List of question and answers on Human Resource Management!

100 + Important Questions and Answers on Human Resource Management

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.1. Why study human resource management?

Ans. You may ask a question, why study human resource management? You will recognize that staffing the organization, designing jobs and team, developing skillful employees, identifying approaches for improving their performance, and rewarding employee successes—all typically are known as HRM issues-are as relevant to line managers as they are to managers in the HR department.

To work with people effectively, we have to understand human behavior, and we have to be knowledgeable about the various systems and practices available to assist us build a skilled and motivated people. At the same time, we have to be aware of economic, technological, social, and legal issues that either facilitate or constrain our efforts to achieve organizational goals.

While people have always been central to organizations, today they have assumed even more vital role in building a firm’s competitive advantage. Particularly in knowledge-based industries such as software and information services, success increasingly depends on “people-embodied know- how”. This includes the knowledge, skills, and abilities people of an organization possess.


Management experts now realize that the key to a firm’s success is based on establishing a set of core competencies. Core competencies are an integrated knowledge set within organizations that distinguish it from its competitors and delivers value to customers. For example, McDonalds has developed core competencies in management efficiency and training.

Canon Corporation has core competencies in precision mechanics, fine optics, and microelectronics. Core competencies tend to be limited in number, but they provide a long-term basis for technology innovation, product development, and service delivery.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.2. Define human resource management.

Ans. According to Flippo, “Human resource management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and reproduction of human resource to the end that individual, organisational and society’ objectives are accomplished.”

According to Dessler, “Human resource management is the process of acquiring, training, appraising and compensating employees and attending to their labour relations, health, and safety and fairness concerns.”


Milkovich and Boudreau have defined HRM as follows, “Human resource management is a species of integrated decisions that form the employment relationships; their quality contributes to the ability of the organisations and the employees to achieve their objectives.”

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.3. What is human resource development?

Ans. Human Resource Development is the continuous process of improving the capabilities required to achieve organizational and individual goals. It is a broader concept than Human Resource Management. Generally, it consists of several sub­systems such as appraisal; counselling, training, rewards, and welfare, quality of work life, etc.

It is also most important for the welfare of both the employees and employer. In simple words, HRD is an organized learning experience aimed at matching the organizational need for human resource with the individual need for career growth and development.

The discipline of Human Resource Development (HRD) was developed because the Human Resource Management has failed to meet the new challenges of the 20 century. The first workshop of HRD was held in 1979. A National HRD Network has been established in 1985. Now several public and private sector organizations have HRD department and HRM managers.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.4. Explain the need for human resource development?


Ans. Need for HRD are:

1. Changes in Economic Policies in 1991

2. Changing Job Requirements

3. Need for Multi-skilled Human Resources


4. Organizational Complexity

5. Human Relations

6. Organizational Viability and Transformation Process

7. Technological Advances

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.5. Differentiate between performance appraisal and job evaluation.


Ans. Performance Appraisal:

(i) Meaning – Performance appraisal refers to knowing of the level of performance of employees working in an organisation.

(ii) Relation – It concerns with individuals because the level of their performance is to be determined.

(iii) Objective – Its objective is to provide basis for promotion, transfer, training, etc.


(iv) Basis of Policies – Policies regarding training, promotion, transfer etc. are formulated on its basis in an organisation.

Job Evaluation:

(i) Meaning – Determining of the relative worth of different jobs of an organisation is called job evaluation.

(ii) Relation – It is concerned with the job and not individuals. Worth of each job is determined.


(iii) Objective – Its main objective is to determine remunerations for different jobs.

(iv) Basis of Policies – Remuneration policy of an organisation is determined on its basis.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.6. Discuss the importance of Human Resource Planning.

Ans. Need and Importance of Human Resource Planning:

(i) To carry on its work and to achieve its objectives, every organisation requires employees with adequate knowledge, experience and aptitudes. Human Resource Planning is helpful in selection and training activities.

(ii) Human Resource Planning identifies gaps in existing manpower in terms of their quantity and talent

(iii) There is need to replace employees who retire, die, resign and become incapacitated due to injury. Provision for replacement of personnel can be made through Human Resource Planning.


(iv) Human Resource Planning facilitates the expansion and diversification of an organisation.

(v) Human Resource Planning creates awareness about the effective utilisation of human resources throughout the organisation. It helps to reduce wastage of manpower. It also helps in judging the effectiveness of human resource policies and programmes of management.

(vi) Human Resource Planning is helpful in effective utilisation of technological progress.

(vii) With the help of Human Resource Planning, areas of surplus manpower can be anticipated and timely action can be taken (e.g. redeployment).

(viii) Human Resource Planning is useful in anticipating the cost of human resources, which facilitates the budgeting process. It also helps in controlling human resource costs through effective utilisation.

(ix) Human Resource Planning facilitates career succession planning in the organisation.


(x) Human Resource Planning helps in planning for physical facilities like canteen, staff quarters, dispensary and school for the staff and their children.

(xi) At the national level, Human Resource Planning facilitates educational reforms, geographical mobility of talent and employment generation.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.7. What are the objectives of career planning?


i. To provide and maintain appropriate manpower resources in the organisation by offering careers, not jobs.

ii. To provide environment for the effectiveness, efficiency and growth of its employees and motivating them to contribute effectively towards achieving the objectives of the organisation.

iii. To map out careers of various categories of employees suitable to their ability, and their willingness to be ‘trained and developed for higher positions.


iv. To have a stable workforce by reducing absenteeism and employee turnover.

v. To cater to the immediate and future human resources need of the organisation on a timely basis.

vi. To increase the utilisation of managerial reserves within organisation.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.8. What are the different methods of recruiting employees?

Ans. The possible recruiting methods can be divided into three categories:

1. Direct:

In this method, recruiters visit colleges and technical schools, e.g., Infosys, the Tata group, IBM, Siemens and several other companies maintain continuous relationship with institutions to hire students for responsible positions. Internships and walk-in interview are other methods of direct recruitment.


2. Indirect:

This involves advertising in newspaper, radio, T.V., journals etc., advertising can be very effective if its media is properly chosen.

3. Third Party Methods:

Under this Method, recruitment is done through third parties including:

(i) Employment agencies and exchange,

(ii) Management consultants or professional search firms known as head hunters,


(iii) Professional associations.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.9. What is job design?

Ans. Job design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities. In the methods to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, system and procedures, and in the relationship that should exist between the job-holder and his Superiors, subordinates and colleagues.

It is a deliberate and systematic attempt to structure the technical and social aspects of work so as to improve technical efficiency and a job satisfaction. It established matching between the job requirement and human attributes. Aim of job design is to integrate the needs of the individual and the requirement of the organisation.

Needs of the individuals refers to job satisfaction and requirement of organisation means the high productivity, technical efficiency and quality of work. Today educated and creative employee demanded for well-designed jobs, therefore, job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment are introduced in the organisation, to retain the employee or to attract them towards the organisation.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.10. Management of men is a challenging job. Explain!

Ans. “The Management of Man” is a very important and challenging job; important because it is a job, not of managing ‘men,’ but of administering a social system. The management of men is a challenging task because of the dynamic nature of the people. No two persons are similar in mental abilities, traditions, sentiments, and behaviour; they differ widely also as groups, and are subject to many and varied influences.

