The concept of HRD aims to keep the employees of organization continuously competent. Therefore, a conceptual framework, which provides to foresee problems would be useful, i.e., a pro-active model, rather than a reactive model would be relevant.
The concept of HRD should be considered as a philosophy within which HRM should act along with the strategies of HRD. A model of work motivation was used to develop the conceptual framework with modifications.
Human Resource Development (HRD) aims at the promotion of all well-being of individuals, families and societies.
It deals with creating condition s that enables people to get the best out of themselves and their lives. Development is a never-ending process. As people develop them in new directions, new problems and issues arise and loop continues.
Human Resource Development (HRD) Concept
Human Resource Development (HRD) Concept
The importance of Human Resource Development (HRD) is now being increasingly realized in the entire sector in general and in particular in the fast growing corporate public, private and cooperative sector in the light of globalization and new economic policy. The realization has come because of the increasing complexity of the task of HR managers and administrators in the organisations.
In most of the corporates the problems of getting competent and relevant people, retaining them, keeping up their motivation and morale, and helping them to both continuously grow and contribute their best to the organizations, are not viewed as the most critical problems with the changes in the social climate, values and norms, changes are also seen in the employees who join the organization today.
The growing importance of HRD is reflected both in specializations in the field of Human Resource Development as well as in the eagerness and willingness of the people to share responsibility for many personnel functions. The future trend of HRD, therefore, is likely to be in the direction of both diffusion of this function in “line” management and its higher specialization to be managed by the professional people.
The acronym HRD (Human Resource Development) has almost become a fad from the latter part of the last decade and still continues. Today, the concept of Human Resources Development (HRD) is considered seriously by most of the medium and large-scale industrial organizations, to keep the organization competent and forward looking.
In the present context, in the wake of rapid technological changes, a fierce competition market in the liberalized era, employees are perceived as important “ASSETS or RESOURCES”. There is an increasing awareness that employees too undergo value addition- that, they are important in giving quality products. Hence, there is a paradigm shift i.e., from purely a labour point of view, to a resource point of view. The current situation has given a needed fillip for the widespread promotion of the “HRD Concept”.
Human Resource Development (HRD) aims at the promotion of all well-being of individuals, families and societies. It deals with creating condition s that enables people to get the best out of themselves and their lives. Development is a never-ending process. As people develop them in new directions, new problems and issues arise and loop continues.
“One has to think broadly that you can’t be in HRD today and focus only on the individual. You have to understand a person’s environment – changes in the nature of work, cultural backgrounds and different assumptions about communication and management, and the sources and methods of personal and organizational transformation. We believe that more broadly you think about anything, the more insights you will have, the more creative you will be and the more valuable you will be to yourself and your organization.”
Leon Nadler, who is normally attributed to have first coined the acronym HRD, along with D-Wiggs says, that development, is concerned with providing learning experiences to employees, so that they may be ready to move into new directions that organizational change may require. HRD is recognized as an important tool for corporate strategy, integrating the conceptual values with human values. Strategic thinking by the organization is essential to their development and survival.
Hence HRD must become an integral part of the business strategy. HRD systems and objectives which concern the organization are – specific mission and objectives, progressive mission and incentive packages, reward for punctuality in attendance, healthy interaction with trade unions, etc. The total emphasis is laid on the concept of trust as a major lubricant to the total dynamics of man and machine, worker and manager.
“Our strength is our people and our workforce. We need to have our organization well rooted in getting people involved in the day-to-day operation of the business. One of the most exciting parts for us is to see supervisors and managers let go and employees take responsibility…or to see the group dynamics when things take off and go by themselves and everybody wonders why we didn’t do this long ago. It’s that excitement you see that spirit, the camaraderie when it happens, you say that they got it and it worked. You get beyond all the barriers and the issue becomes what’s best for the organization.”
Performance appraisal has become the key factor in the most critical issue in training and development of employee. Companies of all types and sizes are aspiring to become high performance organizations. Performance is measured in terms of progress toward specific business goals and also relates to how employees achieve the targeted results. The behaviours and on the job processes from the simplest task to the most complex corporate strategy are examined for high returns.
