Everything you need to know about the features and characteristics of management.
Management is a central directing and controlling-agency indispensable for any enterprise involving organised co-operation and requiring collective efforts to realize some common desired results or specific objectives.
The group efforts in the pursuit of common goals and objectives require proper leadership which is provided by the management.
Some of the features and characteristics of management are:-
1. Universal Activity 2. Goal Oriented 3. Intellectual Activity 4. Social Process 5. Integrated Process 6. Ongoing Process 7. Intangible 8. Required for All Organisations 9. Required at all Organisational Levels;
10. Dynamic Discipline 11. Group Effort 12. Global Function 13. Pervasive in Character 14. Distinct Process 15. Team of Managers and System of Authority 16. It is an Integration of Human and Other Resources 17. Involves Decision Making 18. Concerned with Performance 19. Integrating Process;
20. System of Authority 21. Inborn and Acquired Ability 22. Involves Social Responsibility 23. It is a Profession 24. Both Art and Science 25. Economic Catalyst 26. Objective Oriented 27. Integrative Force 28. Coordination of Authority 29. Universal Relevance 30. Factor of Production 31. Invisible Force 32. Perpetuity 33. Intellectual Exercise.
Salient Features and Characteristics of Management
Features of Management – Top 8 Features of Management
An analysis of the nature of management will bring out of the following salient features:
1. It is a Universal Activity:
Management is omnipresent. It has relevance not only in business but also in household work, in army, in governmental activities and so on. The material and human resources can be effectively handled and the goal can be attained with maximum efficiency.
2. It is Goal Oriented:
Management focuses on the attainment of specific objectives. For example, a business may aim for a particular level of sales. This can be achieved in an effective and efficient manner by adopting the techniques of management such as by making a proper forecast of the sales, by planning production, by fixing targets for the salesman and by properly coordinating all the activities, the targeted level of sales can be achieved.
3. It is an Intellectual Activity:
Management does not accept the hit or miss approach to work. Every work needs to be properly planned and executed. The necessary resources have to be acquired. Work hag to be assigned to different individuals and responsibilities have to be fixed on them. Proper co-ordination of activities is essential. Thus, it becomes clear that without applying mind and intelligence, it is not possible to practice management.
4. It is a Process:
Management is essentially a process consisting of various stages/functions. Each of these functions will have to be done in the sequential order. Control, for example can be done only at the end. Organizing cannot precede planning. Planning is the starting point of management and control is its last stage.
5. It is a Social Process:
Management deals with the behavior of individuals and groups. In a work place, individuals work as a team. The behavior of an individual is bound to be different while he is part of group. Such a group may be a formal group like the trade union or an informal group based on friendship and other relationships.
6. It is an Integrated Process:
The goal of an individual employee and that of his organization must synchronize.
In practice, it may not be so. Management practice will reconcile the individual goals with those of his organization.
7. It is an Ongoing Process:
Management is an everlasting process. Management will exist as long as there are human activities.
8. It is Intangible:
Management is invisible. It cannot be seen. But it can be felt. The significance of management will become clear if a comparison is made between the performance of a person working at random and the performance of the same individual working in a more systematic manner.
Management is characterised by the following features:
1. An Activity:
It is an activity of getting things done through others. It involves coordinated efforts of a group of people towards a common end in highly structured organisations like Reliance or Infosys or social organisations like a club or an NGO.
Working with and through people establishes superior-subordinate relationships where work is assigned to individuals and authority-responsibility relationships are established amongst them.
2. A Process:
Management gets things done through others by the management process. It helps to achieve organisational goals through functions of management.
3. Required for All Organisations:
Both business and non-business organisations (such as Government or service organisations, irrespective of their size; large or small) need effective management to achieve their objectives.
4. Required at all Organisational Levels:
Management is required at all the levels — top, middle and lower levels of the organisation, though degree of management is different at different levels.
Success of an organisation is measured by achievement of its goals and management plays significant role in goal achievement. Since organisations are deliberately created structures, they exist for a purpose or goal. Objectives are the desired state of results that all organisational members agree to achieve through coordinated efforts.
Management cannot be seen or felt. The result of management can be observed by comparing a well-managed organisation with a poorly managed organisation. The difference in results can be attributed to management concepts.
Management is an ever-changing discipline of knowledge. It was not very important during the early years of 1900s even in highly institutionalised countries. The main decision-making authority used to be the Government. The changing business scenario requires innovations, research and development in the business sector and, thus, highlights the changing role that management plays in this environment.
Effective management is situational i.e., managers assess the facts and circumstances of each situation and use a managerial approach that best applies in the situation to attain the individual and organisational goals.
8. A Discipline:
Though management seeks ideas and concepts from other fields of study, such as psychology, behavioural sciences, sociology etc., yet it is a complete discipline in itself. Managers acquire specific managerial skills, knowledge and fundamentals of management to practice management.
9. Management and Society:
Though management is a separate discipline which aims to accomplish pre-determined organisational goals, yet its impact on society cannot be overlooked. Management is governed by social values, culture and beliefs. It is a function that transforms the society. It preserves the society and promotes its interests.
10. Group Effort:
Management as a function, activity or a process is not undertaken by a single person. It is the co-ordinated effort of a group of people that envisions future of the organisation, sets its goals, makes plans and policies, implements them and controls its working through an effective feedback mechanism.
