In this article we will discuss about the technology management. Learn about:- 1. Notes on Technology Management 2. Nature of Technology Management 3. Need of Effective Technology Management 4. Rationale of Technology Management 5. Government Initiative for Science and Technology Development.
Technology Management: Notes, Nature, Need and Government Initiative
Technology Management – Notes:
Today, India has become one of the strongest in the world in terms of scientific manpower capability and maturity. Since independence, we have tried to achieve commendable success in the area of science and technology. We were the buyer of technology, but now due to continuous and concerted efforts, we have made science and technology as an important contributor for national development and societal transformation.
Science and technology help the organization at macro as well as micro level. The role of the technology management function in an organization is to understand the value of certain technologies for the organization. Continuous development of technology is valuable as long as there is a value for the customer and therefore the technology management function in an organization should be able to decide the time and quantum of investment on technology development.
Technology Management – Nature:
Technology Management may be defined as the integrated planning, design, optimization, operation and control of technological products, processes and services.
Technology Management is a set of management disciplines that allows organizations to manage its technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage. Typical concepts used in technology management are- (i) technology strategy (a logic or role of technology in organization), (ii) technology mapping (identification of possible relevant technologies for the organization), (iii) technology road-mapping (a limited set of technologies suitable for business), (iv) technology project portfolio (a set of projects under development) (v) technology portfolio (a set of technologies in use).
In practice technology management is defined as management of use of technology for human advantages. Actually technology is the diffusion of innovations. The theory suggests that all innovations follow a similar diffusion pattern – best known today in the form of an “s” curve though originally based upon the concept of a standard distribution of adopters. In broad terms the “s” curve suggests four phases of a technology life cycle – emerging, growth, mature and aging.
These four phases are coupled to increase the levels of acceptance of an innovation or, a new technology. In recent times for many technologies an inverse curve – which corresponds to a declining cost per unit – has been postulated. It is mostly applicable for information technology where much of the cost is in the initial phase it has been a reasonable expectation.
The second major contribution to this area is the Carnegie Mellon Capability Maturity Model. This model proposes that a series of progressive capabilities can be quantified through a set of threshold tests. These tests determine repeatability, definition, management and optimization. The model suggests that any organization has to master one level before being able to proceed to the next.
The third significant contribution comes from Gartner – the research service, it is the hype cycle, and this suggests that our modern approach to marketing technology results in the technology being over hyped in the early stages of growth.
Effective Technology Management – Need:
Need for effective technology management due to following reasons:
(i) It provides required leverage to the organization for emerging as a world leader in the field.
(ii) It facilitates technological innovation to work as key participant in the field and that ‘Innovate or perish’ would be the guiding principle followed all over the world.
(iii) It commercialise technological advancements for the organization and sets the innovation as the name of the game. It is ‘not resources but being resourceful’, that mattered in today’s highly competitive world.
(iv) It gives capability to face the enormous changes for industry in the era of globalization.
(v) It develops capacity to become a technological super-power and in order to shine in the comity of nations we need to be technologically superior.
(vi) It enhances knowledge and skills required for efficient transfer and management of technology.
Technology Management – Rationale:
Rationale of Technology Management is given below:
(i) Globally, several phenomena have been taking place- innovation has gained focus, research has become of far greater consequence, technology life cycles have become much shorter, products have considerable variety and far shorter life spans, new product development has become paramount, rapid generation and commercialization of new technologies has become necessary.
(ii) Critical technologies are not readily available from any source. Research programmes are not only very intensive but also very risky; and collaboration in research has been the pragmatic solution in some cases. Many countries are opting to establish research bases in other countries. Some kinds of technology development are of such a large magnitude that resources of any single nation in terms of finance or manpower are not sufficient to deal with the situation.
(iii) At the organizational level, technology is intertwined with every function, be it marketing or finance or services, not only manufacturing or research. Besides, intellectual property rights have gained immense significance and it has become crucial to understand and handle the various intricacies associated with these property rights and the intangible wealth linked to the technology one deals with.
(iv) There is growing need to understand both business and technology, and the ability to manage the various aspects concerned with technology has become very important.
(v) Technology Management is the key to performance in every sphere of activity in the current milieu; be it finance or marketing or manufacturing or services.
Science and Technology Development – Government Initiative:
Following initiatives have been taken by the Government of India for Science and Technology Development:
Establishment of National Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) as an autonomous body for promoting basic research have been notified in March 2010. Composition of the Board has been finalized.
The Board is expected to play a major role in the promotion of Extra Mural Research in the country:
Roll out of four of the five sub-schemes of INSPIRE has been made during 2009-10. Total of 1,20,995 INSPIRE Awards for youth in the classes of VI to X from a total of 25 States and Union.