With the focus on performance, HRD specialists are called upon increasingly to play a broader role within their organizations, identifying a variety of options for improving business results which can involve training and non-training solutions (known as “interventions”).
Non-training interventions can include structural issues, such as reporting relationships or policies and procedures; process issues such as workflow or job design; technical issues such as the use of computer hardware or software; and organizational issues such as vision and mission, values, operating strategy, or rewards and incentives. This broader focus has become defined through terms such as “human performance improvement,” or “performance consulting” which are appearing more frequently in job titles and in the literature.
In ASTD Models for Human Performance Improvement – Roles, Competencies and Outputs, William J. Rothwell defines human performance improvement as “a systematic process that links business strategy and goals – and workers abilities to achieve them – with a variety of interventions, including education and training.”
Human performance improvement typically involves the HRD specialist in analysing the current versus the desired level of employee performance, identifying the causes for the “gap” between the current and desired performance, and determining the appropriate solution(s).
Today’s companies need to stay competitive in the increasingly complex global marketplace. As a result, every fact of the organization – each work function and operation – must change its emphasis to performance. To that end, training solutions are especially beneficial for improving performance, particularly when the work is directly linked to meeting specific organizational needs or goals.
The importance of employee learning and learning quickly, to a company’s long-run viability means that workplace learning is becoming a significant strategy. The bar is set high in terms of the skills required of HRD professionals in workplace learning and the standards of accountability to which they are held for educating and training a workforce. HRD is not a new concept; it’s a reconnaissance of the traditional ways of man-management. The HRD approach is proactive and not reactive.
Human Resource Development (HRD) Concept – According to T. Venkateswara Rao and Ishwar Dayal
T.Venkateswara Rao defines HRD in the organizational context as, a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in a continuous, planned way to-
(1) Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles.
(2) Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and for organizational developmental purposes.
(3) Development an organizational culture in which superior subordinate relationship, team work, and collaboration among sub units are strong and contribute to the professional wellbeing motivation and pride employees.
From organizational point of view HRD is a process in which the employees of an organization are helped / motivated to acquire and develops technical managerial and behavioural knowledge skills and abilities and mold the values, beliefs attitude necessary to perform present and future roles by realizing highest human potentials with a view to contribute positively to the organizational, group, individual and social goals.
Human resource development can be defined as the process of increasing knowledge, competence, capacities, intelligence talents of the members of the organization in particular and all of the people of the society in general.
There are a number of instruments available for human resource development such as training, education and development, job rotation, career planning and development, team work, team spirit and team building, job enlargement and job enrichment, leadership development, better superior subordinate relations, performance evaluations etc.
No doubt human resource development is the primary responsibility of the human resource department but other departments cannot escape from this function they must have to initiative and intimate the human resource department about the training requirement of their staff.
Human Resource Development (HRD) Concept of HRD:
In the organisational context, Human Resource Development may be defined as a continuous process to ensure the development of employee competencies, dynamism, motivation and effectiveness in a systematic and planned way.
HRD is a process concerned with an organised series of learning activities designed to produce behavioural changes in the human resources in such a way that they acquire desired level of competence for present and future roles. In other words, HRD brings about ‘all-round development’ of the people so that they can contribute their best to the organisation, society and the nation.
According to T.V. Rao, –
“HRD is a continuous planned process by which employees are helped to:
(a) Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles;
(b) Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and organisational purposes; and
(c) Develop an organisational culture in which superior-subordinate relationships, team work and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation or employees.”
Megginson viewed human resources as “the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organisation’s workforce as well as the values, attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved”. Human Resource Development (HRD) may be defined as development of people by providing the right environment where each individual may grow to his fullest potentialities.
According to Ishwar Dayal, HRD involves:
(a) Ways to better adjust the individual to his job and the environment,
(b) The greatest involvement of an employee in various aspects of his work; and
(c) The greatest concern for enhancing the capabilities of the individual.
HRD is said to be core of a larger system known as Human Resource System. It is concerned with providing learning experience for the organisational members to develop their competencies. HRD is only a sub-system of the organisation which is integrated with all other sub-systems such as production, finance, marketing, etc.
