicable in medium size factory, where mass production carried on with the help of large number of operations. Generally for this type of training, persons having Matric or Industrial Training Institute certificate in the required trade are placed for 1 to 2 years’ training. For this training, special Instructors are employed to give training.
These trainees first learn about the theory and practicals, and then they gradually start working on the production machines. While working, the training is given by the special Instructors.
Thus, the trainees become skilled in a particular trade together with a general idea about the other works.
5. By Special Schools:
This system is applicable in large industries, where mass production is carried with the help of most modern automatic machines. Generally for this type of training, persons having Matriculation or Industrial Training Institute certificate in the required trade are placed for 2 or 3 years’ training.
These schools are preliminary training industries, organised by the employer through which new employees are taken before being allowed to work in actual production shops. In these schools, machines are similar to those of actual plant but of smaller capacities. In these schools, they are taught about different operations, tools, safety and small exercise jobs. Theoretical and practical training is imparted simultaneously.
The cost of such schools is high, because expensive equipment’s are required. Therefore, this is used only by big concerns. In this type of training, theoretical as well as practical knowledge is imparted through lecture classes, model demonstrations and actual working on the machines.
At the supervisor’s main duty is to get the things done in a proper way from the workers, therefore, they are supposed to be expert in the trade because generally workers respect their foreman, only when he is master of his trade.
(B) Supervisor or Foreman Training:
A foreman or supervisor has to perform a large number of duties.
A foreman of today has to do more difficult jobs due to the following reasons:
(a) As there is increase in the size of industrial units;
(b) As there is more precise factory production;
(c) As there is increase in skill and representation of workers; and
(d) As there are large number of complex government rules and regulations.
For supervisors and foreman training, basically qualified persons such as mostly diploma holders or engineering graduates in the desired trades are taken. Mostly the duration of training may be kept 3 months to 2 years. The trainees are required to execute bond with the management that they will serve the company for a specified period (usually 3 to 5 years) after the completion of training.
The qualitative requirement for the position of foreman or supervisor is as follows:
1. Technical Qualifications:
He must have required qualifications and experience to understand the plant and equipment, the materials to be handled, and the process worked in this department.
2. Knowledge of Responsibility:
He must have an understanding of the responsibilities of supervision.
3. An aptitude of leadership:
4. Skill in imparting instructions.
5. Controlling Power:
He must be able to solve various problems which arise due to the relationship of workers.
6. Supervision and Control of Workers:
He must be able to supervise and control the worker s under him.
He should give due considerations to the following:
(a) Supervision relating to money;
(b) Supervision relating to time; and
(c) Supervision relating to quality.
Today’s supervisor must consult his subordinates for their opinions, respect their rights and obtain their co-operation.
(i) He has to inform workers about company’s policies,
(ii) He has to give a face to face leadership to his workers,
(iii) He has to judge the quality and quantity of work done by workers, and
(iv) He influences worker’s attitude and affect their morale.
Therefore, the training programme of supervisors or foreman should be organised in such a way that after due training, they can perform their task quite satisfactorily as mentioned above.
T.W.I. Scheme for Training Supervisors:
The term supervisor is used to apply to any person who is responsible for directing the work of others from the senior executive to the operative employees.
During World War II, a large number of civilian workers who had been working for years in civilian factories required to be employed in war factories. They required special training of precision jobs. To supervise the trainees, the whole scheme needed a large number of supervisors.
Therefore, in Britain, a scheme was introduced under the name of T.W.I. Three ‘J’ programmes were developed to train supervisor and then multiply this effort in training workers as rapidly as possible.
(i) Job Instruction Training (J.I.T.).
(ii) Job Relation Training (J.R.T.)
(iii) Job Method Training (J.M.T.).
Features of T.W.I. Scheme:
The main features of this programme are as under:
Under the scheme, it is stated that good supervisor must have the following five essential qualities:
i. Knowledge of technical work;
ii. Knowledge of responsibilities, organisation, policies and regulations etc.;
iii. Skill in imparting instructions;
iv. Skill in handling the workers;
v. Skill in improving the methods of production.
(a) Trainee already gets sufficient knowledge in technical institutions, where he has studied.
(b) Trainee can be supplied printed literature of the firm, since it varies from one factory to another factory.
About rest of the three qualities, he is trained in the factory under T.W.I, scheme, which has devised the following three programmes:
i. The Job Instruction Programme.
ii. The Job Relation Programme.
iii. The Job Method Programme.
1. The Job Instruction Programme:
(a) It shows how the supervisor prepares himself to give instructions and to give them in such a manner that these can be easily understood by learners.
(b) It shows how to breakdown a job into convenient stages for teaching purpose and how to identify key points which are essential for quick and easy learning.