People are responsive; they feel, think, and act; therefore, they cannot be operated like a machine or shifted and altered like a template in a room layout. They, therefore, need a tactful handling by management personnel. If manpower is properly utilised, it may prove a dynamic motive force for running an enterprise at its optimum results and also work as an elixir for maximum individual and group satisfaction in relation to the work performed.

Manpower management is a most crucial job because “managing people is the heart and essence of being a manager.” It is concerned with any activity relating to human elements or relations in organisation. Material elements, however, are beyond its domain. This view has been rightly summed up by J. M. Dietz (of Chicago).

He observes- “A business or an industry can be thought of as an inter-weaving of human elements and material elements, with the human elements as the warp; while inter­locking and inter-weaving with this element are the material elements the woof of the fabric. The warp of the fabric is the human element appearing and reappearing, the strength giving element holding the entire fabric together, and giving it life and a character of continuity.” A business cannot succeed if this human element is neglected.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.11. Define management.

Ans. Management has been defined by Mary Parker Follett as, “the art of getting things done through people.” But it is felt that management is much more than what is said in this definition. Management is further defined as, “… that field of human behaviour in which managers plan, organise staff, direct and control human, physical and financial resources in an organised effort, to achieve desired individual and group objectives with optimum efficiency and effectiveness.”

It is clear from this definition that management is concerned with the accomplishment of objectives by utilizing physical and financial resources through the efforts of human resources. Thus, human resource is a crucial sub-system in the process of management.

The term human resource is quite popular in India with the institution of ‘Ministry of Human Resource Development’ in the Union Cabinet. Having studied, the meanings of human resource and management, we now proceed to discuss the meaning of human resource management.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.12. Difference between job description and job specification.

Ans. Job description is the measure of job whereas job specification is the measure of the job-holder. Job description is the summary of the duties, responsibilities and other characteristics of the job whereas job specification is a statement of the qualities and qualifications required in the job holder to perform the job properly. Job specification assists the management in selecting a match for the job.

Job description tells what is to be done and what is the nature of job, whereas job specification tells what attributes are needed in the person handling the job. Job description helps the candidate to understand the requirements of the job which are to be fulfilled by him and it also helps him in making self-appraisal by comparing his actual performance with job description. Job description assists the management in appraising the performance of the employees.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.13. List out the limitations of performance appraisal.

Ans. The drawbacks or limitations of various methods of performance appraisal are as follows:

1. If the factors included in the assessment are irrelevant, the result of merit rating will not be accurate.

2. Different qualities to be rated may not be given proper weightage in certain cases.

3. Some of the factors are highly subjective like initiative and personality of the employees.

4. Supervisors often do not have critical ability in assessing the staff. Sometimes, they are guided by their personal emotions and likes.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.14. What is training?

Ans. The dictionary meaning of training is “imparting instruction in a particular art, profession or occupation.” In Public Administration, “training means conscious efforts made to improve the skills, powers and intelligence of an employee and to develop his attitudes and value system in a desired direction.

According to M.P. Sharraa, “In the context of Public Administration, training is rather specified and vocational, intended to increase a person’s skill in some particular kind of work, while education is general and aim at the broadening of the mind.”

According to Beach, “Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.”

According to Dale Yoder, “Training is the process by which man power is filled for the particular jobs it is to perform.”

In the training, the trainee will acquire new manipulative skill, technical knowledge, problem solving ability or attitudes etc. It is a continuous process or never ending process. Not only the fresher, but also the employee in service requires training for promotion or to change any new job. It makes fresher employee fully productive, in the minimum time. Even for old worker training is necessary to refresh them.

In short, training is the act of improving or updating the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. The role of training has been brilliantly analysed in the report of the committee on the training of civil servants, which is known as the Assheton Committee Report, submitted to the British Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1944.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.15. What are the goals of performance appraisal?

Ans. Recognize the efforts and contributions of current staff. Reward staff with compensation directly linked to performance. Motivate staff to improve performance. Orient staff towards goal achievement. Retain key employees through the use of competitive compensation programs. Attract quality employees with an effective performance management system.

The key elements of a Performance Management System include the following:

i. A formal Compensation Philosophy Statement

ii. Salary Administration Program

iii. A Formal Audit/Success Rating overview on an annual or periodic basis with disclosure of results to management.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.16. What do you understand by industrial relation?

Ans. Industrial relations means the relationship between employer and employees in industrial organisation. According to pale Yode, “The term industrial relation refers to the whole field of relationships among people, human relationship that exist because of the necessary collaboration of men and women in the employment process of modern industry.”

In a narrow legalistic sense, industrial relation is a subject of study and aspect of management which includes the relationship between, employers and employees. But in a broad sense, the term: industrial relation includes the relations between the various unions between the state and the union as well as those between the employers and the government.

Relations of all these associated in industry may be called industrial relation. It includes individual relation and joint consultation between employers and workers of the place of work. According to the International Labour Organization, industrial relations means relationship between the state on the one hand and the employers and employees organizations on the other hand and the relationship among the occupational organizational themselves.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.17. Briefly explain the importance of discipline.

Ans. Discipline is vital for smooth functioning of an organisation. It is compliance with rule, procedures and etiquette and helps to maintain order and decorum. The fundamental purpose of discipline is to maintain good industrial relation in the organisation by establishing harmonious relationship between the employers and employees. It also develops feeling of cooperation among workers.

Other incidental purposes of discipline are developing a sense of equanimity and spirit of tolerance, adjustment among superior and subordinates, acceptance to the rules, regulation and procedure of the system on the part of workers, securing responsible behaviour on the part of employees, improving overall effectiveness of the organisation, by emphasizing organisational culture.

Discipline indicates the behaviour of employees, which is governed by informal norms. It is essential for smooth discharge of duty not only in administration, but also in social and civic life. It is necessary to avoid misuse of official power and resource. Lack of it leads to corruption.

Discipline is very essential in civil service. If the civil servant is corruption no doubt, other people followed it. Discipline in the service is very essential for an efficient personnel system. Promotion of the employees depends upon their good behaviour and observance of discipline in the service. To prevail abuse of power by the civil servants, disciplinary rules are more essential.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.18. Discuss the basic objectives of human resource management effectiveness.

Ans. In the opinion of Jucius- Human resource refers to a whole consisting of inter-related, inter- department and interacting physiological, sociological and ethical components. Again he explain that “Human resource management may be defined as that field of management which has to do with planning, organising and controlling the functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilising a labour force. Human resource management is known by different names, e.g. personal management, manpower management personal administration, staff management etc.”

The basic objectives of human resource management effectiveness may be explained as follows:

1. To maintain high morale and good human relations within the organisation.

2. To help the organisation attain its goods by providing well-trained and well-motivated employees.

3. To bring about maximum individual development of members of the organisation by providing opportunities for training and advancement.

4. To develop and maintain a quality life.

5. To secure the integration of all the individuals and groups with the organisation by reconciling individual.

6. To help maintain ethical policies and behaviour inside and outside the organisation.

7. To recognise and satisfy individual needs and group goals by offering appropriate monetary and non-monetary incentives.

Management is primarily dealing with human beings and its problem. But it is no doubt; management is the development of people, not the direction of things.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.19. What do you mean by Human Resource Department?

Ans. Human resource department is established as a staff department to advise all other departments and the top management on human resource matters, within the human resource department the relations are of line type. Human resource manager is the head of the human resource department.