Management does not come into existence when people desire to achieve their personal objectives. Though, however, personal objectives are important, they should contribute to objectives of the group and the organisation.
11. Global Function:
Management is not confined to a specific society, culture or country. It is a global phenomenon. In the contemporary business environment, the concept of national boundaries, as far as business is concerned, is fading away. With the kind of reforms coming in, the world has become a single economy, a single market. The multinational character of management is, thus, evident and in fact, inescapable.
Features of Management – Group Activity, Multidisciplinary, Goal Oriented, Pervasive, Needed at all Levels, Continuous Process, Dynamic Function and Intangible
Management or people who perform the act of management or managerial activities are donned with important characteristics or features.
Following are such characteristics of management (or a manager) explained below:
1. Group Activity:
Management is a group activity that requires cooperation and collaboration of various individuals with different capabilities, experiences and skills. An organisation cannot be operated without such individuals who facilitate achievement of organisational goals.
Management uses multidisciplinary or several disciplines/ subjects simultaneously to benefit and develop from the knowledge which these subjects can offer. Various disciplines or subject, the management takes influences from are Psychology, Sociology, Economics, Statistics, Mathematics, etc. Management develops its own thoughts and principles after obtaining relevant knowledge from these disciplines and utilises them in relevant processes and functions like production, planning and control.
3. Goal Oriented:
An effective management aims at attaining goals of an organisation. Accordingly, all functions and efforts by the management are directed towards achieving these goals. For example, if the objective of a company is to sell 1,000 baby diaper packets by the end of the week, the manager of the company will plan certain strategies, motivate employees to make sales and allocate relevant physical resources (transportation, retailing infrastructure, etc.) to achieve the target of selling 1,000 packets (or more) within a week.
4. Pervasive in Character:
Management is pervasive or universal across various facets of life. Anything in life, which involves human activity, also requires management. Its use is applicable among businesses for profit, non-profits, hospital, schools, and clubs or our own homes and households which are also required to be managed. Management is required to run a city, town, family, politics and army.
5. Needed at all Levels:
Every organisation consists of a hierarchy of individuals or group of individuals ranked in various levels according to their status or responsibility. Management is a part of the hierarchical system of most organisations that broadly has three levels-top management, middle management and lower management. The lower management is mainly involved in managing real-time operations of a business, while the middle management links the lower with the top management who are involved in making most pertinent decisions on attaining organisational goals and objectives.
6. Continuous Process:
Management attempts to conduct distinguishable and specific activities, techniques and procedures which cannot be performed at the same time. These activities are performed as a continuous process across all functions of a management.
7. Dynamic Function:
Management is characterised by continuous changes, activities and vigour that creates energy among individuals / groups in an organisation to work suitably. A business is continuously subject to changing trends, tastes and preferences, economic and political conditions, etc. Correspondingly, management as a dynamic function, attempts to facilitate adaptability and adjustment for a business to the surrounding environment.
8. Intangible Factor:
The effects of management cannot be seen and is intangible in nature. The results of management can be realised and perceived at a certain period of time either through positivity or negativity created among stakeholders. For example- goodwill and the reputation of a business can be a result of good management practices.
The important characteristics of management are as follows:
(1) Efficient Management of Economic Resources – It is one of the important factors of production together with land, labour and capital.
(2) It is Goal-oriented – It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organisation.
(3) It has Distinct Process – It has distinct process consisting of functions like planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
(4) Managers and System of Authority – It has studied as a system of authority – a hierarchy of command and control.
(5) Integration of Human Resources – It is an integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives.
(6) It is a Multi-disciplinary Subject – It has grown as a field of study (i.e., discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as engineering, anthropology, sociology and psychology.
(7) It is Universal in Character – It is universal in character in the sense that the principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the field of business, education, military, government and hospital.
For detailed and elaborate study we may examine the characteristics of management in the following manner:
(i) It is an Efficient Management of Economic Resources:
Management is one of the important factors of production together with land, labour and capital. Efficient management is the most critical input in the success of any organised group activity as it is the force which assembles and integrates other factors of production, namely, labour, capital and materials.
Inputs of labour, capital and materials do not by themselves ensure. For production, they require the expert advise of the management to produce goods and services required by the society. Therefore, management is an essential ingredient of an organisation.
(ii) It is Goal-Oriented:
Management is a purposeful activity which is essential for the achievement of the objectives of the organisation. It co-ordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organisation.
The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organisational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organisational goals must be well defined and properly understood by the managers at the various levels.
(iii) It has Distinct Process:
Management has a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so associated and inter-related that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. It involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice.
(iv) As a Team of Managers and System of Authority:
Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority – a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.
(v) It is an Integration of Human and Other Resources:
Management is an integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage.
Managers put knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. They also seek to harmonise the individual’s goals with the organisational goals to minimize conflicts in the organisation.
(vi) It is a Multi-Disciplinary Subject:
Management has grown as a Field of Study (i.e., discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as engineering, anthropology, sociology and psychology. Several Management Literature is the result of the association of these disciplines.
For Example-Productivity-orientation drew its inspiration from industrial engineering and human relations orientation from psychology. Similarly, sociology and operations research have also contributed to the development of management literature.
