Everything you need to know about – how to develop managers in an organisation. Today, mostly all organizations have realized the importance of training to develop skill, abilities, knowledge and attitudes of management personnel.
So, training system has been accepted by the companies to conduct management development programmes through ‘on-the-job’ and ‘off-the-job’ techniques.
The object of manager’s development is improving on-the-job behaviour and off the job behaviour, this method of training and education has its own value.
It is inexpensive and saves productive hours. But the main drawback is that neither the trainer nor the trainee is free from the daily chores and the pressure of their respective routine jobs. A senior seldom has the time and the patience to impart training to the person.
The methods and techniques of developing managers in an organisation can be studied under the following heads:-
1. On the Job Methods 2. Off the Job Methods.
Some of the on the job methods and techniques for developing managers are:-
1. Coaching and Counselling 2. Job Rotation or Channel Method 3. Multiple Management 4. General Knowledge 5. Delegation 6. Appointment as “Assistant” 7. Promotion and Transfer 8. and Committee Assignment.
Some of the off the job methods and techniques for developing managers are:-
1. Case Study 2. Incident Method 3. Role Playing 4. In-Basket Method 5. Business or Management Game 6. T-Group Training 7. Simulation 8. Team Building 9. Grid Training 10. Syndicate 11. Transactional Analysis 13. Behaviour Modelling and 14. Development Centres.
How to Develop Managers in an Organisation – Methods and Techniques
How to Develop Managers in an Organisation – Most Popular On the Job and Off the Job Techniques (With Merits and Demerits)
The object of manager’s development is improving on-the-job behaviour and off the job behaviour, this method of training and education has its own value. It is inexpensive and saves productive hours. But the main drawback is that neither the trainer nor the trainee is free from the daily chores and the pressure of their respective routine jobs. A senior seldom has the time and the patience to impart training to the person.
1. On the Job Techniques:
Most popular techniques under this type are:
I. Coaching and Counselling Method:
When a manager takes an active role in guiding another manager, we refer to this activity as coaching. Just as track coaches observe, analyze and attempt to improve the performance of their athletes, “coaches” on the job can do the same. The effective coach, whether on the track or in the corporate hierarchy, gives guidance through direction, advice, criticism, and suggestions in an attempt to aid the growth of employee.
Coaching is a method which is used in developing managerial thinking processes and operative skills. In coaching, the superior plays the role of the guide and the instructor. The coach should help by explaining the relevance of information. The coach sets some mutually agreed upon goals and tell the trainee what he wants to be done, suggest how it might be done, follow-up suggestions and correct errors.
He helps the trainee live up to those goals through periodic reviews of the trainee’s progress and by suggesting modifications in his behaviour where needed. The objective of coaching is not only to teach and guide a subordinate in the performance of his immediate assignments but also provide him with diversified work so that he may grow and progress. The learner cannot develop much beyond the limits of his own boss ability.
The coaching method enjoys certain advantages:
1. It requires the least centralized staff coordination for every executive can coach his men even if no management development programme exists.
2. It provides quick feedback to the trainee as well as the trainer of what they lack and what measures can be taken to overcome their shortcomings.
3. It is learning by doing.
4. It provides an opportunity to a trainee to develop himself.
(1) The coaching technique is authoritarian for an executive tends to familiarize his subordinates with his own work habits and beliefs even though this may be faulty. In other words, it has the tendency to perpetuate the current managerial style and practices in the organization.
(2) It relies heavily on the coach’s ability to be a good teacher, which he may not necessarily be.
(3) The training atmosphere is free from worries of the daily duties.
There is increased motivation for the trainee with minimization of the problem of learning transfer from theory to practice. The foremost disadvantages lie in frequent neglect by the superior, both in time and quality of teaching efforts.
Trainer’s styles of working which may not necessarily be suitable percolate in a trainee. Therefore, if this method is relied upon heavily, there is a chance for the development of organizational traditionalism which works as resistant to change. Further, the trainer may be preoccupied with his work and he may not be able to give sufficient time to the trainees concerned.
To be effective, coaching demands that the supervisor should render assistance when the subordinate seeks or needs it. The superior should have the ability to communicate and to stimulate and should have patience to help his subordinates. He should also set aside time for scheduling sessions. He should avoid being too dominating of the performance process, so that the trainee can experience things for himself and does not become completely dependent on the coach for decisions.
“Coaching will work well if the coach provides a good model with whom the trainee can identify, if both can be open with each other, if the coach accepts his responsibility fully, and if he provides the trainee with recognition of his improvement and suitable rewards.”
Under this method, the subordinate wanting advice approaches his superior. Counselling is provided in matters relating to the job. However, on request from the subordinate, counselling may also be offered on matters not directly related to the job. There is two-way dialogue between the subordinate and the superior to find solution to his problem. Counselling provides emotional stability to trainee-subordinate.