The human resource department is set up to provide advice and assistance to line manager in performing their human resource functions. By providing advice and information, human resource department enables a line manager to concentrate on technical/operative responsibilities of his department.

Therefore, the final authority and responsibility for the management of human resource still rests will line managers. Thus, human resource management is a line management’s responsibility, but a staff function.

HRM department may consist of human resource manager, human resource officers and a few assistants/ clerks. Management is getting things done through and with people, responsibility of managing people rests with the line manager. Therefore, HRM is the responsibility of every manager and not that of the HRM department alone. But line managers advice and assistance in HRM matters.

HRM department provides specialised advice, assistance and information to line executives so that they may concentrate on their respective functions. HRM is a staff function and it helps all executives in making the organisation a good place to work in. The HRM department has staff relationship with other departments and it acts in an advisory capacity.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.20. Define conflict.

Ans. “Conflict is an interpersonal process that springs from disagreements over the goals to attain or the methods to be used to accomplish those goals”.

“It is a process in which an effort is purposely made by one person or unit to block another so as to frustrate others in attaining goals”. – Stephen Robbins.

“Conflict is the condition of objective incompatibility between values and goals”. – Ralph Kilmann and Kenneth Thomas.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.21. What is the purpose for conducting selection interview?

Ans. The overall purpose of selection interviews in an organization are as follows:

a. Help to obtain additional information from the applicant

b. Facilitate giving general information to the applicant such as company policies, job, products manufactured etc.

c. Help to build the company’s image among the applicants.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.22. Briefly describe the importance of motivation.


i. Leads to high performance

ii. Enhances morale.

iii. Increases productivity.

iv. Reduces Turnover/absenteeism.

v. Induces cooperation and team spirit.

vi. Helps in assuming responsibility and working in disciplinary manner

vii. Helps in better utilisation of resources.

viii. Helps achieve organisational goals.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.23. Explain the main characteristics of staffing?

Ans. Main Characteristics of Staffing are:

1. Staffing is an integral part of the management process.

2. It is required in each and every organisation. It is a pervasive function.

3. It is concerned with attracting and retaining people.

4. It is the function of every manager and not simply of Human Resource Department.

5. It is a continuous function because needs of an organisation keep on changing and some people leave the organisation from time to time.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.24. Explain the role of audit in Human Resource Management.

Ans. Role of Audit in the human resource management is most important. There is no legal provision to carry out human resource audit. But conscious employers voluntarily use it as a tool for evaluation and control of human resource function.

Evaluation and critical review of human resource function is no less important than that of accounting and finance function. Therefore, human resource audit is most essential to check the organisational performance in the management in the human resources.

In recent years, role of human resource audit has increased due to the following reasons:

1. Now-a-days trade union have more powerful and playing more active role in human resource management. They often question management’s competence in industrial relation. Management can meet this challenge through human resource audit.

2. Role of human resource audit is essential due to rising labour cost and increasing opportunity for competitive advantage in human resources management.

3. In order to protect employee interest central and state governments intervene more the activities of human resource management here audit of human resource is helpful in avoiding such intervention of government.

4. As an organisation grows, continuous feed­back is required to improve the performance of its personnel. Human resource audit provides the required feedback. It is necessary in a diversified and decentralised organisation.

5. Growing proportion of technical, professional and women employees creates more difficult problems in human resources. Audit is required to tackle these problems. Other important role of human resource audit is that, it encourages greater responsibilities and professionalism among members of the HR department It improves the professional image of the HR department.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.25. What are the different objectives of HRM?


1. Societal Objectives – To be ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization.

2. Organizational Objectives – To recognize the role of HRM in bringing about organizational effectiveness. HRM is only means to achieve to assist the organization with its primary objectives.

3. Functional Objectives – To maintain department’s contribution and level of services at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs.

4. Personal Objectives – To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least in so far as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. This is necessary to maintain employee performance and satisfaction for the purpose of maintaining, retaining and motivating the employees in the organization.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.26. Differentiate between training and development.

Ans. Although training is often used in conjunction with development, the terms are not synonymous. Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance. For example, when an organisation is introducing new equipment, they may give training to their workers regarding how to use that equipment on their job. In contrast, development is an effort to provide employees with the abilities the organisation will need in the future.

1. In training, the focus is solely on the current job while in development, the focus is on both the current job and the jobs that employees will hold in future.

2. The scope of training is on individual employees, whereas the scope of development is on the entire work group or organisation.

3. Training is job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems, while development is concerned with the workforce’s skills and versatility.

4. Training tends to focus on immediate organizational needs and development tends to focus on long-term requirements.

5. The goal of training is fairly quick improvement in workers’ performance, whereas the goal of development is the overall enrichment of the organisation’s human resources.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.27. Briefly describe the importance of HRM.

i. Human resources, along with financial and material resources contribute to the production of goods and services in an organization.

ii. It is through the combined and concerted efforts of people that monetary and material resources are harnessed to achieve organizational goals.

iii. Personnel management policies: A policy is a statement or general guidelines for employees to make decisions in respect of to any course of action.

iv. Personnel policies provide guidelines for a variety of employment relationships and identify the organization’s intentions in recruitment, selection, development, promotion, compensation, motivation etc.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.28. What are the various objectives of HRD?


1. Work Opportunity – HRD provides an opportunity and a systematic framework for the development resource in the organisation for full expression of their talents.

2. Development of Traits – HRD is associated with the development of total personality so that these can show and use their talent for the benefit of the organisation.

3. Ability development – HRD makes capable employees. Thus they can develop their capability by which they can do their present job easily.

4. Creative Motivation – HRD manager motivates employees and improve their level of performance.

5. Good Relation – HRD manager stresses the need of coordination which is used for the benefits of himself and for the benefits of those who come in their contact.

6. Develop team spirit – HRD manager develops the spirit of teamwork; team work for it is used for the effective cooperation and coordination of each employee which ultimately checks industrial unrest.

7. Organisational Growth – HRM manager is responsible for developing health, culture and effective work plan which always result in more profitability.

8. Human Resource Information – HRM manager in general keeps all records to employees working in his organisation; these can be used at any time when these are needed.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q29. What is the importance of training?


1. Training enables the management to face the pressure of changing environments.

2. Training usually results in the increase of quantity and quality of output.

3. Training leads to job satisfaction and higher morale of the employees.

4. Trained workers need lesser supervision.

5. Trained workers enable the enterprise to face competition from rival organization.

6. Training enables employees to develop and rise within the organization and increase their earning capacity.

7. It moulds the employee’s attitudes and helps them to achieve better co-operation with the organization.

8. Trained employees make better economic use of materials and equipment resulting in reduction of wastage and spoilage.

9. Training instructs the workers toward better job adjustment and reduces the rate of labour turnover and absenteeism.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.30. Briefly explain the nature of career planning?


1. A Process – Career planning is a process of developing human resources rather than an event.

2. Upward movement – It involve upward movement in the organizational hierarchy, or special assignments, project work which require abilities to handle recurring problems, human relations issues and so on.

3. Mutuality of Interest – The individual’s interest is served as his needs and aspirations are met to a great extent and the organization’s interest is served as each of its human resources is provided an opportunity to develop and contribute to the organizational goals and objectives to the optimum of its ability and confidence.

