In this essay we will discuss about ‘Human Resource Management’. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Human Resource Management’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Human Resource Management
- Essay on the Introduction to Human Resource Management
- Essay on the Definition of Human Resource Management
- Essay on the Scope of Human Resource Management
- Essay on the Objectives of Human Resource Management
- Essay on the Nature of Human Resource Management
- Essay on the Functions of Human Resource Management
Essay # 1. Introduction to Human Resource Management:
Men, materials, machines and money are considered as the main factors of production. Out of all these factors, men are considered as an important factor. It is very difficult to handle the other factors of production without the efficient use of human resources.
Several terms have been used by various management thinkers to represent human resources. These include ‘personnel’, ‘people at work’, ‘manpower’, ‘staff’ and ’employees. Whatever may be the term used, human resource of any organization consists of all individuals engaged in any of the organizational activities at all levels.
The importance of human factor can be judged from the point that some people consider management and personnel/human resource management as one and the same thing. Lawrence A. Appley observed that “Management and personnel administration are one and the same. They should never be separated. Management is personnel administration”. Of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is the central and most important task, because all else depends on how well it is done.
With the increase in number of employees in an organization, greater emphasis is being placed on personnel management and also on the adoption of standardized procedures and compensation plans. The personnel department helps management in using and developing appropriate manpower to achieve organizational goals.
Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations. It is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise.
Essay # 2. Definition of Human Resource Management:
Human Resource Management (HRM) has come to be recognized as an inherent part of management, which is concerned with the human resources of an organization.
Some of the definitions of human resource management as given by various persons are:
Human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization.
Human Resource Management is the understanding and application of the policy and procedures that directly affect the people working within the project team and working group. These policies include recruitment, retention, reward, personal development, training and career development.
Human Resource Management is the effective use of human resources in order to enhance organizational performance.
Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
Essay # 3. Scope of Human Resource Management:
The scope of HRM is very wide.
It covers the following aspects:
(i) Personnel Aspect:
This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity etc.
(ii) Welfare Aspect:
It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc.
(iii) Industrial Relations Aspect:
This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.
Essay # 4. Objectives of Human Resource Management:
Objectives are predetermined goals to which individual or group activity in an organization is directed. Objectives of human resource management are influenced by organizational objectives and individual goals.
Some of the objectives of HRM are:
a. To ensure effective utilization of human resources.
b. To ensure respect for human beings.
c. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals.
d. To achieve and maintain high morale among employees.
e. To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees.
f. To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualization.
g. To develop and maintain a quality of work life.
h. To provide better conditions of employment.
i. To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect.
j. To enhance employee’s capabilities to perform the present job.
k. To provide fair wages to employees.
l. To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.
Essay # 5. Nature of Human Resource Management:
Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met.
The various features of HRM include:
a. It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.
b. Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
c. It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
d. It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
e. It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
f. It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
g. It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well- motivated employees.
h. It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in the organization.
i. It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc.
Essay # 6. Functions of Human Resource Management:
Every manager in an organization has to perform the personal functions in one form or the other in order to get the things done through others.
The functions of human resource management can be classified as:
(i) Managerial Functions.
(ii) Operative Functions.
(i) Managerial Functions:
The managerial functions are mainly concerned with planning, organizing, directing and controlling the various activities of personnel management.
These functions are explained below:
Planning is deciding in advance what to do; how to do; where to do; and who is to do it. For personnel manager, planning means the determination in advance of personnel programme. Planning is concerned about present manpower positions, what number and kind of people are required for the organization.
After the establishment of organizational goals and objectives, human resource manager must design and develop organization structure to carry out the various operations. Organization involves identification and grouping the activities to be performed and dividing them among the individuals and creating authority and responsibility relationships among them.
Directing as a managerial function involves building sound industrial and human relations among people working in the organization. The direction function of the personnel manager is meant to motivate and guide the people to achieve organization goals. The employees can be motivated through salary administration, career planning, provision of health and safety requirements etc.
Controlling function is concerned with regulation of activities in accordance with the personnel plans. It includes checking, verifying and comparing actual with the plans, identifying deviations if any and correcting them. Auditing, training programmers, analysing, labor turnover records, conducting separate interviews are some of the means for controlling the personnel management function.
(ii) Operative Functions:
Operative functions are those functions which are usually delegated to the human resource department as these require specialized skills and knowledge in their performance. All these operative functions are interacted by managerial functions. Further these functions are to be performed in conjunction with management functions.
Some of the operative functions of human resource management are:
It is the first operative function of HRM. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. It covers the functions such as job analysis, human resources planning, recruitment, selection, placement and induction.
(i) Job Analysis:
It is the process of study and collection of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.
i. Collection of data, information, facts and ideas relating to various aspects of jobs including men, machines and materials.
ii. Preparation of job description, job specification, job requirements and employee specification which help in identifying the nature, levels and quantum of human resources.
(ii) Human Resources Planning:
Human resource planning involves forecasting the human resource requirements of an organization and the future supply of human resources. It is a process for determination and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper times, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organization.
It is the process of seeking and attracting prospective candidates against a vacancy in an organization.