II. Job Rotation or Channel Method of Development:
Job rotation presents an excellent method for broadening the manager or potential manager for fortuning specialists into generalists. It refers to the transfer or movement of executives from one job to another and from one plan to another on some planned basis for educational learning purposes. Job rotation is often designed for beginning level managers while planned progression is more likely to occur at higher managerial level.
Such rotation may continue for a period ranging from 6 to 24 months. Method provides a great deal of job experience for those who are potential executives who need broadening of outlook and increased understanding of the various aspects of management. The emphasis is on diversified instead of specialized skills and knowledge.
Job rotation as a means for management development offers certain positive contributions. It allows the managers to appreciate the intricacies involved in different jobs and how their own jobs are affected by such inerrancies. This way, they can develop more cooperative approach to different functions in the organization. Further, managers may develop broader horizon and perspective of a generalist rather than the narrower horizon of a specialist.
Under this method, the trainees are rotated over various routine jobs in a department, division or unit before they are due for promotions as managers. The idea is to impart an overall knowledge and familiarity with the different sectional jobs such as billing, issuing challans, preparing inspection notes, setting railway claims, handling customer accounts, etc., in the sales department before they are posted as manager in the department.
This secures a compromise between over-specialization even from the lowest most routine level, and minimum of special skills and expertise necessary for middle level managers. These persons are moved from one job to another according to a schedule of rotation. It also includes moving people between line and staff positions.
Job potations are mostly horizontal or lateral. Such rotations can be instituted- (i) on a planned basis, i.e., by means of training programme whereby the worker spends two or three months in an activity and is then moved on; or (ii) on a situational basis, i.e., by moving the person to another activity when the first is no longer challenging to him or to meet the needs of work scheduling.
1. Boredom, monotony are reduced and since job rotation permits a greater understanding of other activities within the organization people are prepared more rapidly to assume greater responsibility, especially at the upper echelons.
2. It breaks down departmental provincialism for everyone is moved from one to another. It rather develops inter departmental cooperation’s.
3. Through this system, a man does not end up in just one place. He gets a chance to step into a higher position. In this way, an organization gains management strength in-depth.
4. Job rotation ensures the avoidance of the problem which arises when a newly promoted manager is required to supervise his former peers.
5. Job rotation injects new ideas into the older departmental personnel who may otherwise fall in a route. New concepts are infused into them and they are diffused throughout an enterprise.
6. It makes it possible for the management to compare one man with another, and gives everyone an equal chance for advancement.
7. It does not develop “specialists” but produces “generalists” that is men who take a broad, companywide point of view, men whose chief ability is to handle people and make decisions.
8. Awareness of what is happening elsewhere and familiarity with other tasks centres helps a balanced and informed attitude to enterprise goals and activities.
9. Each manager’s abilities and talents are best tested in a variety of jobs so the enterprise can secure his best utilisation in the ultimate assignment.
10. The manager should provide a. variety of job experiences for those judged to have the potential for higher ranks before they are promoted.
11. The benefit of wider exposure is available to trainee manager.
1. It upsets family and home life because many a time transfers are affected to different geographical areas.
2. The new incumbent is likely to bring a zeal for change while sound changes are good, ill-conceived and hasty innovations may lead to costly experiments and reduced productivity by moving workers.
3. It undermines organizational morale, efficiency since “executives may have little inducement to sink their teeth deeply into as assignments”. Established options are disturbed and the manager is prone to error in a new seat.
4. It becomes difficult for a subordinate to adjust himself to his new bosses, interpersonal relationships takes time for adjustment and employees with frequent moves are apt to feel insecure.
5. It develops sharp cleavages, friction, jealousy and other non-cooperative and dysfunctional forms of human behaviour.
6. Job rotation can demotivate intelligent and aggressive trainees who seek specific responsibility in their chosen speciality. The system is like a highly competitive game of musical chairs whenever there are promotions and transfer. Some people are left behind. Therefore, smart young people avoid taking risks.
7. The system may easily become over centralized, inflexible and closed.
8. Rotation sometimes leads to subtle class distinctions. Men who are not rotated develop defensive reactions. This lead to misunderstanding and poor communication.
9. The work of department is affected due to frequent changes of executives for training purpose.
10. Even the executives are not in a position to have specialized knowledge and training in one particular branch of work.
11. It may create confusion in the mind of a trainee and he may not be able to understand the rationale of job rotation if not properly counselled. These may affect his performance as well as that of others with whom he works.
III. Participation in Deliberations of the Junior Board and Committees or the Multiple Management Techniques:
Managerial personnel may be developed through their participation in deliberations and decision making from group such as committees task forces, project assignment, etc., it is a technique whereby juniors are assigned to board or committees, by the chief executive. They are asked to participate in deliberations of these boards and committees.
In these sessions, actual real life problems are discussed different views are debated and decisions are taken. The juniors get an opportunity to share managerial decision making to learn by watching others and to delve into specific organizational problems. Interdepartmental committees are normally created for bringing coordination in the activities of different departments.