4. Dynamic – Career planning is dynamic in nature due to an ever changing environment.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.31. What are the important elements of a good appraisal system?


a. Reliability and validity

b. Standardization

c. Training to Appraisers

d. Employee access to results

e. Post Appraisal Interview

f. Not vindictive in nature

g. Job relatedness

h. Practical viability

i. Clear Objectives

j. Periodic Review.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.32. Why is performance appraisal needed?


1. To create and maintain satisfactory level of performance.

2. To contribute to the employees growth & development through training and self & management development program.

3. To help the superior to have a proper understanding about their subordinate.

4. To grid, the job changes with the help of continuous ranking.

5. To facilitate fair and equitable compensation based on performance.

6. To facilitate for resting & validating selection test, interview techniques through comparing their scores with performance appraisal.

7. To providing information for making decision regarding lay off, retrenchment, retirement.

8. To suggest changes in employees behavior.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.33. Briefly explain training versus education.

Ans. Training is learning job specific KSAs i.e., acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes that one requires to do a particular job. While, education is learning general KSAs that may directly or indirectly help an individual in his job.

Training and development can be contrasted as follows:


i. Opportunity of learning.

ii. It is time specific.

iii. Every training should ideally result in development.


i. Outcome of learning.

ii. It is continuous, never-ending life long process.

iii. Development may/may not be because of training. Development can be at times because of non-training factors too.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.34. Who are career anchors?

Ans. Career anchors are distinct patterns of self – perceived talents, attitudes, motives and values that guide and stabilize a person’s career after several years of real world experiences and feedback. Career anchors denote the basic drives that create the urge to take up a certain type of a career.

These drives are as follows:

a. Managerial Competence – Person having this drive seek managerial positions that provide opportunities for higher responsibility, decision making, control and influence over others.

b. Technical Competence – People having this anchor seek to make career choices based on the technical or functional content of the work. It provide continuous learning and updating one’s expertise in a technical or specialised area such as quality control, engineering, accounting, advertising, public relations etc.

c. Security – If one’s career anchor is security than he is willing to do what is required to maintain job security (through compliance with organisational prescriptions), a decent income and a stable future.

d. Creativity – This drive provides entrepreneurial and innovative opportunities to the people. People are driven by an overwhelming desire to do something new that is totally of their own making.

e. Autonomy – These people seek a career that provides freedom of action and independence.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.35. Compare the functions of HRM and HRD.


HRM Function:

i. The HRM function is a routine, maintenance oriented administrative function.

ii. HRM function is seen as an independent function with independent sub-functions.

iii. HRM function is regarded as mainly a reactive function responding to the demands of the organization as and when they arise.

iv. HRM is supposed to be an exclusive responsibility of the personnel department.

v. HRM takes a very narrow view of its scope and aims only at developing and administering people.

vi. HRM function considers salary, economic rewards, job simplification and job specialization as important motivators.

vii. HRM function considers improved satisfaction and morale as the cause of improved performance.

HRD Function:

i. HRD is a continuous development function. The major attention of HRD is on improving the human process.

ii. HRD is viewed as a sub-system of a larger system. This means that the design of HRD cannot be considered in isolation.

iii. HRD is regarded as a proactive function- The function of HRD is not merely to cope with the needs of the organization but to anticipate them and to act on them in advance in a continuous and planned way.

iv. HRD aims at developing the capabilities on all line managers to carry out various personnel functions themselves.

v. HRD takes a much wider view of its scope and aims at developing the total organization.

vi. HRD emphasizes the importance of higher needs in motivating individuals. It considers informal organization, autonomous work groups, job enrichment, job challenge and creativity as the main motivating forces.

vii. HRD considers improved performance as the cause and improved satisfaction and morale of as its results.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.36. What are different trends in the nature of work?

Ans. (i) Technological Changes:

Technological changes have already taken over the age old management in manufacturing, communications, designing raw material supply, storage movements, by accepting near to method techniques, products, machines, raw materials supply chain, logistics, thus helping increasing productivity and reduce number of employees.

Labour intensive blue collar and clericals jobs have started declining with arrival of the new techniques. Technology will also force companies to be competitive, job redesigning, change in organisation structures are being accepted.

Information technology has also speeded up what experts call the “call of hierarchy”, in other words managers depend less and less on yesterday’s stick-to-the chain of command approach to organising.

(ii) Another Trend Refers to Globalization:

This refers to the tendencies of companies to extend their sales or manufacturing to the new markets abroad for business, internationally, production is becoming globalised too, as manufacturing facilities are put around the world by manufacturers, at places which give them better advantages.

This globalization of markets and manufacturing has vastly increased international competition, changes are taking place in the nature of work, jobs due to the trends in technological change and globalization. Information technology including fax machines, personal computers and after e-business applications have allowed companies to relocate operations to locations with lower wages.

There is trend to use temporary and part time workers, employees on contract basis and as consultants. There is trend to get work done through service industry, to get knowledge through Information Technology. An enormous shift from manufacturing jobs to service jobs is taking place in America and Western Europe.

Other trends affecting Human Resource Management relate to legal protection to employees in the matter of employment, health of employees, safety provisions, and union-management relations.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.37. Discuss various applications of job analysis.

Ans. Job analysis is useful or applied in the following fields:

1. Organisational Design:

Job analysis are useful in classifying jobs and interrelationship among them. Responsibility commensurate with authority and accountability for various jobs can be specified so as to minimize duplication or overlapping. In order to improve organisational efficiency, sound decisions concerning, hierarchical positions and functional differentiation can be taken on the basis of information obtained through job analysis.

2. Requirement and Selection:

Job analysis provide information about the task, responsibilities, knowledge and skill required for a job. It is helpful for recruitment and selection of employee. Job analysis provides understanding of what an employee is expected to do on the job.

3. Performance Appraisal:

Job analysis determines performance standards of the job. So an employee performance is compared with the standard set with the help of job analysis.

4. Training and Development:

Job analysis provides valuable information required to identify training needs to design training programs and to evaluate training effectiveness.

5. Human Resource Planning:

Job analysis is an essential element of effective human resource planning. It helps in determining quality of human resources required in an organisation. It also provides useful information for forecasting manpower requirements in term of knowledge and skills.

6. Health and Safety:

Job analysis reveals unhealthy and hazardous environmental and operational conditions in various jobs. Heat, noise, dust, fumes etc. are examples of such condition. On the basis of such information, management can develop measures to ensure the health and safety of employees.

7. Job Evaluation:

On the basis of job analysis, worth of different jobs are determined. It is helpful in developing appropriate wage and salary structure.

8. Labour Relation:

Information obtained through job analysis is helpful to both management and trade unions for collective bargaining. It is also helpful to resolve disputes and grievances originated in the workplace.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.38. Discuss the classical approaches to job design.

Ans. The classical approach was developed by F.W Taylor with his principles of scientific management. On the basis of his principles of scientific management jobs are designed in most of the organisations. These principles have focus on the planning, standardizing and improving human effort at the operative level for higher productivity.

The scientific management approach has provided the following principles for job design:

(i) Specialisation- Workers should be selected to perform specific tasks so as to ensure narrow specialisation.

(ii) Monetary Compensation- Monetary compensation will be provided to the employees for their efficient performance.

(iii) Training- Workers should be trained for better performance of work.