After having determined the number of persons required for different jobs and requirements of different jobs, the recruitment process will begin.
The term recruitment may be defined as the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. In other words, the term ‘recruitment’ stands for discovering the sources from where potential employees will be selected.
Selection is the process of identifying and establishing the credentials of a candidate for a job to ensure success.
Recruitment vs. Selection:
Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. Recruitment comes first and is followed by Selection.
(v) Induction and Orientation:
Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies, purposes and people etc., of the organization.
(b) Training and Development:
This process aims to train and develop employees to improve and update their knowledge and skills, so as to help them perform their jobs better. The process also includes developing the attitudes, beliefs and values of the employees to match the organizational needs. This comprises of performance appraisal, training, management/executive development, career planning and development.
(i) Performance Appraisal:
It is the process of evaluating the performance of an employee on the job and developing a plan for improvement.
Training is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a job.
After the employee is selected, the most important part of human resource program is to impart training to the employee. Training plays a significant role in human resource development. Human resources are the life-blood of any organization. Only through trained and efficient employees, the organization can achieve its objectives.
Training is defined as “the art of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”.
Since training involves time, effort and money by an organization, so an organization should carefully design its training program. The objectives and need for training should be clearly identified and the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs and objectives established.
Need of Training:
Training is necessary both for existing and new employees. It increases the skill of the employees.
The need of training arises because of the following factors:
(a) Rapid Changes in Technology:
As the technology is changing at as fast pace, so employees must learn new techniques to make use of advanced technology.
(b) Frequent Accidents:
Due to increase in number of industrial accidents, an effective training program should be made for the safety of the employees.
(c) Quality Conscious Customers:
As the customers have become quality conscious, so there is need of training to employees for improving the quality of products.
(d) Increase in Productivity:
Effective training helps in increasing productivity and reduction in production costs of an organization.
(e) Supply of Trained Personnel:
Training ensures an efficient supply of trained employees at all levels of organization.
Benefits of Training:
Some of the benefits of training are:
a. Better performance of employees both in terms of quantity and quality of output.
b. Elimination of wastages which leads to reduction in cost of production.
c. Reduction in needs of supervision.
d. It helps in developing and improving the organizational culture.
e. Increase in morale of the employees.
f. Reduction in number of accidents.
g. Improvement in quality of work.
h. Reduction in machine breakdown and maintenance cost.
i. Increase in productivity which results in enhanced earnings for employees.
j. Increase in self-confidence.
k. More opportunity for growth/promotions.
It is the concept of developing the employees in an organization to meet future changes and challenges.
(iv) Career Planning and Development:
It refers to identifying one’s career goals and formulating plans of reaching them. It attempts to harmonize an individual’s career aspiration with organizational needs.
Compensation function is concerned with securing adequate and equitable remuneration to persons for their contribution. Fixation of compensation or wage rates for different categories of employees is an important task of management. Function related to job evaluation, wage and salary administration, incentives, bonus and fringe benefits falls under this category.
Compensation is what employees receive in exchange for their contribution to the organization.
Generally, employees offer their service for three types of rewards:
Pay refers to the base wages and salaries employees normally receive. Incentives in the form of bonuses, commissions and profit sharing plans are incentives designed to encourage employees to produce results beyond normal expectations.
Benefits such as insurance, medical, recreational, retirement etc. represent a more indirect type of compensation.
So, the term compensation is a comprehensive one including pay, incentives, and benefits offered by employers for hiring the services of employees. In addition to these, managers have to observe legal formalities for offering physical as well as financial security to employees. All these play an important role in any HR department efforts to obtain, maintain and retain an effective workforce.
(i) Job Evaluation:
It is the systematic determination of the value of each job in relation to other jobs in the organization.
(ii) Wage and Salary Administration:
The process of formulating and operating a suitable wage and salary program is known as wage and salary administration.
Incentives are the rewards an employee earns in addition to regular salary based on his performance or of the collective performance.
Bonus is primarily a share in the surpluses and is often directly related to the organization performance.
(v) Fringe Benefits:
Fringe benefits are monetary and non-monetary benefits including disablement benefits, housing facilities, canteen facilities, conveyance facilities, educational facilities, recreational facilities, medical and welfare facilities, post-retirement benefits, etc.
The basic objective of human resource management is to secure maximum performance from the employees in order to accomplish the objectives of an organization. This is possible through better integration between the organization and its employees. The integration between the two can be achieved through three things-motivation, leadership and communication.
Maintenance function is basically concerned with the working conditions and welfare facilities provided to the employees. Morale and motivation of the employees is greatly influenced by these conditions. Working conditions include measures taken for health, safety and comfort of the employees. Welfare facilities include provisions of rest rooms, cafeteria, safe drinking water, education for children of employees etc.
(f) Industrial Relations:
It is the responsibility of human resource manager to maintain industrial peace in the organization. This can be done through collective bargaining, joint consultation and settlement of disputes, whenever they arise.
(g) Personnel Records:
Another function of human resource manager is to maintain the records of the employees. This is helpful in taking decisions relating to transfers and promotions, performance appraisal etc. These also help in identifying the weaknesses in the employees and the areas in which they need training.