Managers from different departments are taken on such committees. Junior managers are also given membership of such committees so as to give them a broader exposure to the viewpoints of other departmental heads.
When committees are of “ad hoc” or temporary nature, they often take a task force activities designed to delve into a particular problem, ascertain alternatives solutions, and make a recommendation for implementing a solution. These temporary assignments can be both interesting and rewarding to the employee’s growth.
On the other hand, appointment to permanent committees increases the employees’ exposure to other members of the organization, broadens his understanding and gives him an opportunity to grow and make recommendation under the scrutiny of other committee members.
Normally, group decision making passes through three stages:
(i) At the initial stage, the group tries to acquire the largest pool of common information about the facts of the situation,
(ii) The group tries to make inferences and evaluation of information and to form common opinions in a general way.
(iii) It gets around more specific suggestions and solutions to the problem.
After agreement is achieved on the essential facts of the situation, every member is given opportunities to express his views. At this level, there may be emotional tension in deliberations and the chairman should direct the group back to the facts and begin anew from there. This returning back to the facts of the problem works as cooling effect on the members and agreements may be arrived at because members may look at the problem in a sounder way.
1. It permits a considerable number of managers to participate in certain activities within a reasonable period of time. Besides the Boards do make important contributions to efficiency, productivity and a better human relations, climate. In fact they assist in a better administration in the organization.
2. It is relatively inexpensive method of development.
3. It helps to identify those who have executive talent. Multiple managements are obtained on each individual to the Board rating system.
4. It gives Board members an opportunity to gain knowledge on various issues.
5. The members gain tactical experience of group decision making and of teamwork. As a result of the interaction process, they develop respect for the rights and view of their associates.
1. It does not permit any specific attention to training needs of the manager.
2. It is only suitable for middle and senior level managers.
3. The debates in these committees often tend to be discursive, lacking purposiveness or authority. The deliberations often degenerate into academic discussion without the participants feeling committed to the conclusions.
It also known as ‘Junior-board of executives’, it is a system in which permanent advisory committees are constituted to study problems of the organizations and make recommendations to the top level management. In multi-management, the constituted committees discuss actual problems and offer alternative solutions.
The recommendations are made based on the best alternatives. Multiple management offers several advantages; it helps board members to gain first hand experiences in various important aspects of business; it becomes easy to spot people with talent; juniors get a chance to improve their problem-solving skills; and more importantly it is an inexpensive way of training a good number of executives to do things; on their own and develop fast.
IV. General Knowledge:
In addition to job knowledge and organizational knowledge, managers should possess general knowledge as the external environment interacts with and influences the business. The general knowledge includes the knowledge about the economic conditions of the country and the world in general, in respect of major areas such as prices, GNP per capita income, various other industries, other sectors of the economy, political conditions, social factors, etc. General knowledge can be acquired through special courses, special meetings and specific readings.
i. Special Courses- Special courses – like the workshops or executives development programmes or organized by the institutes, universities and colleges — help the trainee to acquire general knowledge.
ii. Special Meetings- Special meetings organized in Consumers’ Forums, Voluntary organizations, etc., help the trainees develop their general knowledge.
iii. Specific Readings- Specific articles published by various journals, specific portions of important books are provided to the trainees to improve their general knowledge.
Delegation is one more internal method of management development. The performance of subordinates may not improve unless additional responsibility and authority are delegated to them. Making the subordinates achieve a particular target through delegation is one way by which subordinates will learn to grow and develop independently. They will develop leadership qualities and decision making skills, which are necessary for a good manager.
VI. Appointment as “Assistant to”:
A junior executive may be appointed as ‘Assistant to’ senior executive for the purpose of training and practical experience. Here, the junior executive is given exposure to the job of senior executive and he teams new techniques while providing assistance to his boss. This broadens his viewpoint and makes him ready for future promotions. The superior executive also gets the benefit as he can delegate some of his responsibilities to the assistant and also acts as a guide to his assistant.
VII. Promotion and Transfer:
Promotions and transfers are two more internal methods of management development. Promotion gives an opportunity to a manager to acquire new skills required for the job at the higher level. It motivates him for self-improvement. Transfer also facilitates the broadening of viewpoint required for higher positions. It gives an opportunity to work at different positions and develop.
2. Off-the-Job Techniques:
A number of on-the-job management development programmes are in vogue, they are considered inadequate for a number of reasons. And, hence, the need for off-the-job techniques.
There are a wealth of management development techniques that managers can partake in off-the-job.
Of these, the more popular ones are:
Case method is an excellent medium for developing analytical skill. It was started by Harvard Business School. This method is increasingly being used by many other prestigious and not so prestigious management institutes in India. What is a case?
A case is “a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes in the reader the need to decide which is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are and what can and should be done.” A case is an objective description of a “real life” business situation in which executives are required to take action and are responsible for results.
In this method, an actual business situation is described, in writing, in a comprehensive manner. The trainees are asked to appraise and analyse the problem- situation and suggest solutions. The actual decision taken in the subject case is known only to the executive and is disclosed only at the end of the session when it is compared with the various solutions offered by the group.
Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgemental abilities. It is rather an effective method for improving decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited information.
This method represents a dynamic and powerful approach to learning. Sometime the case discussion, takes place in a small syndicate before they are called upon to discuss before the whole class.
The case study method accomplishes several objectives of the management development programmes – (i) It distributes knowledge and facts (ii) It improves participants’ skills in problem analysis.
This method was developed by Paul and Faith Pigors, “The central aim of this method is to stimulate self-development in a blend of understanding that is essential for productive interaction. This blend combines intellectual ability (power to think clearly, incisively and reasonably about specific facts and also about abstractions); Practical judgement (capacity to modify conclusions arrived at intellectually, so that they meet the test of common sense); and social awareness (being able to appreciate the force of other people’s feelings and willing to adjust or implement a decision so that it can be more acceptable to persons who are affected by it). Group work of each of ‘these cases’ begins when a group meets. Each member, working along for a couple of minutes, studies a written incident. He asks himself; what seems to be going on in this incident? What lead can I find here toward facts of the case and issues that stirred people up? Appended to each incident is an invitation to make short-term decisions in the role of a person who had to cope with the incident when it actually happened.”
Under this method, group members address questions to the discussion leader. The general trend of questioning is to find out about the what, when, where and how of the situation in which an incident developed, and who was present there at the time. Clues are also tracked down if they seem to offer reliable insight into the why of behaviour. After the collection of data, it is necessary to isolate the most important items for decision-making.
iii. Role Playing:
Role playing is the concept of creating a more realistic situation, usually one of human problems and conflicts, and then acting out the various parts. The role assuming closely approximate a real situation and affords the participants the vicarious experiences that enhance their sensitivity, growth and development.
The value of role playing are:
(i) It requires the person to carry out a thought or decision he may have reached.
(ii) It permits the practice of carrying out an action and makes it clear that good human relations require skill.
(iii) Attitudinal changes are effectively accomplished by placing persons in specified roles. It becomes clear in role play that a person’s behaviour is not only a function of his personality but also of the situation in which he finds himself.
(iv) It makes person aware of the feeling of others.
(v) It helps in developing a fuller appreciation of the important part played by feelings.
(vi) Each person gets an opportunity to discover his own personal faults.
(vii) It permits training in the control of feelings and emotions.
In this method, each team of the trainees is given a file of correspondence bearing on a functional area of management. Each individual studies the file and makes his own recommendations on the situation. If further information is required by him, it is supplied by the members of the team.
The observations of each individual member are compared and conclusions on different functional areas reached; and these are put down in the form of a report. For this purpose, such teaching methods sis the incident process, role-playing, the syndicate method, and the conference method are used.
This method has the following advantages:
(i) Decisions are rapid, feedback is objective, and further decisions are based on the feedback of earlier decisions.
(ii) The consequences of many possible alternatives in a situation can be evaluated over a period of time.
(iii) The participants pay for the consequences of their decisions.
(iv) Because of emotional involvement without any strain, the participants play for hours with sustained interest.
(v) Decision-making is by a group which consists of managers and specialists from different departments. Each member, therefore, gets an opportunity to participate in it.
(vi) An abstract and complex situation is given the semblance of a real world situation, and this illusion facilitates the learning process.
(vii) Teachers welcome management games since student participation is excellent.
(viii) By mixing with managers from different functional areas, managers get a better appreciation of other functional areas.
(ix) The effect of long-term policies can be demonstrated in the game.
(x) The efficiency of planning and systematic approach can be demonstrated.
(xi) Team co-operation can be fostered and departmental conflicts softened down and/or eliminated.
(xii) Promising young managers get a perspective on the company as a whole when they work with their senior colleagues in the game.
(xiii) The specified time limit imposes the time constraint on the trainees which stimulates reality.
(xiv) The method is inexpensive and can be organised easily.
The main demerits are:
(i) It sometimes discourages originality for teams have to adopt themselves to rigid situations.
(ii) The logical solutions suggested by the team to be abstracted from compulsions against which it had to be tackled in the actual situation.
v. Business or Management Game:
Business games are classroom simulation exercises in which teams of individuals compete against one another or against an environment in order to achieve a given objective. These games are designed to be representative of real life conditions. Under these, an atmosphere is created in which the participants play a dynamic role, and enrich their skills through involvement and simulated experience.
Most business games are expressed in the form of a mathematical model controlled and manipulated by an electric computer; while others can be played manually. In the former case, quicker feedback is available; clerical work is avoided and time is controlled. Some games are interacting types of games, while others are non-interacting types.
The interacting types of games are like a game of tennis, the decisions of one team influence or affect the performance of the other teams. In the non-interacting types of games, each team is independent, and its performance entirely depends upon its own competence; the decisions of one team do not affect others.