In order to promote basic research in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, a special package of Rs. 60 crores for the period 2009-2014 has been designed and delivered. Under this scheme, total of 38 colleges have been supported with Rs. 50 lakhs for strengthening laboratory infrastructure. 70 visiting professorships for senior faculty from other regions of the country to teach in universities in J&K region have been created.
70 visiting positions for young faculty of J&K for research in other region of India for duration of 3-6 months have been sanctioned. 100 fellowships for doctoral students from J&K for work in other regions of India have been provided. Special support for creation of back-up power facilities up to Rs.1.5 crores per university has been extended.
As a proactive measure for improving the research infrastructure in women only universities, a special scheme CURIE has been designed and delivered during 2009- 10. Two of the six women universities received the support under the scheme during 2009-10.
A new Science, Technology and Innovation policy has been drafted for wider national consultation. Wide consultation among various stakeholders is planned during 2010-11.
(a) Data Sharing and Access Policy:
A policy framework for sharing and access to data has been drafted and inter-ministerial consultation completed during 2009-10. The policy would be formulated during 2010-11.
(b) Academy for Science Policy Implementation and Research (ASPIRE):
A proposal for the establishment of an Academy for Science Policy Implementation and Research has been mooted.
Technology Mission for Winning, Augmentation and Renovation (WAR) for water to be implemented during August 2009- August 2011 has been developed and launched. The budget outlay for the technology mission is Rs. 145 crores. Under the mission 26 types of water related challenges have been identified and technology solutions for 10 types of challenges located in 25 clusters of human population of approximately 10 000 prioritized during the first phase of the project.
(b) Solar Energy Research Initiative:
A PAN IIT initiative for solar energy research has been mounted. Under the initiative, total of 37 faculties from 6 Indian Institutes of Technology have been networked for a coordinated project. A company has been commissioned to design, develop and establish 256 kw power plant in a village based on solar and biomass energy options within 18 months. Under the project, diesel power parity in terms of cost per unit being less than Rs. 9 per kwh has been targeted.
(c) Technology Compendium:
A compendium of technologies developed and available with R&D institutions under various ministries of the Government of India has been prepared during 2009-10. Technologies from Department of Atomic Energy, Agriculture Education and Research, Biotechnology, Defence Research and Development Organization (available for civilian use), Earth Sciences, Science and Technology and Space are included in the compendium.
In order to support S&T co-operation with US, an endowment fund of USD 30 million has been created. In order to manage the fund, an Indo-US Endowment Board has been formed during 2009-10.
Based on a coordinated call for research on solar energy has been made inviting proposals from knowledge networks and consortia for competitive grants with a total budget outlay of 5 million Euros for a period of five years.
Indo UK science bridges in the research areas of Next Generation Telecommunication Networks, Solar Energy PV materials and two other areas have been mounted with UK funding UK partners and DST funding the Indian partners.
Approvals have been obtained for establishing an Indo-German Science and Technology Centre for promoting S&T co-operation in application areas of science and technology.
A joint virtual institute with Max Planck Society Germany on computational sciences has been launched in Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
A joint fund of 100 million Australian dollars to be operated over a period of five years and deployed for funding projects under S&T co-operation between Australia and India has been established.
(a) Establishment of a New Mechanisms:
In order to promote convergent technology solutions for applications in rural India, a new council for Science and Technology for Rural India (CSTRI) has been formed and two facilitation centres one at North East Institute for Science and Technology and other at Indian Institute of Technology, Madras at Chennai have been established.
(b) Conversion of National Innovation Foundation into an Autonomous Institute of Government of India:
National Innovation Foundation has been supported through a corpus fund from DST for promoting grassroots and inclusive innovations for more than 10 years. Approvals have been obtained for conversion of NIF into an autonomous institution of DST during 2009-10.
(vi) Acquisition and Establishment of New Research Institutions:
(a) Institute for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology (IASST):
IASST, Guwahati has been taken over from the Government of Assam as an autonomous institution of DST during 2009-10.
(b) Establishment of National Centre for Himalayan Glaciology:
In order to institutionalize Indian research efforts on Himalayan Glaciology, a new national centre has been proposed. Nodal centre for the National centre has already been established as unit in the Wadia Institute for Himalayan Geology, Dehradun.
(vii) Missions under National Action Plans for Climate Change:
(a) National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE):
Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change has accorded in principle approval for implementing a National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem. This national mission will be coordinated by DST in close collaboration with other sister departments especially Ministry of Earth Sciences and Ministry of Environment and Forests.
(b) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC):
Prime Minister’s council on Climate Change has accorded in principle approval for implementing a National Mission for Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change. This national mission will be coordinated by DST in close collaboration with other sister departments especially Ministry of Earth Sciences and Ministry of Environment and Forests with special oversight mechanism and mirror sites for data management and monitoring.
