Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Management’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Management’ especially written for college students.

Essay on Management

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on the Definition of Management
  2. Essay on the Process of Management
  3. Essay on the Nature and Characteristics of Management
  4. Essay on the Socio-Economic and Cultural Significance of Management
  5. Essay on the Need for Professional Management
  6. Essay on Management – Science or an Art
  7. Essay on Management as a Profession

Essay # 1. Definition of Management:

Management is a functional concept. It covers a comprehensive and all-pervading field. It is very difficult to be defined in specific terms. From the functions of the managers and executives it may, however, be asserted that management is the techni­que of getting things done by the people to accomplish a definite objective.


Elmore Peterson and Grosvenor Plowman define mana­gement as “a technique by means of which the purposes and objectives of a particular human group are determined, clari­fied and effectuated.” Prof. John F. Mec defines management as “the art of securing maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee, and give the public best possible service.”

In fact, management is the sum total of those activities which lay down plans and purposes, secure men, money, materials and machines required for accomplishing the purpose, put all of than into operation to achieve the desired objective. Management is thus a means and not an end. It is essentially a discipline applied and followed far the accomplishment of an objective or more than one objective.

Essay # 2. Process of Management:

Management consists of basic and interrelated functions and activities which constitute a process and are viewed as management process.


The func­tions which culminate in the process are:

(i) Planning,

(ii) Organising,

(iii) Staffing,


(iv) Directing, and

(v) Controlling.

The chart given below shows sane aspects of the various managerial functions:

Process of Management

The above chart also portrays the initial management process or cycle. Three other functions may also be included to complete the picture: decision-making, controlling and communicating.

(i) Planning:


Planning is deciding in advance what is to be dene, how and when it is to be done. It involves projecting the future course of action for the business as a whole and also for different sections within it.

Planning is thus the preparatory step for actions, and helps in bridging the gap between the present and the future. Planning is essen­tially choosing the proper course of action from among alternatives. Thus, planning is an intellectual process and signifies use of rational approach to solution of the problems.

In a more concrete sense, planning process comprises determination and laying down of:


(i) Objectives,

(ii) Policies,

(iii) Procedures,

(iv) Rules,


(v) Programmes,

(vi) Budgets, and

(vii) Strategies.

Management might plan for a short period and also for long run. For improved efficiency and better results short-range plans should be properly coordinated with long-range plans.

(ii) Organising:


Organising is the next function of management. It may be conceived of as the structuring of functions and duties to be performed by a group of people for the purpose of attaining enterprise objectives.

More specifically, organisation as a function of management involves the following steps:

1. Determination of activities of the enterprise keeping in view its objectives.

2. Classification of such activities into convenient groups for the purpose of division.

3. Assignment of these groups of activities to individuals.

4. Delegation of authority and fixing of responsibility for carrying out such assigned duties.


5. Coordination of these activities and authority relations through­out the organisation.

Thus, division of work among people and coordination of their efforts to achieve specific objectives are the fundamental aspects of organisation.

(iii) Staffing:

Organisation as a function of management helps the executive to establish positions and lay down their functional relations to each other. However, it is through staffing function that different positions in the organisation structures are kept manned. Staffing process, therefore, provides the organisation with adequate, competent and qualified personnel at all levels in the enterprise.

Management Process

Staffing is a continuous function. In an established concern death, retirement of employees, frequent changes in objectives and expansion of the enterprise, etc., make staffing a continuous function of management.

(iv) Direction:

Mere planning, organising and staffing are not sufficient to set the tasks in motion, management may have well-coordinated plans, properly established duties and authority relations and able perso­nnel, yet it is through the function of direction that the manager- is able to make the employees work with zeal and confidence.


Directing the subordinates covers three essential activities:

(i) Issuing of orders and instructions;

(ii) Guiding and counselling the subordinates in their work with a view to improving their performance; and

(iii)Supervising the work of subordinates to ensure conformity to plans.

(v) Control:


While directing, the manager explains to subordina­tes the work expected of each of that and also helps than do their respec­tive jobs. But even then there is no guarantee that work will always proceed according to plans.

It, therefore, calls for constant observation of actual performance so that appropriate steps may be taken to make them conform to plans. Thus, the controlling task of management involves compelling tie events to conform to plans.

The important steps to be initiated are as follows:

(i) Measurement of accomplishment against the standard and recording deviations.

(ii) Analysing and probing the reasons for such deviations.

(iii) Fixing of responsibility in terms of persons responsible for negative deviations.


(iv) Correction of employee performance so that group goals and plans are accomplished.

Essay # 3. Nature and Characteristics of Management:

Management is as old as man. Ever since man has sought to establish and accomplish certain aims, management of certain nature and degree has existed. The study of management, as a separate branch of knowledge, began from the latter part of the nineteenth century. The different scholars and thinkers contributed to the development of management thought.

According to than, the nature and characteristics of management can be discussed as under:

(i) Management is a Social Science:

It is related to man and there­fore, it is a branch of social science.