(iv) Task Fragmentation- Every task should be fragmented into small components in order to improve technical efficiency.

(v) Optimization of Technology- Through scientific study and analysis, the best method for doing a task is developed.

(vi) Individual Responsibility- Each worker is responsible for their own task. One man can do one job. All these principles of Taylor appear as a rational and task-centered approach to job design. Standar­disation, simplification and specialisation help to make job-holders experts leading to higher productivity, and lower costs.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.39. Define promotion.

Ans. The term “promotion” covers a change and calls for greater responsibilities, and usually involves higher pay and better terms and conditions of service. Promotion may be defined as “an upward advancement of an employee in an organisation to another job, which commands better wage, better prestige and higher opportunities, responsibilities, and authority, better working environment, hours of work and facilities, and a higher rank.”

According to L.D. White, “Promotion means an appointment from a given position to a position of higher grade, involving a change of duties to a more difficulties type of work and greater responsibility, accompanied by change of title and usually an increase of pay.”

Thus, promotion means progress from a lower to a higher class with the change of duties and responsibilities. When an employee is promoted, it leads to the increase in his salary and grade also. But only increment in salary is not called promotion. Also if the employee is promoted and there is no increase in the employee’s pay, it is called a ‘dry’ promotion.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.40. What are the four components of 360 degree appraisal?

Ans. Performance appraisal has come to occupy a vital place in human resource function. 360 system involves evaluation of a manager by everyone above, alongside and below him. Several corporations like General Electric, Reliance Industries, Crompton Greaves, Godrej soaps, and Wipro, Infosys, Thermax, etc. are making use of this technique.

There are four integral components of 360 Degree Appraisal:

(1) Self-Appraisal

(2) Superior’s Appraisal

(3) Subordinate’s Appraisal

(4) Peer Appraisal

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.41. What are the limitations of MBO?

Ans. MBO suffers from the following drawbacks:

1. Difficulty in Goal Setting- It is often blue- collar workers are unable to set their job goals.

2. Problem of Participation- Traditional hierarchical structures and authoritative attitudes do not allow active participation of subordinates in goal- setting. In practice, leadership style of many managers may not be compatible with participative goal-setting.

3. Lack of Understanding- MBO often fails due to lack of knowledge about the philosophy and process of MBO. Failure to carefully monitor the system is also a problem.

4. Time-Consuming and Expensive- MBO programme involves considerable time, energy and expenditure. It is difficult to administer because continuous interaction between superior and the subordinate is required.

5. Inflexibility- MBO can be self-defeating if it fails to take into consideration the deeper emotions of people. Rating of every individual on the basis of specific targets may make it difficult to compare the ratings.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.42. Explain the objectives of job evaluation.

Ans. Job evaluation has various objectives, which are given below:

i. To provide a basis for wage negotiations with trade unions.

ii. To provide a framework for periodic reviews and revision of wage rates.

iii. To develop a consistent wage policy.

iv. To establish a rational basis for incentive and bonus schemes.

v. To determine equitable wage differentials between different jobs in the organisation.

vi. To eliminate wage inequities.

vii. To enable management to gauge and control the payroll costs.

viii. To minimise wage discrimination on the basis of age, sex, caste, region and religion, etc.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.43. Discuss material and non-material incentives.

Ans. Incentive is the important motivational factor. Every organisation provided financial incentives and non-financial incentives to its employees to motivate them. It also provide opportunity for hard working and ambitious workers to earn more. It helps in minimizing absenteeism and in improving productivity.

Therefore, every organisation provided two types of incentives to its employees:

(a) Material incentives, and

(b) Non-material incentives.

(a) Material Incentives:

Material incentives are the primary needs of the individuals which must be satisfied. It includes food, cloth and shelter. It is provided by the employer to its employee directly.

Material incentives are of two types:

1. Individual Incentives, and

2. Group Incentives.

(b) Non-Material Incentive Plans:

Non-material incentive plans are mostly used in administration field. It stress on the higher needs of employee. It assists for promotion and nomination to higher posts. It is provided through appreciation letters, merit certificates, medals, more meaningful involvement in decision-making and opportunity for self-growth. In this plan, for any welfare activities, an employee doesn’t get any financial incentives rather provided with non-financial incentives, which sustain the morale of that employee.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.44. What are the features of profit sharing?

Ans. The different features are:

1. The payment is in addition to normal wages and allowances.

2. It is an agreement made between an employer and his employee at the unit level or at the industrial level.

3. Such agreement as voluntary.

4. The profit-sharing is not based on individual merit or performance. Rather it is a reward for collective effort.

5. Workers share the profits only and do not contribute to the company’s loss.

6. The employee participating in the scheme must have some minimum years of service or other qualification.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.45. What are the different kinds of pension?

Ans. Pensions are of different types, they are:

1. Superannuation Pension- Superannuation pension given to an officer who retires at the prescribed age. It was maintain in rules of Central Civil Service.

2. Retiring Pension- Retiring pension given to an officer who retires after completing a fixed period of qualifying services.

3. Invalid Pension- Invalid pension, given to an employee who retires from service because of his mental weakness or bodily weakness, permanently incapacities for his work. But it is certified by the appropriate medical authority.

4. Compensatory Pension- Compensatory pension granted to an officer whose permanent post is abolished and the Government is unable to provide him with an alternative post on such equal rank of post is offered to him, but not accepted by him

5. Compassionate Allowances- Such allowances are granted to a public servant, when pension is not admissible on account of a public servant’s removal from service for misconduct, insolvency or inefficiency.

6. Compulsory Retirement Pension- Such pension is granted to a government servant, when he is compulsorily retired as a penalty.

7. Extra-ordinary Pension- Extra-ordinary pension are provided for-

(a) Injury Pension.

(b) Family Pension.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.46. What are annual confidential reports and there shortcomings?

Ans. The term “Annual Confidential Report” or Confidential Character Role is used to name performance appraisal chart in government generally, confidential report is a report which is prepared by the employee’s superior. It deals the strength and weaknesses, achievements and failures of the employee. It is also used for promotion and transfers of employee. In the modern time a negative confidential report is required to be communicated to the employee.

To adopt a system of promotion by merit calls for an efficient performance appraisal system. The true purpose of a performance appraisal system is primarily to assess the capabilities of a person in terms of his contribution towards the achievement of organisational goals.

A performance appraisal model will be of great use in reforming annual confidential report Confidential report have far-reaching influence on the career of an employee, it remarks such as-good, very good, satisfactory, fair, etc. are not made with precision and each one of these has different implications.


Annual confidential reports should be limited to the span of control and it became a meaningless routine activity. Assessment of employee made in terms of satisfactory, good, outstanding differs from officer to officer and also department to department it is a common complaint that appraisal reports are never written on time. Time lag means that reporting and reviewing authorities do not remember all benchmarks of performance for the period under assessment.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q. 47. What is the importance of HR audit?

Ans. Importance of HR Audit:

1. To ensure the effective utilization of an organization’s human resources.

2. To review statutory compliances with a myriad of administrative regulations.

3. To instill a sense of confidence in management and the human resources function that it is well managed and prepared to meet potential challenges.

4. To maintain or enhance the organization’s and the department’s reputation in the community.

5. To perform a “due diligence” review for shareholders or potential investors/owners.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.48. Critically discuss the principal methods of wage and salary payment.