(vii) It is Universal in Character:
Management is universal in character in the sense that the principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital.
Henri Fayol was the first man who contributed certain principles of management which apply more or less in every situation. These principles are not rigid. They are flexible and are capable of adaptation to every organised activity where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinated.
Features of Management
The most important ingredients of managerial effort may be listed as follows:
1. Management is intangible as has been pointed out by Terry, management is intangible. It cannot be seen. It is an unseen force. However, its presence can be felt by the results of its efforts in the form of production, sales and profits.
2. Management is goal-oriented Management seeks to achieve goals. These goals may be economic or non-economic. In a business organization, the primary goal is to produce and distribute goods and services in order to earn profit. In a service organization, the goal might be customer service (hospitals, educational institutions, etc.).
3. Management is universal Management is an all-pervasive activity. The basic principles of management are applicable in business as well as in other organizations. These principles, however, need careful application depending on situational demands.
4. Management is a social process according to Newman, management is a social process because it deals with people first. To make the best use of human efforts, managers have to create close cooperation among employees in an organization. They have to use resources for the benefit of society as a whole. They have to look after the interests of employees, shareholders, customers, investors, and community.
5. Management is a group activity Management is concerned with getting things done through people. People join groups in order to achieve results collectively. Management helps people in realizing their individual as well as group goals in a coordinated manner.
6. Management is a system of authority a manager is supposed to get things done, rather than doing things himself, by using authority. Authority is the right to give orders and the power to obtain obedience from subordinates.
7. Management is an activity Management is a distinct activity (like playing, teaching, studying]. It can be studied, knowledge about it obtained, and skill in its applications acquired.
8. Management is dynamic Management is a dynamic and growth-oriented function. It tries to visualize problems before they turn into emergencies and takes suitable steps. It tries to adapt itself to the environmental changes quickly. It proposes to take actions to make the desired results to come to pass. According to Drucker, ‘Managers do not wait for the future; they make the future’.
9. Management is a science as well as an art Management is a systematized body of knowledge based on certain principles capable of general application. The principles underlying time and motion studies, morale, motivation, leadership can be applied by persons working in various capacities.
Art is the application of knowledge and skills in order to achieve results. Management is an art because it involves the use of know-how and skills, just like any other art such as music, painting, etc. In recent years, management has developed into a separate, distinct discipline, receiving vital inputs from subjects such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, etc.
Features of Management – Views of Teny, Theo Haimann, Fayol, Brech, Koontz and O’Donnell, Peter Drucker and R.C. I Davis
The following are the features of management:
1. Management is an Activity:
Management is a process of organised activity. It is concerned with the efficient use of resources of production. This process is made up of some interrelated elements – planning, organising, leading and controlling. Teny says– “Management is not people, it is an activity.” Those who perform this activity are designated as Managers.
2. It is a Purposeful Activity:
Management is concerned with the achievement of certain objectives through the effective utilization of material and human resources. Theo Haimann states-” Effective management is always management by objectives.” The objectives are set by administration.
3. Group Activity:
It is concerned with the efforts of a group. It works in cooperative group. Managers are vital to joint activity. Management is essential wherever people work together for a common cause. Management plans, organises, co-ordinates, directs and controls the group efforts, not the individual efforts.
4. Management is Universal:
Management is needed in all types of organized activities and in all types of organizations. In fact, it is present in all walks of life. Fayol writes- “Be it a case of commerce, industry, politics, religion, war or philanthropy, in every concern there is a management function to be performed.” Also, the techniques and tools of management are universally applicable.
5. It is a Social Process:
The process of management is largely a social one, because it involves the interrelationships of people at work. Brech writes- “Since it is chiefly the activities of people that are co-ordinated and regulated by management, it is correctly called a social process.”
6. Separate Identity:
Management represents a separate class of managerial personnel who are quite different from the identity of workers and capitalists. It is a class of administrators and planners. Managers need not to be owners. In modern industrial society Labour. Management and Capital are different entities.
7. Management is Getting Things Done:
According to Koontz and O’Donnell, management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. A manager does not do any operating work by himself, rather he has the authority to get it done through others. In fact, it is when he gets the sense of responsibility for accomplishment that he is a manager.
8. It Involves Decision-Making:
Making decisions is a real identity of a manager. He is a planner and thinker. He decides the course of action, strategies, policies and programmes. Drucker states– “Whatever a manager does he does through making decisions.” Thus, management is always a decision-making process.
9. It is concerned with Performance:
Management is concerned with results and accomplishment. According to Peter Drucker, management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance. It is practice. Its essence is not knowing but doing. It test is not logic but results. Its only authority is performance.
10. It is an Integrating Process:
It is concerned with the co-ordination of all activities and resources. It integrates men, machines, money and materials. The essence of management lies in unifying the individual efforts into a team. Koontz and O’Donnell write; “Co-ordination is the essence of managership.”
11. It is Leadership:
Management is leadership responsibility-not just an activity. It provides active direction to human beings to attain the business objectives. It is a leadership of ideas and action. According to R.C. I Davis, “management is the function of executive leadership everywhere.”
12. It is a System of Authority:
Management is pattern of formal authority to give orders and exact obedience. Today, modern management is a synthesis of official authority, authoritarian command, humanitarian approach and personal power arising from moral worth and personality.