(ii) Management is a Distinct Entity:

It can be studied, a knowledge about it obtained and skill in its application acquired. It consists of basic and interrelated functions car activities. These basic activities constitute a process a management process that is distinct.


(iii) Management is Intangible:

It is an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the results of its efforts orderliness, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. The identity of management is brought into clear focus when compared with the results of mismanagement.

(iv) Management is All-Pervasive:

It exists to some degree in almost every human activity, be it in the factory, office, school, bank, govern­ment, temple, union, hems, hotel, or hospital.

(v) Management is a Philosophical Subject:

It is a kind of marital attitude. Like a philosophy, it raises questions with the growing complexi­ties of human society. It comprises beliefs based on the ethical framework of managers.

(vi) Management has Contingency Aspects:

The proper approach to mana­gement, according to the latest thoughts, is dependent on the situation, the people involved, and the manager.

(vii) Management has an Universality of Application:

Here, universality refers to the idea that the management functions (planning-organising- staffing-directing-controlling) must be performed regardless of the type of organisation— profit-oriented or not.

(viii) Management has Definite Fields of Study:

The fields of management study extend to two broad areas:

(i) Operations management, and

(ii) Organisational behaviour.

(ix) Management is Linked with Other Sciences:

The other branches of science like sociology, psychology, political science, anthropology, etc., contribute to the development of management. The quantitative sciences like mathematics and statistics are frequently used in the management pro­cess.

(x) Management is a Profession:

With the separation of management’ from ‘ownership’ through the growth and development of corporate form of organisation, professional managers (production manager or finance manager or personnel manager) duly trained in the principles and practice of manage­ment concerning an area or function have cans of age.

Management is in an era of evolution. Mary minds are actively engaged in refining the concepts concerning its nature, in improving its techniques, and in evaluating its contributions.

Essay # 4. Socio-Economic and Cultural Significance of Management:

The importance or significance of management in our modern society, which is characterised by various economic and cultural activities, is very great. In the words of Peter Drucker, the management is the most power­ful engine for human betterment and social justice.

The significance of management can be visualised with respect to the following aspects:

1. Fuller utilisation of human and physical resources is possible through proper management. Management helps increase productivity of men, materials, and machines as a result of which the society prospers, small countries like Japan and Switzerland have made tremendous progress by virtue of efficient management of their limited resources.

2. Better use of the factors of production (e.g., land, labour, capi­tal) in economic sense is possible through adequate practice of management.

3. Management, being a system of co-operative activities of two or more persons, makes a study of social behaviour. This behavioural appro­ach to management solves many of the problems of the human side of an enter­prise that in turn help the wheels of industrial progress to move on.

4. The management of State-controlled organisations (be it educa­tional, administrative, productive or cultural) has helped the growth of professional managers.

5. Management owes a great responsibility to the following groups of people who form the very backbone of management:

(i) The society and the nation,

(ii) The shareholder,

(iii) The consumer, and

(iv) The workers and employees as teams.

Whatever may be the economic environment of business-capitalistic or socialistic or mixed, management remains responsible to curb unsocial or unethical behaviour of business and thereby contributes to the society and the nation.

Management as the representative of the shareholders of a company protects their interests in the safety, security and reasonable appreciation of capital.

Management holds itself responsible to provide the goods and services at the right the at the right price, and of the right quality to all types of consumers. It is management that should ensure right type and quality of human resources.

In essence, management is not only a creature but also a creator of the economy.

Essay # 5. Need for Professional Management:

In recent years there is a clamour that management of our industrial and business enterprises should be entrusted in the hands of professional personnel. The ‘real’ management in India is still, by and large, not in the hands of professionals but with owners who in most instances are not professionals but promoters of business, and seasoned businessmen.

It is to be appreciated, however, that though these people are managing a number of enterprises yet their ability to manage is not beyond doubt.

More often they are engrossed with the traditional concept and ideas of management which hardly helps to function the industry and business smoothly, fester undisturbed attachment between the management and subordinates and consequently fails to inculcate in the employees a sense of belonging.

Industrial and business world today is very much complex. The comple­xity is the resultant effect of changing socio-economic-political and technological development and more occasionally due to sophisticated manage­ment concept aimed to meet the challenge of the changes.

Managers and executives are supposed to be well versed with the latest management techniques and their application in real life. All managers cannot be labelled as professional managers because a professional manager is different just from a competent manager or a qualified manager.

In professional management, emphasis is particularly laid on two-way communication, participation of subordinates in decision-making, decentralization of decision-making, etc., thus enabling growth of all personnel in tie organisation. He first tiling, therefore, that professional managers are likely to have their allegiance to some norm of conduct and approach towards solving the problems.

Whether a person is a finance manager or a personnel manager, the ethical consideration weighs heavily in favour of discharge of his functions in upholding tie honour of his profession. A professional manager resists the tendency of personal vested interests taking precedence over professional consideration for an integrated profe­ssional action.