Ans. Pay is a motivational factors. According to Manson Haire, Pay in one form or another is certainly one of the mainspring of motivation in our society. The survival services depend on the level of remuneration offered. Therefore a salary system so designed that it attract, retain and motivate the employee towards the organisation. Also it is the responsibility of manager in the organisation to motivate the employee towards the work place.

Every task in the organisation is effectively done if there are a right number of employees with the right level of talent and skill and right incentive. An adequate and sound salary structure is the “sine qua non” for organisational efficiency and effectiveness. Inadequate compensation creates strikes, intensive tensions rivalries, frustration, poor performance and low morale of the employees.

Methods of Wage Payment:

Generally there are two methods of wage payment:

1. Time wage system

2. Piece wage system.

1. Time Wage System:

Under this system, wages are paid on the basis of time spent on the job irrespective of the amount of work done. The unit of time may be a day, a week, and a fortnight or a month. In the past, daily wages have been the most common basis and therefore, it came to be known as the “Day wage system.”

2. Piece Wage System:

Under this system, remuneration is based on the amount of work done on output of a worker. One unit of output is considered as one piece and a specific rate of wage is paid per piece. Greater is the number of pieces produced by a worker, higher is his remuneration, thus, a workman is paid in direct proportion to his output. It is called payment by results.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.49. What are the functions of HRD?

Ans. The functions are:

1. Performance appraisal

2. Employee Training

3. Employee Development

4. Organizational Change

5. Organizational Development

6. Career planning and development

7. Involvement in social and religious Organizations

8. Involvement in Quality Circles

9. Involvement in Workers Participation in Management

10. Job rotation

11. Rewards

12. Feedback and Counselling

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.50. What are the six steps in training?

Ans. Important steps in training are:

1. Discovering or identifying training needs.

2. Preparing the instruction or getting ready for the job.

3. Preparing the trainee.

4. Presenting the operation.

5. Try out the trainee’s performance.

6. Follow-up or rewards and feedback.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.51. What is profit sharing?

Ans. Profit-sharing plan is an important supplement to wages and a good financial incentive, the purpose of profit-sharing is to distribute additional profit among employees in the form of bonus or incentives, which may be paid in cash or transferred to their account. The company contributes a portion of its pretax profits to a pool that is distributed among eligible employees.

The amount distributed to each employee may be based on employee’s basic salary. It means the employees, who get higher salaries receive a slightly higher amount of profits. This is actually done on an annual basis.

According to the International Labour Organisation, “Profit-sharing is a method of industrial remuneration under which an employer undertakes to pay to his employees, a share in the net profits of the enterprise in addition to their regular wages. The main objective of profit-sharing is to create unity of interests and the spirit of cooperation.”

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.52. Briefly explain the importance of career planning.

Ans. Importance of career planning are:

1. To attract competent persons and retain them in the organization.

2. To provide suitable promotional opportunities,

3. Map out careers of employees suitable to their ability, and their willingness to be trained and developed for higher positions.

4. To ensure better utilisation of managerial reserves within an organization.

5. To reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover.

6. To correct employee placement.

7. To improve employee morale and motivation by matching their skills to job requirements.

8. To achieve higher productivity and organization developments.

9. To provide guidance and encourage employees needs to fulfill their potentials.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.53. Is performance appraisal advantageous?

Ans. The advantages of performance appraisal are:

1. SWOT Analysis – Performance Appraisal gives a complete idea of the employee’s strength, weaknesses and based on that their opportunities and threats.

2. Career Planning – On the basis of one’s own SWOT analysis, an employee can have his career plans.

3. Suitable Placement – Performance appraisal enables a company to give suitable placement to an employee based on their talents and skills.

4. Self-Development – Performance Appraisal is very much a positive activity which enables an employee to know his own weaknesses and also enables him to remove their weaknesses and lead to self-development.

5. Effective Training Program – Training programmes can be drawn out on the basis of the needs of employees to remove their weaknesses.

6. Sound Personnel Policies – Personnel policies for promotions, transfer must be sound and objective. Performance Appraisal provides valuable information and reliable data for such decisions.

7. Employee-Employer Relations – Will be healthy if performance Appraisal information will be used for personnel management. This will minimize grievances and improve confidence in the management.

8. Higher Employee Productivity – Employer morale will be high because there can be a system of rewards for employees with higher performance. This will improve organization productivity.

9. Human resource planning – Performance Appraisal will help in potential human resource planning.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.54. Why is training needed?

Ans. Training is needed for following purposes:

1. To match the Employee specifications with the job Requirements and Organizational needs.

2. Organizational viability and the transformation process.

3. Technological Advances.

4. Organizational Complexity.

5. Human Relations.

6. Change in the job assignments

7. To increase productivity

8. To improve quality of the products and services

9. To improve organizational climate

10. To improve health and safety

11. To prevent obsolescence

12. Effect personal growth

13. Minimize the resistance to change

14. To act as a mentor

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.55. Do you think reskilling can prove to be beneficial to both the organisation and the employees?

Ans. Reskilling means an employees, where he get chance to proceed towards a new career path with the same employer. It further provides a chance to the personnel to make use of their already acquired skills in conjunction with the newer opportunities and challenges faced by the organisation.

Reskilling employees should be on ongoing process. In the reskilling process both employees and employers have more trust and commitment Therefore, reskilling can prove to be beneficial to both the organisation and also to the employees.

The importance of reskilling has been discussed in the following:

1. Reskilling employees should be never-ending process.

2. It help employees to accelerate skill development

3. It enhance job satisfaction, reduces employee turnover.

4. It mainly focus on employee’s performance, what they do best for the firm.

3. It provides not only information on personnel, but also gets information on strength of employees on different position.

6. Reskilling employees to be effective through distance mode, the role, responsibility and performance of the training institution.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.56. What is learning?

Ans. According to Burgoyne and Hodgson, “Learning is a process through which an individual goes through qualitative changes in comparison to what has been conceived by him or her earlier in life.”

Learning is the process through which an individual acquire some knowledge or skill which is helpful not only in his present life, but also in his future life. He utilise that acquire knowledge and skill, in different field. Learning is a natural or never ending process.

It effects the individuals. By this individual are totally change. It is a process through which individual learn how to adjust with the prevailing or complex situation. It is a continuous or life long process, throughout the life, individual learn something.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.57. Explain the importance of management development.

Management development is necessary for the following reasons:

1. Today, labour-management relations are complex. Workers are better educated and more aware. More competent managers are needed to manage to modern workforce.

2. Management needs education and training to understand and adjust to changes in socio­economic forces. Changes in public policy, social justice, industrial democracy, ecology, cultural anthropology are the main socio­economic changes.

3. Management of state enterprises, public utilities and civic bodies improve operational efficiency,

4. The size and complexity of organisations are increasing. Managers need to be developed to handle the problems of complex organisations in the face of increasing competition.

5. Management development programmes are required to train and develop professional managers.

6. Business and industrial leaders are increasingly recognition their social and public responsibilities.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.58. Discuss the advantages or benefits of total quality management.

Ans. Advantages and Benefits of TQM:

1. It Channelises the procedures necessary to achieve quality performance. Quality cannot be achieved instantly. It requires a systematic and long- term planning and strategic approach by focusing on defining the quality policies, goals and objectives. All the organisations adopting Statistical Quality Control (SQC) and Statistical Process Control (SPC) techniques and developing and using a system of evaluation. The aim of the organisations is to achieve the desired and objective quality performance.