Concept of Human Resource Development (HRD) – Porters and Lawler’s Model
The concept of HRD aims to keep the employees of organization continuously competent. Therefore, a conceptual framework, which provides to foresee problems would be useful, i.e., a pro-active model, rather than a reactive model would be relevant. The concept of HRD should be considered as a philosophy within which HRM should act along with the strategies of HRD. A model of work motivation was used to develop the conceptual framework with modifications.
The following Porters and Lawler’s model of work motivation was chosen for this purpose:
(i) Porter and Lawler’s Model of Motivation in brief
(ii) The development of the model.
The author holds the assumption that human beings strive towards maintenance, enhancement and actualization of self on the lines of the Humanistic model of Psychology, which is basically necessary for proposed HRD perspective. Secondly, under normal conditions, the individual behaves in rational and constructive ways, and chooses pathways toward personal growth and self-actualization. These assumptions, though not explicitly stated in the Porter and Lawler model, is felt by the author as implied and also necessary for successful HRD practice.
Individual effort/work behavior is taken individually as well as the individual’s effort in a work group/team. The basic moderating variables considered from the individual point of view, are ability, personality, and role perception and from the sociological point of view – team and Family which has a bearing on individual effort. Performance in terms of work output or results is the end product. An individual, individually and also as a member of a team, experiences rewards of both extrinsic as well as intrinsic in nature.
Depending upon this, they experience either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. This either strengthens the perception of the value of rewards, and also the probability of achieving them. In the HRD process, the primary aim being to keep the employees continually competent, this model gives an insight into the various factors at play.
It points out the different variables and their effect on performance. The model envisages a problem solving approach to maintaining HRD climate within the organization. The ultimate end as given in the model is that by utilizing HRD interventions strategies, the individual and the team should be helped to achieve satisfaction from work , as they contribute to achieving the goals of the organization.
There are different stages as mentioned in the model such as:
(a) Problem identification stage;
(b) Diagnosing stage
(c) Selecting a suitable intervention
(d) Implementation, and
The identification of the problem starts with assessing the satisfaction levels. This gives a measure of understanding the problem. Similarly, much is dependent on the diagnosis stage, since the problem the may be organizational, or due to a training and development need, or due to person related problem. Thirdly, selection of a suitable intervention strategy to address the problem is important. It may vary from finalizing a Training Programme to opting for an O.D. Programme.
There are several strategies such as Performance Appraisal; Counseling etc. methods can be used depending upon a case-to-case basis. Fourthly, a favorable climate is a must before implementing any strategy. This can be brought in by discussing with key persons at regular intervals to build in consensus. Lastly, an evaluation of the effect helps to refine future course of action.
The author has tried to classify normal problems or reasons for dissatisfaction based on his experiences in the field and HRD interventions can be used.
The model envisages a problem solving approach to maintaining the HRD climate within the organization.
The HRD professional may have to play different kinds of roles i.e. (i) Consultant (ii) Facilitator; (iii) Counselor and (iv) Trainer
Implications of this Model:
(i) The primary implication of this model is that HRD is construed as a philosophy, and the intervention strategies as methods used in resolving particular problems. It is felt that the functions of a HRM Manager assume significance within this philosophy.
(ii) Secondly, the Humanistic perspective it portrays of individuals. The Humanistic Model promoted by Maslow, Carl Rogers and others, stress a positive view of human nature and potential as cited earlier. Now, this perspective is very much essential for building an HRD climate. The model presents that Ability, Personality, Role Perception and also Family are the moderating factors.
Concept of Human Resource Development (HRD)
The information age has already passed the mid-point of its life cycle. Information has become a product which can be readily bought or sold. As a result, it too has become insufficient to define competitive advantage. Hence the rapid growth in intellectual assets as the ‘now’ source of Competitive advantage.
Intellectual assets can be defined as the sum total of the knowledge, skills and competencies that an organization possesses and canalizes for constructive production. The term ‘Intellectual assets’ provides a link to other types of assets and puts knowledge and intellectual capital in the same field as fixed assets.