Usually, management games consist of several teams which represent competing companies. Each team consists of 2 to 6 members. Teams take decisions regarding production, prices, research expenditure, marketing, advertising, and attempt to maximise hypothetical profits in this simulated environment.
The decisions of a team are fed into a computer which has been programmed according to a particular model of the market. The game continues for 6 to 12 periods. At the end of that period, the fined results are worked out by each team and compared with those of others.
Business games are intended to teach trainees how to take management decisions in an integrated manner. The participants learn by analysing problems and by making trial-and-error decisions. Such games illustrate the existence of various group processes, including communication, the resolution of conflicts, the emergence of leadership, and the development of ties of friendship.
This method enjoys following advantages:
(i) There is usually a great sense of excitement and enjoyment in playing the game. This helps to develop problem-solving skills; and helps focus attention on the need for planning than on “putting out fires.”
(ii) As the companies elect their own officers and develop their own organisation structures, they can, therefore, be useful for developing leadership skills and for fostering cooperation and team-work.
(iii) It helps to analyse and select the significant and relevant data from a mass of information; and also helps ability to decide with incomplete data and amid conditions of uncertainty.
(iv) It helps in changing attitudes. The participant becomes more tolerant.
(i) A major problem with games is that they can be very expensive to develop and implement particularly when the game itself is computerised.
(ii) Management games usually force decision maker to choose his alternatives from a “dosed” list; in real life managers are more often rewarded for creating new alternatives.
(iii) Though games may be accurate simulations, they are never totally realistic; for no evidence is available which may indicate that those who are successful in business games will also be successful in a real job.
On the whole, the trainees almost always react favourably to a well-run game and it is a good technique for developing problem-solving and leadership skills.
vi. Sensitivity, Laboratory or T-Group Training:
This method was originally developed by Kurt Lewin and popularised by the National Training Laboratories, U.S.A. under Leland Bradford. It is known by several names such as ‘sensitivity training’, ‘T-Group training’, ‘action training,’ ‘Group dynamics’, ‘Confrontation Groups’, ‘Awareness expertises’, ‘human capacity movement’, ‘sensitivity retreats’, ‘encounter sessions’ and so forth.
According to Chris Argyris, “sensitivity training is a group experience designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behaviour, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behaviour and develop awareness of self and of others.”
T-group may be used to help participants:
(i) Learn more about themselves, especially their own weaknesses and emotions;
(ii) Develop insights into how they react to others and how others react to them;
(iii) Discover how groups work and how to diagnose human relations problems;
(iv) Find out how to behave more effectively in inter-personal relations and how to manage people through means other than power;
(v) Develop more “competent” and “authentic” relations in which feelings are expressed openly;
(vi) Confront inter-personal problems directly, so that they may be solved, and not try to avoid them; rather smooth them over, or seek a compromise.
After training the trainees usually do become more sensitive to others and more open, such training can also result in increased company performance and profits.
The demerits of the system are:
(i) The trainers often create stress situations. At times, groups are “converted into psychological nudist camps which end up mainly as self-flagellation societies.” There is a danger that training of this sort may do a better job of tearing apart people than of bringing them together.
(ii) Whatever changes occur in the trainees tend to fade out when they return to an unsympathetic environment in which company policy and their boss’s attitude may inhibit the exercise of their newly learned skills.
(iii) This type of training makes the management trainee so sensitive to the feelings of others that he is unwilling to take hard decisions.
(iv) T-group training, when applied to technical professional is often less effective as a training method than more conventional methods such as the lecture method and conferences.
(v) Such training is not only capable of inducing anxiety but it is very likely to do so. The anxiety may have an unrewarding effect, such as causing the people to be highly frustrated, unsettled and upset. In other cases, high levels of depression, rejections and other disruptive influences are also visible.
Sensitivity training is a very controversial development technique. The reason is the depth of emotional involvement required of trainees. They laterally need to bare their souls in training session and so the training is, thus, very personal in nature.
It is a training technique which indicates the duplication of organisational situations in a learning environment. It is a mock-up of a real thing. This technique has been used for developing technical and interpersonal skills.
In simulation, the following procedure is usually adopted:
1. Essential characteristics of a real-life organisation or activity are abstracted and presented as a case not to be studied and analysed as in the usual case study method but to be experienced by the trainee as a realistic, lifelike circumstance.
2. Trainees are asked to assume various roles in the circumstance and to solve the problem facing them. They are asked to be themselves, not to act.
3. A simulation often involves a telescopic or compressing of time events; a single hour may be equated with a month or a quarter of a year in real life, and many events are experienced in a relatively brief period of time.
4. Trainees are required to make decision that have a real effect in the simulation and about which they receive rapid feedback.
5. The simulation is followed by a critique of what went on during the exercise.
The advantages to simulation are the opportunities to attempt to “create an environment” similar to real situations the managers incur, without high costs involved should the action prove undesirable. The disadvantages are that it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making on the jobs, and individuals often act differently in real life situations when they do in acting out a simulated exercise.