2. It helps examine critically and continuously all processes to remove non-productive activities and waste. The organisation always aims at improving productivity asset, leads to reduction in cost resulting in increased unprofitability. A continuous effort to identify the problems and to resolve them helps to reduce the waste. Thus, the culture of well-being improves housekeeping, cost effectiveness and safety.

3. It gears organisations to fully understand the competition and develop an effective combat strategy. The dynamic changes has been taken place especially in the global market and also in the open market policies adopted by a large number of organisations, which help to increase competition among them.

It is essential for each and every organisation today to understand the competition and develop and adopt suitable strategies to meet the challenge. It also helps to understand the pulse of the customer. Therefore, the market gives an edge to the organisation to meet the competition.

4. It helps to develop good procedure for communication and acknowledging good work. Improper procedures and inadequate communication create misunderstanding, confusion, low productivity, poor quality, low morale and so on Total Quality Management bring together members of different levels of management.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.59. What is National Renewal Fund (NRF)?

Ans. The new industrial policy was announced by the Government of India on July 24, 1991. Its main aim is to protect the interest of the worker, enhance their welfare and equip them in all aspects to deal with the inevitability of technological change. The Government of India believes that no small section of society can corner the gains of growth, leaving workers to bear its path. Labour will be made on equal partner in progress and prosperity.

Worker’s participation in management will be encouraged to participate in the packages designed to turn around sick companies. Intensive training, skill development and upgradation programmes will be launched. National Renewal Fund (NRF) was prepared by the Department of Industrial Development in January, 1992. During the year, discussion is on that, the labour will not be thrown out of employment in the name of modernisation.

On the whole, the NRF was constituted on February 3, 1992 but become operational only in early 1993. On May 5, 2000 the NRF in its original form was abolished accordingly. At present the budgetary support for implementation of VRS in central public sector undertakings has been made available directly to the concerned administrative ministries by Ministry of Finance from the financial year 2001-2002 and funds required for retraining of rehabilitation of employees availing VRS has been placed with the Department of Public Enterprises from 2001-2002.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.60. Briefly describe the concept of strategic human resource management.

Ans. The concept of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM), defined as the integration of HRM with the strategic goals which improve business performance for achieving organizational goals. It mainly accepting the HR function of the company’s strategies through planned HR activities such as, recruiting, selecting, training and rewarding personnel.

The strategic of HRM is mainly related to the culture, style and structure of the organisation. In the strategic of HRM, line managers is responsible for managing human resources, who basically manage people at work. HR policies, practices and activities are aligned with the objectives and strategies of the organisation.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.61. What are the importance of redeployment?

Ans. The importance of redeployment has been discussed in the following:

(i) It offers employees unique opportunities such as multiple career pathways and opportunities for development.

(ii) It promote the organisation as an employee of choice.

(iii) Reinforce work ethos and commitment to the spirit of service.

(iv) The employee is to be consulted on any proposed appointment

(v) Individual employee’s entitlement to privacy must be respected throughout the process and information then can only be released with their agreement.

(vi) Any redeployment process must fit easily within the overall restructuring programme and be easy to understand and administer within a reasonable time.

(vii) Retain people who are familiar with the organisational networks, culture and behaviour and ethical standards.

(viii) Retain institutional knowledge and specialised competencies.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.62. Discuss the objectives of management development.

Ans. Management Development means development of the managerial activities or development of manager, as manager play an important role in the management.

Objectives of management development is:

1. To provide opportunities to executives to fulfil their career aspiration.

2. To sustain good performance of manager to prepare him for higher jobs in future.

3. To ensure required number of managers with the needed skills to meet the present and anticipated future needs of the organisation.

4. To ensure that the managerial resources of the organisation are utilised optimally.

5. To improve the performance of manager at all levels of activities.

6. To replace elderly executive who have risen from the ranks by highly competent and academically qualified professionals.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.63. What are the limitations of training?

Ans. Training is considered as one of the lesser developed areas of public personnel administration- In many organisations it is failed due to its weakness in policies, procedures and practices relating to training activities.

It is failed due to the following reasons:

1. Lack of coordination among the training staff and other staff.

2. There is no clear training policy and have not proper linkage with HRD policy.

3. Top management have little confidence about the training methods which ensuring development of human resources.

4. Lack of efforts to make better utilisation of the trainees.

5. Organisational arrangements, budgetary allocations, staff resources, aids etc. are not adequate and properly placed.

6. Lack of seriousness in the procedures of training for ensuring effectiveness of training.

7. Lack of evaluation of training at various stages. The outcomes of training programmes are not mentioned.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.64. What are the objective of capacity building?

Ans. Following are the objective of capacity-building:

1. For implementing and evaluating what worked, what did not and what was learnt in the process.

2. For bringing suitable modifications.

3. For identifying required resource to achieve identified outcomes.

4. For developing specific outcomes to achieve strategies and tactics.

5. For prioritizing the areas for improvement

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.65. What are the measures required for making workers participation in management successful?

Ans. The following steps are taken for making successful workers participation in management:

(1) Participation should be a continuous process. Adequate time must be allowed to let it take roots. It is a slow and steady process. It should be start from the shop floor level to the boardroom level.

(2) Proper training and education should be provided to the workers and their representatives, about the process of participative management.

(3) Workers should be made aware of the benefits of participation.

(4) Workers’ participation has looked after the workers interest on one side and efficiency, productivity, quality and profitability on the other side.

(5) Employers should adopt a progressive outlook. They should consider organisation a joint endeavour in which workers have an equal say. Employer should be made conscious of their obligation to workers and the benefits of participative management. They should provide security to workers.

(6) Strong, enlightened and truly representative trade union should be developed. Only one union should be recognised in each industrial unit to represent the workers.

(7) Employers and workers should agree on the objectives of industry. They would recognise and respect the rights and obligations of each other.

(8) Mere legislation cannot make participation successful. A true spirit of mutual cooperation and commitment to participation must be developed on the part of both management and labour. Both are in trust with each other.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.66. What is meant by collective bargaining?

Ans. Collective bargaining is the process, where terms and conditions of employment are determined by mutual agreement between the employer and the employees. This process is called ‘collective’ as both employer and employees participate in groups rather than as individuals and bargaining refers to arriving at a stage of agreement using methods like discussion, exchange of ideas and facts, and negotiation rather than confrontation.

Collective bargaining is bipartite in nature because only the employers and the employees are involved in the bargaining process. The idea is that the employer and employee should not make decision unilaterally or with the intervention of any third party.

In 1973, the International Labour Office Workers Manual defines collective bargaining as “negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers’ organisations. On the one hand, and one or more representative workers’ organisations, on the other with a view to arrive at an agreement.”

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.67. How trade union was originated?

Ans. According to an old Sanskrit proverb, strength lies in the organisation. This is true for those who earn their living by service under a private employer or state. Trade unions have become vital part of organisation. It is true that if the employees do not organise themselves, it would be difficult for them to get better working condition and improve their life.

The idea of employees association first developed in private industry in the nineteenth century Socialism At that time workers were feel that employers are getting more profit by using their collective strength and employees could expect little, from their employers in the matter of wages and working conditions. As a result they were organized themselves into Trade Unions which arose in the wake of the Industrial Revolution.

