Meaning of Job Description:
Edwin B. Flippo defined job description as “the first and immediate product of job analysis is the job description. As its title indicates, this document is basically descriptive in nature and constitutes a record of existing and pertinent job facts.”
Job description is a systematic, organized and written statement of “who does what when, where, how and why? and is tangible outcome of job analysis.”
Generally the job description consists of the following data:
1. Job Description:
It includes job title, code number of the job if any, the department or division to which the job belongs etc.
2. Job Summary:
It would clear the nature of the job. Primary, Secondary and other duties to be performed on the job should clearly be indicated separately.
3. Job Location:
It should also be given in the description where the job is to be performed i.e. in which department.
4. Duties and Responsibilities:
It is a comprehensive listing of the duties together with the importance of each duty and the percentage devoted to each major duty.
The level of supervision required on each job should be mentioned. Because unskilled job may require close supervision while skilled job may require less supervision or sometimes no supervision.
6. Machines, Tools and Equipment used:
This will include the type of machinery handled and type of raw materials used.
7. Working Conditions:
The working conditions on the job hazards and physical surroundings within the working area should be described. It will be helpful in job evaluation.
8. Relation to other Jobs:
It intensifies the vertical relationship of promotion and horizontal relationship of work-flow and procedures.
Characteristics of a Good Job Description:
A good job description has the following characteristics:
1. It should be kept up-to-date necessary amendments and adjustments should be made from time to time.
2. Job title should be short, definite and suggestive as to indicate the nature of the work.
3. Primary, Secondary and other duties and responsibilities should clearly be defined.
4. Job specifications should clearly be mentioned.
5. It should be descriptive but short.
6. Limitations of each job and sub job should be spelt out clearly in order to meet the objectives of the job.
7. All employees must know the contents of the job description.
8. Job description should be easily understandable.
9. Special work conditions and special qualifications of the job should be clearly explained in job description,