Team building is one of the OD (organization development) techniques aimed at improving the effectiveness of teams at work. In this technique stress is laid on action learning, i.e., on letting the trainees scheme the problem. Data concerning teams performance are collected and then feedback to the member of the team. The participants examine explain and analyse the data and develop specific action plans for solving the team’s problems.
The team building program begins with the consultant (an outsider) interviewing each of the team members and the leader of the team prior to a group meeting asking them what their problems are, how they think the group functions and what obstacles are in the way of the group performing better.
The consultant then categories the interview data into topics or themes and presents these themes to the group at the beginning of the group meeting. The schemes are ranked by the group in terms of their importance. The most important themes from the agenda for the meeting. The group examines and discusses the issues and examines the underlying causes of the problem and begins work on a solution to the problems.
The “managerial grid” is an organisational development technique, developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton. The grid represents several possible leadership, “styles.” Each style represents a different combination of two basic orientations concern for people (1.9) and concern for production (9.1).
The management training programme is built around this managerial grid. It aims at developing open confrontation of organisational problems and high-people- high-production (9.9) leaders.
Such a programme lasts for 3 to 5 years and usually involves the following steps:
1. Phase 1 involves a week-end conference, where trainees are taught the fundamental of grid-training.
2. Phase 2 comprises the discussion, analysis and solution of the units’ problems and practices by the management and the subordinates.
3. Phase 3 involves meeting with various groups with the aim of working out company-wide problems and setting some development targets for the company as a whole.
4. Phase 4 involves outlining specific procedures for accomplishing the company’s development targets.
5. Phase 5 includes evaluation of the units’ accomplishments and beginning work on any remaining or new problems.
How to Develop Managers in an Organisation – On the Job and Off the Job Methods
Today, mostly all organizations have realized the importance of training to develop skill, abilities, knowledge and attitudes of management personnel. So, training system has been accepted by the companies to conduct management development programmes through ‘on-the-job’ and ‘off-the-job’ methods.
Earlier, companies had much more reliance on external establishments like B-schools, training institutes / colleges for the training of their executives. Now, the situation has changed greatly. Big companies have set up their own training institutes/colleges at zonal or corporate level where executives are deputed for training.
Some executives are assigned the job of Training Officers / Training Managers to (i) arrange for conducting programmes (ii) prepare training calendar (iii) design course contents with the help of subject experts, line management and HR specialist (iv) bring guest lecturers to provide faculty support (v) arrange for nomination of executives from different departments / regions (vi) impart training on the subjects on which they have expertise.
Such training officers/ managers are also responsible for supervision, administration for running training institutions / colleges, preparation of budget for approval of the higher authority etc. However, for training in specific field/areas companies send executives to outside establishments.
Method # A. On the Job:
The various on the job methods are:
It is an on-the-job technique used for development of managerial skill, knowledge, ability so that assigned job can be performed well. Under this method, officer obtains coaching, guidance, instructions from senior officer to enhance, acquire knowledge, skill to perform job better.
Coach/guide keeps continuous vigil, supervision on the performance of trainee officer and corrects, rectifies wrong doing, methods of operation. Trainee officer is involved in problem solving exercise, decision making process to develop his skill and confidence in performance.
This is easy, simple, inexpensive method of developing competence, knowledge of officers. This can be an effective method if competent, experienced, willing and expert coach is available.
2. Job Rotation:
It is a rotation of manager/officer from one job to other job, from one department to other department or from one place to other place in a systematic way. The objective of job rotation is to make the manager know the job so that he can excel in his performance.
Through this method manager can make mastery over the jobs of different departments, units and can effectively perform the job of higher responsibilities. It gives a chance to the trainee manager to gain experience of working in different situations, environment, culture and of dealing with issues, problems of varied nature. All this broadens outlook of the manager, promotes human relations skill and develops problem solving skill.
3. Understudy Assignments:
This is a method of preparing potential officer, manager to perform the job of his boss that he holds. ‘Understudy’ means a person prepared to perform the work or fill the position of another. Manager watches and observes the style of functioning of his boss, his method of solving problems, dealing with customers, peers, subordinates and his decision-making role in organization.
When potential manager’s boss remains on leave or is away from headquarter for some work, potential officer is given a chance to officiate in place of his boss with the objective of making him permanent in that post. Through working in higher post during leave vacancy, manager gathers experience of working, acquires thorough knowledge of job, develops confidence of performing job of higher responsibilities.
However, this method may not be helpful if boss does not cooperate with his subordinate to learn the job as a whole and for not knowing completely/perfectly the job potential manager may make a lot of mistakes which may indicate that such method is ineffective to develop skill, ability of the potential manager.
4. Multiple Management:
It is one of the on-the-job techniques used in organizations for the purpose of developing skill, abilities, attitudes, knowledge of the management.
Multiple management is a kind of committee / board of junior executives which conducts survey, studies problems on important issues, discusses thoroughly, makes interaction between members and submits recommendation to the top management.