13. It is Intangible:
Management is invisible force. Its presence can be felt by its results- quality and increased output. It is abstract. It is recognised by its excellent achievements, higher productivity and motivated personnel.
14. Management is Creative:
Management makes things happen. The job of management is to make a productive enterprise out of human and material resources. Peter Drucker says-” Management is a major responsibility for creative action.” It creates new jobs, new wealth and new skills.
15. Management is Practice:
Drucker stated that management is not knowing but doing. Its test is not logic but results. Its only authority is performance. It grew out of practice. And it centers on practice.
Features of Management – According to Management Experts
The appraisal reflects some characteristics and nature of management. In fact the characteristics of management form the basis for the definitions of management. The management experts express their opinion by stressing one or the other particular characteristics of management. In fact management possesses all those characteristics which have been high-lighted by various experts.
1. It is a group effort:
As per this characteristic of management, it is not a single person who consummates the whole process of management but it is a group effort. Hence, whenever we talk about management every person who is holding a managerial position falls under its domain. All the managers are affected by each and every decision taken in the organisation. A task can be successfully accomplished only with the collective effort (group effort). For example- a company wants expansion of its business.
For the fulfillment of this objective, participation of all, i.e. marketing manager, production manager, sales manager, finance manager, etc. is required. So, it is quite right to call management a group effort.
2. It is a goal oriented process:
Every organisation is established for the fulfillment of one or the other objective. Management acts as a medium which facilitates in achieving these objectives. A manager on the basis of his knowledge and experience anticipates future events and plans accordingly. He not only monitors the work progress of the subordinates but also guides them. Moreover, from time to time the manager motivates his subordinates and finally, in this manner, predetermined objectives are achieved.
3. It has a distinct entity:
In view of the widening scope of business it is not possible for an owner to perform all the functions himself. In other words, it can be said that in an organisation the owner (who invests money) and a manager (who manages the organisation) can be different persons.
For example- in a company business it is not possible for the owner (that is the shareholders) or their representatives (that is the directors) to manage the company efficiently. Therefore, specially qualified experts are needed for managing the company. Thus, management has a distinct entity.
4. It is an intangible force:
Management is a force which is not visible. It can only be felt or realised on the basis of the success of an organisation. For example- if an organisation marches ahead on the path of progress, it will be taken as a sign of good management but if an organisation is moving towards decline it signals unsuccessful management. Hence, management can be called an intangible force.
5. It is a process:
Theo Haimann, Terry, McFarland, Koontz and O’Donnell are the chief advocates of the view that management is a process. They feel that the process of management includes the activities like, Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing and Controlling and it is used in efficiently utilising the human and material resources for the achievement of predetermined objects.
A process means a definite system of functioning. This appears to be true so far as management is concerned because a manager, at whatever level of management he may happen to be, has to perform these functions in the same sequence.
It shows that planning is the first step in the definite system of management. Under planning it is ensured what is to be done? When is it to be done? How is it to be done and by whom is it to be done? After this, structure of the organisation is created and relations between different persons are decided to give practical shape to the planning. After creating the organisational structure capable persons are appointed on different posts (under the process of staffing).
Then the employees are given definite instructions to perform their duty according to the planning. Since the work of all the employees depends on each other’s cooperation, an effort is made to coordinate their activities for the speedy and unhindered completion of their work. They are also motivated in order to improve their efficiency which is fully exploited, and. then in the end their functions are controlled so that the results can be expected according to the plans.
Therefore, management is a process which makes efforts to ensure the achievement of the pre-determined objectives by utilising human and material resources.
6. It is an inborn and acquired ability:
Management ability can be inborn or it can be acquired. These are two different aspects of it. According to the Traditional Concept of Management, management ability is an inborn quality which means managers are not made but born. As a consequence of this concept traditional and parental industries came into existence. In other words, management ability is inborn and a person inherits it and it cannot be acquired with the help of education and training.
According to Modern Concept of Management, however, if a person does not possess the gift of in-born management ability, there is no cause for worry because there is no dearth of institutions giving education in management. It is wrong to say that the management ability is only inborn and that it cannot be acquired.
However, it cannot be denied that in case a person has the inborn talent of management, a little effort can brighten this talent. If a person does not possess this inborn talent, he shall only have to put in greater labour to acquire management ability.
7. It is a universal activity:
Many management experts have described it as a universal process. Theo Haimann, Henry Fayol, Terry and Taylor are the prominent exponents of this idea. Universality is that truth which is prevalent in every sphere (Business or non-business) and is equally applicable everywhere and management too has this quality.
Every business (industrial enterprise) or non-business organisation (educational institutions, govt., offices, play-field, agricultural farm, Army, Club and social institutes) has to make an efficient use of human and material resources in order to achieve their objectives and go through a process of planning, organising, staffing, leading and controlling. In this way the management activity is the same in all the types of organisations and the same principles are applied everywhere.
8. It is multidisciplinary:
In reality management is multidisciplinary. It means that even if it is a separate subject and has developed as such it is deeply indebted to various other disciplines from which it has gained considerably. In developing itself into a separate subject it has benefitted from various disciplines like Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Statistics, Mathematics, etc.
After collecting various thoughts from these disciplines, management came to develop its own thoughts and principles to cater to the need of the management of different organisations. In fact the integrated knowledge of different subjects has made a valuable contribution to the subject of management. It is called the foundation of management.