Moreover, he is conscious to the requirements of a changing society and, therefore, adepts himself to the environmental changes. As such, it would not; be unreasonable to conclude-that professionalization in management would help a lot in keeping the wheels of our business and industry effective and in tune with the need of the society.

Essay # 6. Management as Science or an Art:

Science may be defined as a body of knowledge systematised through application of scientific method in any department of enquiry. Thus chemistry as a science refers to a syste­matic body of knowledge accumulated through application of scientific method in this area.

Science is systematic in the sense that certain relationships, principles and their limitations have been discovered, tested and establi­shed. But it does not mean that the principles and laws so established are immutable e for all time to care. Discovery of new knowledge and phenomena can always change any principle irrespective of its nature, standing and application.

Charles Babbage pointed out that there was necessity of work measure­ment and cost determination to make management scientific. Taylor made extensive study in machines, tools, time, motion, etc., to find out perfec­tion in performance just like a scientific experiment in a laboratory.

According to Chester Barnard, “the function of the sciences is to explain the phenomena, the events, the situations, of the past. Their aim is not to produce specific events, effects or situations but explanations which we call knowledge.”

Science consists of observation, analysis, classifica­tion, experiment, measurement, verification, etc., working upon sate basic principles to find out explanations of events. Since Taylor with his mecha­nical logic of efficiency has come into the field, one has to conclude that management satisfies all the characteristics of science. Taylor wrote, “the best management is a true science, resting upon clearly defined laws, rules and principles as a foundation.”

Management can then veil be described as a science though an inexact science if compared with the nature of exact physical sciences. Management has now a theoretical base with a number of principles relating to co-ordi­nation, organisation, decision-making and so on. It is true that we cannot have the same kind of experimentation in management as is possible in natu­ral sciences.

But same is the case with economics, political science, mili­tary science, and a number of other sciences dealing with the complex struc­ture of group-norms and behaviour. When there is no objection to use the term science for these disciplines, there should not be any controversy about its use to the activity described as management.

Moreover, so long the theory of management improves our understanding, its application in real life, and substitutes rationality for confusion, we should not mind using the term science and scientific irrespective of any resistance or even opposition. But it is better to emphasis here that management is still a growing science.

There should also be not much of dispute over (inscribing management as an art. The function of art is to effect change or accomplish goals by deliberate efforts. Practical application of theoretical knowledge is reflected in art.

In this sense, management is an art as well. Management principles have been evolved not for the sake of knowledge alone but for their application in concrete situations. In fact, skill in-the application of principles to work situations is so important to the job of an executive that state authorities regard management to be essentially an art.

But it does not mean that science and art are mutually exclusive. The fact is that science is a body of knowledge while art denotes the mode of practical application of the knowledge. Evidently both are complementary to each other.

Thus, theory and practice of management are mutually helpful, go side by side for the efficient functioning of any organisation. Like an artist every manager has to apply his skill or ingenuity and knowledge acquired by him from sate basic principles in order to achieve some desired results.

A manager is just like a painter who has to use different colours such as economics, statistics, costing, etc.

Chester Barnard states “it is the function of the arts to accomplish concrete ends, effect results, produce situations that would not come about without the deliberate efforts to secure than. These must be mastered and applied by those who deal in the concrete and for the future.” Management satisfies all the characteris­tics of an art.

Essay # 7. Management as a Profession:

Growing administrative com­plexities, emergence of the corporate form of organisation with separation of ownership from management and development of an organised body of syste­matic knowledge of management are factors of great importance responsible for raising management to the status of a distinct profession.

But there are people who still do not agree to management being a profession. To comment on this issue, it is essential to define the characteristics of a profession.

A profession may be defined as a field where training is intellectual in nature, a field where one enters for the service of others, and in’ which financial reward is not considered as a measure of success.

Another definition is that profession is a field which possesses well-defined body of knowledge to be learnt and organised, and which requires an entry restricted by examination or education, and which concerns itself primarily with ser­vice to others above self-reward.

Except for restricted entry, management qualifies all other tests of a profession. It is now backed by a systematic body of knowledge based, on various disciplines like economics, mathematics, etc. A number of manage­ment principles have been developed which need proper learning and education.

Besides, a number of management institutes, associations and universities are now imparting knowledge relating to management. Moreover, social and moral climate have thrown new challenges to the management.

Management of today must be creative rather than adaptive and be conscious of its ethical and social responsibilities to the society. Another important deve­lopment in the field of management has been that professional management consultants are growing both in numbers and quality.

But management fails to qualify the test of professionalism relating to restricted entry. Anybody can label himself as a manager and apply his knowledge to the operation of a business. Though there is growing awareness in the society to employ properly educated and trained people for managing business enterprises still self-made managers cannot altogether be eliminated.

Thus similar to the legal or medical profession, management in the strictest sense may fail to satisfy its standing as a profession. Schein concludes that accord­ing to same criteria management is a profession, but by certain other cri­teria, it is not a profession. However, there is a trend towards increased professionalism in recent years.