This forum gives an opportunity to the junior executives to –
a. Promote self-development
b. Develop team spirit
c. Prepare mind-set of accepting need for cooperation
d. Adjust to situations of group working
e. Develop human relations skills through interactive process
f. Enhance analytical ability
g. Acquire knowledge on different aspects of organization
h. Develop problem-solving skill
i. Improve knowledge/understanding on decision-making process.
This method helps to identify the executives who can be successful in future assignment. It is a very useful technique to groom executives for senior positions at a reasonably lesser period of time with practically no additional cost for development.
5. Committee Assignment:
Under this method potential executives are taken in committee as members for enhancing knowledge, idea on problematic issues and gaining experience to find out solutions and alternative means for redressal.
This committee may be constituted for a limited period on ad-hoc arrangement for ascertaining real issues through investigation, study, observation and submitting suggestions, comments, views on the problems to the higher management. It may have also permanent nature of activities where a large number of executives can be brought under the management development programmes.
Some of the merits of this method are mentioned below:
a. Members can broaden their outlook and understanding for redressal of the issues
b. It helps to develop mutual understanding, faith and confidence between committee members.
c. It promotes human relations skills of managers
d. It increases skill of interaction, presentation, communication, argument for reaching to an agreement.
e. It is inexpensive and easy method for development of executive.
Method # B. Off-The-Job:
1. Role Playing:
It is an off-the-job technique used in organizations for development of managerial skill, attitudes by allowing the executives to play the role of some other personalities. It happens that senior executives ignore junior executives’ problems, inconveniences, difficulties faced by them in the process of performance of their work, and as a result such senior executives may not be able to develop mutual understanding and confidence between them and their subordinates.
It also happens that senior executives because of their attitudinal problems cannot make positive/conducive interaction with their subordinates. Hence, to understand emotion, feeling, difficulties, inconveniences of subordinates and also to change their own attitudes for better interaction with subordinates, senior executives play the role of subordinates. A sales manager playing role of sales supervisor, a bank manager playing role of a bank officer become exposure to real life situation as others perceive it.
In role playing session each player is given a role to play. He is briefed about his role, the description of problem/incident is written up and given to him. Each player is asked to play the natural role of the position he is given to act. During role playing activities other trainees watch, observe and note the area of undeserved activities of role players.
In subsequent discussion, trainer focuses the point of differences and allows other trainees to deliver their suggestion/arguments. Through such interactive process, role players can experience the truth and develop their attitudes and promote learning.
Under this method cases are prepared and given to trainees by trainer for study, discussion, analysis of problems, finding out genesis/causes of problems and for determination of solutions, alternatives. A case is no more than a set of circumstances or description of events.
A central theme of case study is to bring out real incidents, problems of the company which the executives are likely to face and to present these before the trainees to develop their skill in the area of decision making, problem searching/analysis and problem solving through study, discussion, enquiry, exchanges of ideas and analysis of incidents.
This method is of great use in developing decision making, analytical and judgemental abilities of the executives, but it may not generate interest, inspiration amongst trainees if cases are imaginative having no expression of real life situations of the company.
3. In-Tray/In Basket:
This is one of the off-the-job techniques that develops decision making, problem solving and analytical skills of the executives. The main activity of the manager/senior executive is to get the work done with and through the people. Hence, for accomplishment of task/job it needs allocation of responsibilities, team management, overall supervision, coordination with the different functionaries, problem analysis and decision making.
What a manager is required to perform is decided by him looking to the information contained in the papers like letters, reports, statement, documents, complaints, message. Orders/ instructions of higher authority and also other papers are received by manager/executive daily from his ‘in-tray’/’in- basket’ meant for incoming mails.
Trainer collects few days’ mails from the managers of those organizations from where executives are deputed for training, and gives the same to each trainee for disposal of issues mentioned in the papers within a scheduled period of time.
This method is also called T-Group (‘T’ stands for training) or L-Group (‘L’ Stands for Learning) training. This training method is used to change attitudes and behaviour of trainees through group interactions.
All individuals are not same in respect of temperament, disposition, feeling, emotions. Some are rough, harsh, insensitive, impatient, intolerant while others are cool, calm, rationale, amiable, sensitive. The first category of people may face difficulty to develop interpersonal relations, mutual understanding and mutual faith between each others as they lack human skill.
These type of people are not rare in the executive cadres who need change of attitudes and behaviour for development of human skill. This change is possible through sensitivity or T-Group training.
a. This development programme relates to change of behaviour and attitudes of executives.
b. It has no fixed agenda for discussion, participation. No formal training is given by trainers, as there is no course content designed for the purpose of imparting the same to the trainees.
c. It is a leaderless, unstructured programme conducted by the participants. Trainees are the objects of study by themselves.
d. Participations in the training programme who are 10 to 15 in number form a small group for interaction by themselves.
e. Trainer tells the participants about the objective of the programme, creates an opportunity for the trainees to carry on their transactions (that is exchange of stimulus and response) to manifest each other’s behavioural attitudes.