Management has adopted the principles of motivation and leadership from the subjects like Sociology and Anthropology. The principles of production, planning and control are the useful contributions of industrial engineering and mathematics.
9. It is a social science:
Social Science is connected with human beings. Management is a social science like other social sciences-Economics, Sociology, Political Science, etc. It is related to man as a social being who is a sensitive, reasoning and dynamic being and who cannot be treated like the inanimate objects. Man has the absolute liberty to change his conduct according to need.
That is why; the principles enunciated by social science cannot be as rigid as the principles of physical sciences. The managers accept these principles for their guidance but for taking the final decision other things have to be kept in mind.
10. It is a system:
Modern management experts consider management as a system. Now when management is being looked upon as a system, it means that we are moving fast to the direction of thorough and absolute knowledge. It means taking various aspects of management into consideration rather than thinking about a particular single aspect.
Just as a doctor while treating a patient keeps in mind the human physiology before administering him some medicine, a manager under this system of management takes into consideration the effect of his decision on the other departments or sub-departments of the organisation before taking any decision.
This concept of management considers the whole organisation as a single unit which includes many departments. This concept of management considers the various departments of the organisation not as separate units because their objectives are not different from the objectives of the organisation and all function unitedly for the attainment of the objectives of the organisation.
Therefore, all the units should be treated as a single unit and studied as such. By doing so the carelessness on the part of any unit will be immediately noticed. In fact this concept of management lays stress upon the coordination between various activities of the organisation.
11. It is a dynamic system:
Management is based on certain principles which are dynamic. Principles mean some basic truth which establishes a link between cause and effect. The principles of management continue changing according to the atmosphere in which an organisation functions. Because of this continuous change in the atmosphere many old principles have been replaced by new ones. Even now the discovery of new principles continues because of the changes in the social, technical, political and industrial atmosphere.
Thus no principle can be treated as final. In this context it can be said that nothing is permanent in the field of management. Because of the fear of adverse effects of these changes a manager can anticipate them beforehand. He can give such a direction to the policies and planning of his organisation as not to allow these changes to affect it.
Sometimes managers try to change the business atmosphere in their favour by producing goods according to the taste of the customers, by announcing a new sales policy and by exploring new markets for the sale of their goods.
12. It involves social responsibility:
Today, management is looked upon as a social responsibility. A manager always takes decision in the interest of the organisation. But if a particular decision takes into consideration only the interest of the organisation and ignores the interest of society, it will not only endanger the existence of the organisation but ensure its downfall.
In other words, no decision of the manager will be acceptable which is one sided. For example- if a top-level manager takes the decision of establishing a factory in a residential area which can possibly endanger the environment, the people will threaten the very existence of the manager and the organisation. Similarly, inferior goods, high prices and improper stocking of goods may be in the interest of the organisation but any such decision is anti-social and for this society will never forgive the business enterprise (the organisation).
The matter is not limited to the satisfaction of the customers alone but shareholders, employees and government, etc., too have expectations from business and their satisfaction is also the function of the manager. Thus, it is clear that the functions of the manager are not confined to the organisation alone, he is responsible to society also.
13. It is a profession:
These days management is popular as a profession. The old concept that management ability is in-born is almost dead. The rapid progress in the field of management has proved it beyond any shadow of doubt that managers are not born but made by training. As a result of this concept management has come to be looked upon as a profession. Many developed countries like America, England, Germany, France, Japan, etc., have recognised management as an independent profession.
In our country too, the professional managers have started replacing capitalist – managers. Now nobody is made a manager in a business organisation simply because he has invested capital in it or he is related to such a person but he is appointed manager simply because he has the requisite ability and qualifications. On this basis managers have come to be recognised as professionals like doctors, lawyers and teachers.
14. It is both science and art:
This is an important aspect of the nature of management. Management possesses the qualities of both science and art. Art means a system of doing something in a disciplined or organised manner. In this context, management is described as an art. Management is a process in which the manager has to function with a human group. An efficient manager tries to function in an organised or systematic manner by establishing coordination between human and material resources.
On the other hand, management is called science because like science it has its own definite principles which are applied everywhere. For example- the principle of division of work and specialisation is applied everywhere. This principle is based on the fact that if work is divided according to the ability and taste, and some person is given the same work repeatedly, he gains proficiency in his work performance. Hence, management is both a science and an art.
Features of Management
1. Management is goal-oriented- Each organization is setup to achieve certain predetermined objectives or goals. The efforts of the management will always be directed towards achieving these goals. Thus management is goal oriented.
2. Management is on-going/ continuous process- In an organization the process of management never ends. It involves a series of interrelated activities like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
3. Management is a social process- Management is a social process because the activities performed to achieve the goals are largely concerned with people in the organization. If human resources are activated, all other resources will be in motion.
4. Management is an intangible force- Management is an intangible, invisible force that cannot be seen or touched but its presence can be felt in the way the organization functions.
5. Management is pervasive- The process of management is required at all types of organizations irrespective of their nature, place or purpose. It is also required at all levels of the organization. Thus management is said to be pervasive.
6. Management is a group activity- Management is a group activity as every organization consists of group of people who work together for the attainment of the organizational goals.