(c) It demonstrates how the directions can be clearly given to ensure understanding and observe the necessity of repeating them.
2. The Job Relation Programme:
It deals with technique of handling men and removal of grievances etc. It is a sort of code to be followed by supervisors, if serious human problems are not allowed to crop up. It is difficult and most essential problem.
3. The Job Method Programme:
It includes a plan to improve the methods of production by dealing with improvements in material, time or labour established practices and how these should be studied, watched and implemented.
Value of supervisory training:
(E1) Knowledge—This in turn increase E2 and E3
(E2) Right attitude
“The danger is that we have to slacken our pace for lack of trained personnel- We have manpower enough and sometimes manpower can take the place of even capital but without trained manpower, we cannot go far. We have, therefore, in planning to think ahead and train an adequate number of persons for all branches of national activity”.
The place of Supervisor with respect to staff function (Fig 10.4):
A = Work Study
B = Inspection and Quality Control
C = Stores and Inventory Control Systems
D = Maintenance and Repair
E = Supervisor at the Focal Point.
(C) Executive Training:
For this training, graduates with high intelligence are selected and generally trained for one year. During this training for first few weeks, they are taught about organisation, leaner- ship, factory rules and regulations and other official routine works.
In the rest of duration of training they are posted in different departments to get full knowledge about working of the factory.
After completion of training, they are posted as Engineers or on similar posts.
During their working as engineers, a full record about their capabilities, attitude, temperament, intelligence and leadership is maintained. This record would be helpful for future promotions.
Executives are trained by inviting them to listen regular conference of various senior executives. These conferences are helpful to broaden the outlook of the trainee by listening discussions on various planned lectures of senior executives. In these conferences more stress is given on quality, stability of equipment, design of product, investigation into complaints, sales, labour welfare, budgetary control procedure etc.
The executive trainee should be made to understand the economic objectives of the company and his role in that. He must also have the ideal of planning and control in relation to manufacturing, marketing distribution etc.
Project Report # 10. Development of Employees:
Management development or executive development is a systematic process of training and growth by which managerial personnel gain knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights to manage the work effectively and efficiently. Management development is an educational process through which executives learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge and managerial skills.
It consists of means by which executives learn to improve their behaviour and performance. Through this the effectiveness of the managers in their present jobs is improved and they are prepared for higher jobs in future.
Process of Management (or Executive) Development:
Main ingredients of an executive development programme are:
1. Analysis of development needs.
2. Appraisal of present managerial talent.
3. Planning individual development programmes.
4. Establishing training and development programmes.
5. Evaluating development programmes.
Methods and Techniques of Executive Development:
Various techniques of executive development may be classified into two broad categories as shown below:
Objectives of Executive Development:
1. To improve the performance of executives (managers) at all levels in their present jobs.
2. To sustain good performance of executives throughout their careers.
3. To ensure availability of required number of executives so as to meet the present and future needs.
4. To expose executives to the total concepts and techniques in their respective areas of specialisation.
5. To provide opportunities to the executives to fulfill their career aspirations.
6. To optimally utilise the managerial resources of the organisation.
Techniques of Management Development:
1. Planned promotions.
2. Job rotation.
3. Creation of ‘Assistant to’ position.
5. Coaching counseling.
6. Case discussions.
7. Committee assignments.
8. Simulation exercises.
Career is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a life time. Career development involves tracking career paths. Individuals, career development focus on assisting individuals to identify their major career goals and to determine what they need to do to achieve these goals. The career development looks at the long-term career effectiveness and success of organisational personnel.
Objectives of Career Development:
An effective organisation career development must have following objectives:
(а) Ensures that needed talent is available.
(b) Improves the organisation’s ability to attract and retain personnel of high talent.
(c) Reduces the frustration amongst the employees.
Most people begin to form their careers during elementary and secondary school years.
The careers begin to wind down as they reach retirement age:
Most people go through following five career stages during these years:
Exploration period is the period when one passes from school to work and occurs prior to employment. It is a time when a number of expectations about one’s career are developed.
This is the result of career of our parents, their aspirations for the children and what one sees around them. In most cases, these may be unrealistic. These expectations may be dormant for years and then pop up later to frustrate both the employee and employer.
This period begins with the search for work and includes getting first job, and learning the job.
This stage is beyond learning or apprenticeship stage. These who make successful transition got greater responsibilities and rewards. Others think for reassessment and proceed for job changes, adjustment of priorities.
4. Late Career:
Those who grow through mid-career stage, late career usually a pleasant time when one feels luxury to relax a bit and enjoy playing the part of the elder statesman. It is a time when individuals recognize that they have decreased work mobility and may be locked into their current job.
In this stage, individuals are forced to step out of the limelight. This is the time when one prepares himself for retirement.