There have been significant increases in the number of Extramural Research projects funded under SERC during 2009-10 relative to those in 2006-07. Number of projects funded under SERC is 537 during 2009-10. This represents an increase of 68% over the number of projects supported during 2006-07.
Technology Development Programmes implemented by DST are generally based on technology leads sourced from various public funded institutions in the country and linking them to translation and filed implementation of the technologies.
Technology leads selected for translation and implementation are micro hydel systems for decentralized power generation, water purification for drinking water and solid waste management. Total of 30 Technology leads were selected for translation and further development and technology proving in more than 50 locations in the country.
Programmes relating Science and Technology to socio-economic development by the Department have been of many types. In some cases, these pertained to the development of Entrepreneurships, technology incubations, women entrepreneurship parks, projects leading to capacity building of rural youth and weaker sections of the community National Resource Data Management Systems (NRDMS) provide location specific data on natural resources using geo-spatial and other data.
Science and Society programmes have delivered through long term core support to 17 field groups, training programmes for women and youth covering about 250 groups, and total of 35 new projects sanctioned during 2009-10. Several capacity building programmes involving self-help groups have been organized. The total number of people benefitting directly from the various programmes initiated under Science and Society scheme of DST during the year 2009-10 is estimated at 3,000.
During the last three years special momentum tor establishment of Technology Business Incubators has been gained. Five new incubators were established during 2009-10 and seed support was extended to three Science and Technology Entrepreneurship parks. A status report on STEPs and TBIs has been brought out for the first time.
Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development Centres (IEDCs) is a new scheme under which six IEDCs were established during 2009-10. Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Development STED projects were further consolidated under which 2500 units were promoted during the year. More than 8000 students were imparted training in Entrepreneurship development during the year.
Under the various ongoing S&T co-operation related activities, eighteen workshops and thematic meetings and about 520 exchange visits, 416 new joint projects with support to more than 500 ongoing projects and seven programmes were facilitated.
Active programmes of co-operation with 25 countries and EU, SAARC were supported during 2009-10. New intergovernmental agreements were finalized with six countries. Total of 13 joint committee meetings were held during 2009-10. CV Raman Fellowships with Africa fund making a provision for 1216 person months of research work per year in India were finalized.
R&D statistics relating to Indian S&T sector for two financial years namely 2006-07 and 2007-08 were collected and brought out. Updating of R&D statistics data to gain currency has been prioritized during 2009-10. Global Research Report prepared by Thomson Reuters has brought out the growth trends in scientific publications from India.
More than 25 interactive programmes on science and technology covering all regions of the country were implemented during 2009-10. Children Science congress, Teachers Science Congress, Science Communicators congress, Hands-on science are some mega programmes organized by the Department during 2009-10. Total number of people to whom National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) wing of DST connected during 2009-10 exceeds 15 lakhs of people.
Survey of India and National Thematic Mapping Organization (NATMO) have carried out more extensive survey and prepared map data and products with increased spatial resolution for Open series maps. Generation of digital topographic data on 1:25000 scale is under progress.
Department supports total of 15 research institutions, 5 professional bodies and three specialized knowledge institutions covering a wide range of research and science and technology areas.
Under Nano mission, 33 new projects were initiated during 2009-10. Indian beam line in Synchrotron at KEK, Japan has been built and made available to Indian scientists on 250 days a year on a dedicated basis.
A public-private partnership with NASSCOM for supporting innovation clusters in select sectors has been developed. Incubation centres on innovation are being promoted through a partnership with Technology Development Board.
Under water technology initiative, twenty technology products have been identified for assessment for applications in rural schools in 20 States. The assessment process has included evaluation of technical, financial as well social viabilities.
Total of 41 training programmes have been conducted during 2009-10.
3. Resource Inputs Planning and Deployment:
The total financial delivery of the Department has been 99.77% of the Revised Estimates of Plan funds. On account of implementation of several austerity measures, a net saving of Non-plan expenditures has been realised. System for expenditure planning and monitoring has been standardized and implemented resulting in process efficiency.
After several rounds of brainstorming discussions and planning, a systematic approach to determine the level of Grant-in Aid for Aided Institutions has been developed. Fixed costs of the institutions “A” were determined based on the number of scientific faculties contributing directly to the R&D outputs of the organization. Fixed costs per faculty have been set at Rs. 30 lakhs per scientist.
Development costs of the laboratories “B” covering R&D heads of equipment, consumables and chemicals as well as library have been computed at 66% of fixed costs of each institution. Objective methods for measuring the performance growth rate “C” over four of five selected parameters have been worked out.
Consensus among all the Aided Institutions for determining the size of the annual Grant in Aid has emerged. The phase-wise implementation of the approach commenced during the financial year 2009-10. Evidence-based resource deployment strategy for R&D institutions nurtured by DST is being experimented.