7. Management is a dynamic function- Management adapts itself to changes and makes use of the principles, techniques and methods with respect to the changing environment.
8. Management is multidimensional -Management is a complex activity which involves the following three main dimensions-
i. Management of work- In each and every organization, certain type of work is to be performed. Management converts these works into goals and devises the means to achieve them.
ii. Management of people- Management is concerned with a very difficult task of “getting things done through people”. All the employees have different personality, needs, backgrounds and methods of work. Thus, it becomes management’s job to make them work as a group by giving common directions to their efforts.
iii. Management of operations- In order to survive, each organization has to provide certain goods or services. It requires converting inputs into outputs. Management converts the inputs into the desired outputs for consumption. Management of operations is interlinked with both the other dimensions viz., management of work and management of people.
Features of Management – Economic Catalyst, Objective Oriented, Distinctive Process, Integrative Force, Coordination, Multidisciplinary Subject and Universal Relevance
Management is a distinctive set of activities, which involves the following leading features:
Feature # 1. Economic Catalyst:
Management is one of the factors of production that is put together with the land, labour and capital. As industrialization increases, the need for managers also increases. Proficient management is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity as it is the force, which assembles and integrates other factors of production, namely, labour, capital and materials.
Inputs of labour, capital and materials do not by themselves ensure production; they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus, management is an essential ingredient of an organization.
Feature # 2. Objective Oriented:
Management is made for a purposeful activity. It coordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well defined and properly understood by the management at various levels.
Feature # 3. Distinctive Process:
Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.
Feature # 4. Integrative Force:
The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization.
Feature # 5. Coordination of Authority:
Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degree of authority. Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.
Feature # 6. Multidisciplinary Subject:
Management has grown as a field of study (i.e., discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as engineering, anthropology, sociology and psychology. Much of the management literature is the result of the association of these disciplines. For instance, productivity orientation drew its inspiration from industrial engineering and human relations orientation from psychology. Similarly, sociology and operations research have also contributed to the development of management science.
Feature # 7. Universal Relevance:
Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital. Henry Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines, which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be coordinated.
Features of Management – 13 Features of Management
The features of management can be described as follows:
1. Management is a Group Activity:
Management is an essential part of a group activity. As no individual can satisfy all his desires himself, he unites with his fellow-beings and works in an organised group to achieve what he cannot achieve individually. Wherever there is an organised group of people working towards a common goal, some type of management becomes essential. Management makes the people realise the objective of the group and directs their efforts towards the achievement of these objectives. Massie has rightly called management as- ‘co-operative group’.
2. Management is Goal-Oriented:
Management aims to achieve economic and social objectives. It exists to achieve some definite goals or objectives. Group efforts in management are always directed towards the achievement of some pre-determined goals. It is concerned with the establishment and accomplishment of these objectives. To quote Theo Haimann, “Effective management is always management by objectives.” Haynes and Massie are of the opinion that without objectives management would be difficult, if not impossible.
3. Management is a Factor of Production:
Management is not an end in itself but a means to achieve the group objectives. Just as land, labour and capital are factors of production and are essential for the production of goods and services, management is a factor of production that is required to co-ordinate the other factors of production for the accomplishment of pre-determined goals.
4. Management is Universal in Character:
Management is applicable in all types of organisations. Wherever there is human activity, there is management. The basic principles of management are of universal application and can be applied in all organisations whether they are business, social, religious, cultural, sports, educational, politics or military. As Socrates has put it, “Over whatever a man may preside, he will be a good president if he knows what he needs and is able to provide it whether he has the direction of a chorus, a family, a city or an army.”
In the words of Henry Fayol, “Be it a case of commerce, politics religion, war in every concern there is management function to be performed.”
5. Management is needed at all Levels of the Organisation:
Another important feature of management is that it is needed at all levels of the organisation, e.g., top level, middle level and supervisory level. The only difference is of the nature of task and the scope of authority. The lowest level supervisor has also to perform the function of decision-making just as the chief-executive.
6. Management is a Distinct Process:
Management is a distinct process performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human beings and other resources. It is different from the activities, techniques and procedures. The process of management consists of such functions as- planning, organising, staffing, directing, coordinating, motivating and controlling.
7. Management is a Social Process:
Management consists of getting things done through others. This involves dealing with people. The efforts of the human beings have to be directed, co-ordinated and regulated by management in order to achieve the desired results. It is in this sense that management is regarded as a social process. Moreover, management has a social obligation to make optimum use of scarce resources for the benefit of the community as a whole.
In the words of Brech, “Management is a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and the regulation of the operation of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task.”
8. Management is a System of Authority:
Since management is a process of directing men to perform a task, authority to accomplish the work from others is implied in the very concept of management. Authority is the power to get the work done from others and to compel them to work in a certain manner. Management cannot perform in the absence of authority. In real sense, management is a rule-making and rule-enforcing body.
There is a chain of authority and responsibility among people working at different levels of the organisation. There cannot be an efficient management without well-defined lines of command or superior- subordinate relationships at the various levels of decision-making.
9. Management is a Dynamic Function:
Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. It is constantly engaged in the moulding of the enterprise in an ever changing business environment. It is concerned not only with moulding of the enterprise but also the alteration of environment itself so as to ensure the success of the enterprise. In real sense, it is never- ending function.