Through this group process each participant gets to know / perceive the attitudinal / behavioural problems of others; and this experience is communicated to each other for rectification, changes of attitudes.
f. Trainees are given the message that they should feel free and frank; and with open mind they should interact with each other. They should not have ill feeling for pin-pointing their weak areas by others.
5. Syndicate Method:
This is one of the methods used in industrial settings for improvement of skills of its executives, so that, their potentials can be utilized by way of assigning higher responsibilities to them.
The objectives of such training programme are:
a. To update the knowledge of the trainees
b. To expose trainees to various problems cropped up in industrial situations
c. To know solutions of problems
d. To enhance analytical ability of the trainees
e. To make the trainees effective as leaders
f. To make the participants team-friendly
g. To improve human relations skill.
6. Incident Method:
This is an off-the-job technique developed by Professor Paul and Faith Pigors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Under this method, trainees are given some information about incidents / cases and are asked to give their suggestion / decision. Incidents may be short interactional activities between boss and subordinate relating to improvement of quality of goods or reducing rate of defect products.
The objectives of such training programme are:
a. To develop inquisitiveness amongst the trainees so that they can activate their mental faculty to put various questions to the trainer for collection of data / information, etc.
b. To promote self-development of trainees
c. To increase diagnostic skill of participants
d. To develop skill of executives to make them understand/ aware of their limitations, weakness for solution of problems.
e. To improve judgemental skill of trainees
f. To promote human skill of executives.
7. Transactional Analysis (TA):
It is an off-the-job technique used by organizations to analyse and understand behavioural pattern and activities of executives that helps to develop their interpersonal competence. TA has been developed by Eric Berne. According to him, the unit of social intercourse is called a transaction.
If two or more people encounter each other in a social aggregation, sooner or later one of them will speak or give some other indication of acknowledging the presence of the others. This is called transactional stimulus. Another person will then say or do something which is in some way related to this stimulus and that is called the transactional response.
So, stimulus response relationship between two individuals is a transaction. Each person irrespective of age has three ego states (Parent, Adult and Child) which are distinct sources of behaviour. An ego state is a consistent pattern of feeling, experiences and behaviour/activities manifestation.
8. Behaviour Modelling:
This is a method of improving behaviour, attitudes of executives through video tapes, films that display effective handling / solution of problems in real business situation by model persons in organizations. It occurs that some executives may not have proper skill to deal with problems particularly inter-personal problems, and to develop such skill, use of videotapes, films is made to show how successful executives tackled/handled problems in different real situations.
Trainees watch videotapes, films that show model persons’ activities, acquire knowledge, idea about technique used for solution of problems, practice till thorough idea/skill developed and get feedback about performance.
Thus, behaviour modelling involves getting the trainees know the right way of working, providing them opportunities to practise and giving them feedback about their performance.
Steps of behaviour modelling are as follows:
i. Modelling – Trainees are shown through films, videotapes as to how model persons are behaving effectively in a problem situation. The main idea of this activity is to make trainees know the right way of handling problems by senior executives.
ii. Role Playing – Trainees are given the roles of specific executives to play in simulated situation which they practise and rehearse in the same manner as demonstrated by the models.
iii. Discussion and reinforcement – In this step trainer discusses with trainees about their role performance. Each trainee’s defect/shortcoming and also outstanding performance areas are pointed out. To rectify the weak areas the trainer makes the trainees re-watch films/ videotapes and see attentively how model persons deal with issues and behave in a problem situation. For outstanding performance positive stroke is given to the concerned trainees.
iv. Transfer of learning – Trainees are encouraged to apply their new skills when they are back on their job.
9. Business or Management Game:
Business game is a simulation exercise of business situations used in training programmes to develop skill, competencies of executives in organizations. It is a popular training method used in India, for many years.
This kind of simulation exercise has following activities:
a. Making of some groups – Trainees are divided into some groups consisting of two or more members. Each group represents an imaginary company. All groups are competitors to each other in a simulated market place and objective of each group is to become the number one company in the market, to dominate over other competitors.
b. Ascertainment of games – Trainer decides what type of games the trainees are required to play in the training session. Games may relate to marketing, advertising, production, inventory maintenance and the like.
c. Supply of data, information to the groups – Trainer collects data, information from organizations regarding production, sales, finance, human resources, advertisement, price, inventories, organization structure, company details, strategy, mission etc. and supplies relevant information to the groups.
d. Setting of game periods – The game may be for 3 or 4 periods duration and a week may represent two periods of 6 months duration. So, the whole game exercise may be over within a period of 1 ½ weeks or 2 weeks.
e. Group decision – Each group works out action in detail for each period and details of action for 3/4 periods are incorporated in the prescribed format to find out final results.
10. Development Centres:
Development centre is a platform where executives get opportunity to know their present level of competence, potential competencies and level of competencies needed for higher positions. This understanding and acquisition of knowledge they get through awareness programmes of development centres.