According to Thomas Stewart in his book Intellectual capital – the new wealth of organizations states that intellectual capital is the combination of “Intellectual material-knowledge, information, intellectual property, experiences that can be used to create wealth”.
Though it is still a relatively new concept for the business organizations, but it is also assuming that the role of new concept of HR has a greater importance in the competitive world. Price water house’s activities towards creating intellectual assets are integrated efforts of Knowledge management activities in training and learning.
(i) The Scenario of HRD:
The Human Resource Development has played an important role in the development of the human, and organization in future HR will not be accomplished within the HR function; it will also be accomplished by its operating strategies with line managers, other staff managers and strategic partnerships with outside vendors. A top executive of corporate strategy at an HR conference was sharing his views on the transformation of corporate business in the coming decades.
The main conclusions of the conferences were; “The scenario of Human resource is changing day by day and human needs within the organization, as humans as Individuals and as groups is increasing significantly. Their roles, requirements and responsibilities continue to translate into new forms. In these circumstances, the human resource plays a very important role. The HR function has a more strategic role. A changing business environment can influence the outcome of current operations, stakeholder and corporate strategy as a whole. The function of viewing and integrating business opportunities, stimulating employees, developing employee strengths and creating corporate terms help the company’s vision and translates this concern into profit”. HR strategy is no longer a distinct process from the business strategy and its processes.
Business strategies require specific business capabilities within an organization. Michel Porter and C.K. Prahalad have defined HR perspective as a core competence of an organization. For fulfillment of the core competence of the organization the capabilities of the need to be explored because these capabilities resemble the business capabilities of an organization.
The requirements of the people determine the HR strategy which is reflected through the management practices of the organization. A definite model of the HR function no longer exists. Every organization is unique and one organization’s model will not work for another. It is based on the size, the structure, the industry philosophy and the nature of the business.
The following graphs focused on an overview of how the HR Function has evolved with the change in business environment over a period of time. It took a long time from 1850 to 1860 for the transformation of business and consequently the evolution of the H R function. Thus, HR function continued to transform itself over a period of time and with the organizational growth.
(ii) HR Function – A Value Addition:
For employers, the value of HR function lies in the bottom-line. Greater productivity, higher quality, better customer service, positive employee relations and lower costs are among hundreds of factors that typically contribute to higher profits. Such factors are often directly improved by innovative and effective HR practices. Today the current scenario of human resource lies in accordance with the value addition from every process and functions. HR is viewed as an investment that can lead to future exponential gains, which was not the case earlier.
What underpins the success of organizations is their ability to add value to the inputs they use. Adding value in this sense is the central purpose of a business activity, A commercial organization which adds no value has no long term rationale for its existence. Many surveys have revealed that the management perceives that the value addition by the HR function in their organization will increase in the future.
Human resources are the heart of every organization. The HR function however, almost never is described as the heart or even at the heart, the reason for this contradiction is that the management process is fragmented down to the points at which there is no strategic direction to the future. HR professionals contribute to their own exclusion from a strategic role by focusing only on micro issues and by ignoring the relationship between people and enterprise.
Organizations exist for people. The people make them and their effectiveness depends on the behaviour and performance of the people constituting them. There was a time when people were considered a liability. Now they are mostly considered, as a source and an asset. Today reckoned as partners, employees were earlier considered as adversaries by their employers. The transformation in the attitude and outlook towards people in organizations, variously called employees human management, the function with responses liability for managing Human Resources in any organizations.
In the fast changing socio economic and technological conditions, the management scenario has also been changing rapidly Human Resources we mean total skill, knowledge, talents, creative ability and aptitudes of “People” in the workplace along with the approaches, beliefs, values and attitudes of the individuals of an organization. In view of the imposing challenge confronting the human resources in the organization, increasing effectiveness of the human resources functions in control the Business.
As organizations increasingly operate globally and work to remain competitive, they have realized that one factor that can give them sustained advantage, is their people. As the financial and strategically role of the human resources function is increasing, the old stereo typed personnel function as merely administered and transactional rather that an integral part of business, breaks down. How and when Human Resource emerged as a field or a function is difficult to assess.