10. Management is an Art as well as a Science:
Management is a science because it has developed certain principles which are of universal application. But the results of management depend upon the personal skill of managers and in this sense management is an art. The art of the manager is essential to make the best use of management science. Thus, management is both science and art. It should, however, be noted that the science of management is not as exact as the physical science. It is still in the evolutionary stage, may be called as an inexact science or social science.
11. Management is a Profession:
In the present days, management is recognised as a profession. It has a systematic and specialised body of knowledge consisting of principles, a technique and laws and can be taught as a separate discipline or subject. This has also divorced ownership from management. Now with the advent of large-scale business, the management is entrusted in the hands of professional managers.
12. Management is Intangible:
Management is intangible, i.e., it can be felt in the form of results and not seen. For example, when we are not able to produce the desired quantity, we say it is the result of poor management.
Though management has developed as a separate discipline but it draws knowledge and concepts from disciplines such as sociology, psychology, economics, statistics, operations research etc. Management integrates ideas and concepts from these disciplines and uses them for improving the efficiency of the organisation. The integration of knowledge of various fields is the major contribution of management. So the disciplines concerned with human beings contribute immensely to the management.
Features of Management
1. Group Activity:
Management is a group activity. No individual can fulfill all his needs by himself. He unites with fellow humans and works in an organized group, to accomplish what he cannot achieve individually. Whenever there is an organized group of people working towards goal accomplishment, management comes into picture automatically. Management makes the people in the group work in a systematic manner to realize its objectives. It directs the divergent efforts of various groups towards attainment of the objectives.
2. Goal Orientedness:
Management is required for accomplishment of specific objectives. It provides a means for accomplishment of goals. Every activity in an organization is purpose-oriented. The success of management reflects in goal accomplishment. Management is meaningless in the absence of goals.
For example, when sales needs to be ramped op, it requires production planning, sales forecasting, motivation of sales force, winning dealer support, aggressive sales promotion, correct pricing, delivering quality and so on. All these activities culminate in boosting the sales (collective goal). Each and every activity has individual fools. The attainment of individual goals leads to attainment of collective goals. Thus, every activity is goal driven.
3. Factor of Production:
Management is one of the factors of production. Land, labour, capital resources, material and technology cannot achieve goals. All these things need to be organized in a systematic fashion. Each factor needs to be coordinated towards the accomplishment of goals. It is the management that is galvanizing all these factors towards pal moment. In the absence of management factor, other factors are meaningless.
4. Invisible Force:
There is no physical being called management. It cannot be touched and can be perceived only through our senses. The presence of management can be perceived only through the process of management, and the results achieved. But the process is carried out by humans assets deployed in the organization.
Management is a distinct process of comprising various functions starting with planning and ending with controlling. In between these two poles, there are other functions like organizing, directing and coordinating. Each of the above functions needs to be done in sequential order. For example, planning should be done first and controlling should be done at the end. ‘Organizing’ cannot precede planning and, ‘Directing’ cannot go at the end.
6. Social Process:
Management is carried on by a group, through the people and for the people. It is a social process because it is concerned wife interpersonal behaviour. It deals with people. It seeks to modify their behavior both as individuals, and as member of a group by addressing their needs problems and well-being on a rational basis.
The process of management lasts till the end of life of an entity. It exists so long as humans work anywhere in groups.
The principles of management are applicable to all forms of organizations. It can be applied to hospitals, cinema theatres, educational institutions, political organizations, religions institutions, clubs, defence, Government departments and so on. The managers across all levels and across the various types of institutions do the basic functions of management. Thus, management is all pervasive process.
9. Intellectual Exercise:
The practice of management requires application of mind and intelligence. The work in any organization cannot be carried out in a haphazard fashion. Every work needs to be planned meticulously and allocated to the right person. Sufficient authority is to be given to humans across the hierarchy to have the delegated work executed. Right men have to be appointed for the right posts.
There should be formal behaviour and formal communication. There should be a given style of leadership. Work executed needs to be evaluated systematically. All the work done at multiple points needs to be integrated perfectly. Thus, every activity needs precision and perfection which warrant application of mind. Human intelligence is key to performance of all the managerial functions.
10. Science as Well as Art:
Management can be regarded as science as its principles have universal applicability. But management does not qualify as science because it includes humans whose behaviour is incapable of exact prediction. But it may be regarded as social science.
The essential components of art include creative power, skill in performance, practical applicability and scope for judgement. Most of the problems a manager encounters test his skills. Of course, his theoretical knowledge provides a basis for taking decision. But, success of every manager depends on application of skills. In this context it can be regarded as art.
Management is recognized as a valid profession all over the world. But, it is not given a full-fledged status as profession like medical, pharmacy, law, charted accountancy, engineering, etc. Management, of course, has some shades of profession like existence of organized and systematic body of knowledge, provision of formal training, existence of association and rendering service to society.
But managerial training is not mandatory. Similarly, association of management has no authority to stipulate a uniform method of entry; no authority to license the managers to practice and it has no mechanism to enforce code of conduct. Hence, it cannot be given a full-fledged professional status.
12. Integrative Process:
The process of management coordinates and utilizes human, physical, financial and information resources to optimize organizational performance. Out of these inputs, it is the human factor which is most difficult to manage. A proper management of this resource ensures the efficient functioning of the organization in any society.
Features of Management – Continuous Process, Group Activity, Universal, Dynamic, Intangible, Goal Oriented and Situational
The word ‘management’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Manus’ which means hands. Thus, management refers to handling a particular activity. Management refers to the process of setting certain pre-determined objectives and achieving them through optimum utilization of resources.
The features of management are as below:
i. Management is a Continuous Process:
Management is a never-ending process. It is required from the time an activity is started till the time the activity ends. In simple words, it can be said that management is required at every stage such as – planning, organizing, co-coordinating, etc. Thus, it is rightly said that, management is a continuous and ongoing process.
ii. Management is a Group Activity:
Management is a team activity. It is usually done by a group of people for a group of people. Management is required to be performed at all levels of management. Every level manages the level that is below it.
iii. Management is Universal:
Management is universal in nature. It is applicable to every activity, where a group of people are involved. It is applicable to business activities, social activities, educational activities, sports activities, religious activities, political activities etc. In simple terms, we can say that, management is not only confined to business activities but also to non-business activities.
iv. Management is Dynamic:
Management now has become exhaustive in scope. It is not static but dynamic in nature. It changes and improvises as per the requirement of the situation. In other words, it is not an activity that can be used only in a particular condition.
v. Management is Intangible:
Something which doesn’t have a physical presence is known as intangible. Management is intangible in nature. Management cannot be seen as an object but its presence can be felt and experienced through better performance of the activity, success of an event, increased profits, smooth functioning of an organization etc.
vi. Management is Goal Oriented:
Management is performed to attain certain goals. The first step of management is to set goals. Then the management plans, organizes, co-ordinates and controls in order to accomplish those goals. Thus, it can be concluded that management is not possible without goals.
vii. Management is Situational:
Management decisions are based on several principles and theories. But, it should be noted that, the manager must take decision only after considering the business situation. This means that the manager must first understand the situation and thereafter take the best suited decision. Also, the decision taken at a particular time can’t be applied to a different situation or the same situation at a later date.
Features of Management – With Important Characteristics
The concept of management is fast developing as an independent discipline. Its principles are constantly changing and growing. It is closely connected with leadership. It has the objective of providing effectiveness to human efforts. It is a means not an end in itself. Its principles are basic and universal but not absolute. They are subject to human behavior and sentimental complexities. Managerial skills and experience as a general skill can be transferred from one enterprise to another or one person to another person.
However, the important characteristics of management are as follows:
1. Management is a Distinct Entity:
The identity of management is quite distinct from its various functional activities, techniques and procedures. It is an error to consider the later as management. The important function of the manager is more to get the work done by others rather than to do himself/herself. A manager is supposed to be more a generalist rather than a specialist.
2. Management is all Pervading:
Management is applicable at all levels of the organisation. Everyone in a business, whether at the lower or middle or at the top level, has to take decisions and correct decision making is an important part of management.
3. Management is a Social Obligation:
Management aims at optimum utilization of scarce resources of an organisation for the benefit of the community as a whole. A very harmonious mix has to be achieved with the help of management techniques between the profit objectives and the social obligations of the business. Besides the progress of the business, management is also concerned with development of cordial relations between people working as a group.
4. Management is Concerned with Group Efforts:
Management is very much less concerned with individual efforts. It is more concerned with groups, organized formally or informally. It is both a science and an art of regulating the efforts of other people. Without good cooperation between different people at work, nothing worthwhile is likely to be achieved.
5. Management Deals with Achievement of Predetermined Objectives:
All management activities have to be goal-oriented and result-oriented. Good management implies predetermined objectives and the success of management depends upon economical fulfillment of the targets within reasonable time. “Effective management” is, therefore, management by objectives.
6. Management is a System of Authority:
Management in reality is the authority to make and enforce rules. Superiors go on commanding and holding the subordinates responsible for the execution of assigned tasks. There is a chain of authority distribution and the responsibility always goes with the authority.
7. Management is an Invisible Force:
Management is a positive activity. It is a cause and the fulfillment of the objectives concerned is the result thereof. Management can be felt and not seen and that too, only when the things go wrong.
8. Management is both an Art and a Science:
It has its rules, principles and laws having universal applicability. But the result of all managerial policies always depends upon the personal skill of the managers. Besides being a science, it very much takes the form of an art. With the growth and development in the principles and techniques of management, it is now very much becoming a profession. It needs social training, but managers are also expected to observe a certain standard of conduct and professional ethics.
9. Human Touch is Inseparable from Management:
Managerial techniques are used by human beings as tools to achieve satisfaction of human wants and to achieve the planned goals. Though human beings carry the will to succeed against heavy odds, yet their behavior by far is the most unpredictable.
10. Management is an Integrated Process:
Management is an integrated process of human and physical resources in a manner that leads to effective performance.
11. Management is a Universal Process:
The principles and techniques of management are universal in character. They are equally applicable in all types of Organisations, social, religious or business.
12. Management is a Dynamic Function:
Management is a dynamic function in as much as it manages the affairs of an organisation in accordance with the environments in which it is situated. Business environments go on changing everyday due to social, economic, political and technical resources. No business organisation can afford to continue with its out of date policies and procedures in the changing environments. Policies and procedures of management are quickly changed according to the changing business environments.