It is also difficult to say how the realization came about, that it was crucial to involve employees as partners. These are questions for which defined answers would be difficult to trace out. Whatever the origin, the Human resource function has undergone a phenomenal transformation over a period of time. What used to be merely a labour relational function has evolved to acquire numerous connotations.
Greater productivity, higher quality, better customer services, positive employee relations and lower costs are among hundreds of factors that typically contribute to higher profits such factors are often directly improved by innovative and effective HR practices. Today in the era of value addition from every process and function, HR is viewed as an investment that can lead to exponential gains, which has not the case earlier.
The role of HR is moving from its former labour relation role to become a true business partnership and the need to balance its day to day responsibility with the key to becoming a strategic partner in corporate management. The role of HR in the changing environment and company’s culture change are becoming more blurred as the roles continue to overlap. More and more HR staff are being involved in the day- to-day business operations.
The Role of HR is changing with globalisation of business that began in earliest in late 1980’s. The increasing recognition of HR as a legitimate business unit has made it highly strategic in nature and more crucial to achieving corporate objectives. HR involvement in strategy is necessary to ensure that Human Resource support the firm mission.
Concept of Human Resource Development (HRD)
Man is the most essential resource in an organisation. It is necessary to develop this resource systematically and continuously for the growth of the organisation.
The HR must:
i. Procure capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles of the organisation;
ii. Improve, discover and use their own potentials for their own and/or organisational development purposes; and
iii. Develop a culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork, and collaboration among subunits become strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride of employees.
The HRD mechanism and techniques include performance appraisal, counselling, training and organisation development. HRD interventions are used to initiate, facilitate and promote this process continuously. As HRD is continuous and has no end, the mechanism needs to be examined periodically to review the progress. Organisations can facilitate this process of development by planning for it and allocating organisational resources for the purpose.
Dynamic and growth oriented organisations do require HRD to succeed in a fast changing environment. Organisations flourish only through the efforts and competencies of their human resource. HR policies of the organisation that aim to provide care and protection to employees are not enough to make the organisation dynamic, or to take it to new heights. It must help employees to continuously acquire, sharpen and use their capabilities.
In an organisation with good culture, employees do take initiative and risks and do experiment, innovate and make things happen. Even if the organisation has reached its peak, it continues to adapt to the changing environment to retain its position and grow further. Organisations require those processes which help them acquire and increase their capabilities for stability and renewal.
The modern organisations practices the following HRD process to improve:
i. The capabilities of an individual;
ii. The performance as per the role defined by the HR department;
iii. The bond between an employee and the supervisor;
iv. The team spirit of individuals and the department; and
v. Maintaining cooperation and coordination among all the departments.
All these contribution helps in the overall improvement of the organisation and increases the enabling capabilities of individuals and teams.
Normally, HRD systems include the following mechanisms or subsystems:
i. Performance Appraisal of Employees;
ii. Potential Appraisal and Development;
iii. Feedback and Performance Development;
iv. Career Planning and Career Management;
v. Training and Development;
vi. Organisation Development (OD);
vii. Rewards and Compensation;
viii. Quality of Work Life; and
ix. Human Resource Information System.
The above subsystems are linked with corporate plans, particularly with human resource planning.
The HRD mechanisms are designed on the basis of the following beliefs:
i. Human resource is the most important assets of the organisation;
ii. Human resource can be developed and increased to an unlimited extent;
iii. Environment consisting of the values of openness, enthusiasm, trust; mutuality and collaboration, is essential for developing human resource;
iv. HRD systems are beneficial both to the individual and to the organisation;
v. Organisations should create a feeling of belongingness to ensure commitment of employees to their work and to the organisation;
vi. Employees expect organisations to take steps to fulfil their basic and higher needs through an appropriate management style and system;
vii. Provision for discovering and utilization of capabilities and potentials of the employees increase commitment to the organisations; and
viii. The development and utilization of the capabilities of subordinates creates a healthy and motivating work climate.