At that time attitude of the government towards these unions was not good but time changes everything. In the initial stages, the authorities not only refused to recognize such bodies but vigorously prohibited the services from joining them. But in the recent years the pressure of the public employees on the governments became so pronounced that they latter had to submit to the wishes of the former.

Such change is due to two grounds-moral and practical. From moral point of view it was realised that the public services must have a voice in determining their own condition of Work. From practical point of view the co-operation of the employees with the employer was essential to stimulate the interest of the employees in their work and prevent administrative abuses. Such a participation was considered essential from efficiency and economy point of view.

Generally, Trade Union is formed by the employees of subordinate public services. Object of this union is to improve the wages, and other conditions of service of their members. If their demands are not fulfilled they do not hesitated to resort to strikes.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.68. Define conciliation.

Ans. Conciliation is the process by which representatives of workers and employers are brought together before a third party. It involves friendly intervention of a neutral person or group of persons to help the parties to settle their dispute peacefully.

A Conciliation Officer, appointed by the government to settle the dispute. He investigates the dispute and sent his report to the government. He submits his report within 14 days from the date of commencement of conciliation proceedings. He has no power to force a settlement but assist the parties to reach an agreement.

The task of a conciliation officer is administrative and not judicial. If the dispute was not settled by a conciliation officer, government may constitute a Board of Conciliation. A Board of Conciliation consists of a chairman and two or four other members. The chairman is an independent person and its members are appointed by the dispute parties itself in equal number.

If any party fails to appoint any person as their representative Government shall appoint such person as their representative. The Board investigates the dispute and submits its report within two months. Conciliation method saves a lot of time and expenditure of the disputed parties.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.69. What are the measures for improving industrial relations?

Ans. Following are the requirements for a sound industrial relations:

(1) Participative Management

(2) Collective Bargaining

(3) Responsible Union

(4) Sound Human Resource Policies

(5) Grievance Procedure

(6) Constructive Attitude

(7) Employee Welfare.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.70. What is meant by incentives?

Ans. Incentives refer to those psychological stimulations which activate and motivate persons to do more work. Research has revealed that there is highly positive correlation between incentive and consequence. Every person needs incentive. It is difficult to attain the goal without inspiration. Employees do work only when it is gainful for them to do so.

In the words of George R. Terry, “Incentive means that which incites or has a tendency to incite action.”

Thus, it can be said that incentive is that attraction which motivates the employees to do more production. Incentive is taken as synonym of temptation or allurement.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.71. What is the scope of workers’ participation?

Ans. 1. Social Decisions- Hours of work, welfare measures, work rules, safety, health, sanitation and noise control.

2. Personnel Decisions- Recruitment and selection, promotions and transfers, grievance settlements, work distribution

3. Economic Decisions- Methods of manufacturing, automation, layoffs, shut-downs, mergers and acquisitions and other financial aspects.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.72. What is the scope of human resources management?

Ans. The scope of HRM is very wide.

1. Personnel Aspect:

This is concerned with man power planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, lay off and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity etc.

2. Welfare Aspect:

It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteen, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities etc.

3. Industrial Relations Aspect:

This covers union- management relations, joint consultations, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes etc.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.73. Define job specifications.

Ans. Job specifications specify the minimum acceptable qualifications required by the individual to perform the task efficiently. Based on the information obtained from the job analysis procedures, job specification identifies the qualifications, appropriate skills, knowledge, abilities, and experience required to perform the job.

It also specifies not only educational qualifications but also certain personality characteristics that may be required specifically for a job. At times, individuals with certain temperamental qualities may also be specified in job specifications. In other words, this process identifies the particular qualities needed in an individual to perform the job.

By reading them, the candidate should also get a fair idea as to the expectations of the organization. Another inherent factor is that the matching of the qualifications need to be done in such a manner that a matching exists with job requirements.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.74. What does employee assistance programme include?

Ans. Employee assistance programmes include:

(i) Counselling to overcome death of a loved one, children-parent relation, husband-wife relation, alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, etc.

(ii) Legal assistance in property disputes, husband-wife separation, cheating cases etc.

(iii) Building better health- Pre-employment medical check-ups, teaching relaxation techniques, special diets, onsite physical rehabilitation, ergonomics, onsite gym, etc.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.75. What is the importance of merit rating?

Ans. Importance of Merit Rating:

1. It is helpful to measure the performance of employees. On the basis of performance, we can utilize him in better works.

2. After telling the weak points of employees, we can increase the performance of employees.

3. It is the helpful to promote of employees.

4. Merit rating tells the strength and weakness of employee with proper record. So, it is helpful to give more training to employee. With training, we can convert his work points into strength points.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.76. What are the steps involved in domestic enquiry?

Ans. The domestic enquiry require the following procedure for providing proper justice to the employee or to the management:

1. Opportunity provided to the employee for cross examining witnesses.

2. Enquiry officer is required to record his findings with reasons in his report.

3. Enquiry officer should be independent. He may be a senior officer of the organisations as mentioned in the standing orders of the organisation.

4. Witness is to be examined in the presence of the employee.

5. Employee has to be given a fair opportunity

5. Employee has to be given a fair opportunity to produce his witnesses, for his defense.

6. Opportunity provided to the other party to be heard in good faith.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.77. What is the importance of HRM in recent time?

Ans. Human resource management has become very significant in recent time, due to the following reasons:

1. Increase in the size and complexity of organisation.

2. Growing expectations of society from employers.

3. Rapid technological development.

4. Increasing proportion of women in the work force.

5. Rapidly changing jobs and skills requiring long term manpower planning.

6. Risk of professional and knowledgeable workers.

7. Growth of powerful nationwide trade union.

8. Revolution in information technology that might affect the work force.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.78. How is data collected for HR audit?

Ans. For the purpose of HR audit, data are collected by the outsider and insider. In collecting data, outsider reports are more important than the insider.

i. Asking Questions of the Data:

Most of the time data is found to be misleading. Therefore, the most purposes, trend comparisons may be preferable.

ii. Interpreting the Data:

After asking questions about the data, it is the responsibility of the HR department to assist the management in analyzing and interpreting the data.

iii. Stimulating Remedial Action:

Most organisations in the public sector are generating more than the adequate quantity of data. The main purpose of it is to stimulate remedial action. In some cases, the action may require consultation between the supervisor and the higher management.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.79. Explain the meaning of stress.

Ans. The word stress is derived from the Latin term “stringers” which means “to draw tight”. Some defines stress as the non-specific response of the body to any demands made on it Stress is different from anxiety which is a state of uncertainty.

It is also different from agitation which is the physical part of anxiety. Stress also differ from frustration, which is blocked goal attainment.

Stress is a pressure condition causing hardship. It is an internal phenomenon and a mental attitude. If stress is the condiment strain is the salt and if there is an imbalance in condiment-salt relationship, the result is impala-table. Stress is generally believed to have a deleterious effect on health and performance.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.80. What is the meaning and definition of selection?

Ans. Meaning of Selection:

Selection refers to the process by which qualified applicants are selected by means of various tests in pre-determined numbers, out of large number of applicants.

Definitions of Selection:

Following are the main definitions of selection:

(1) According to Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided in two classes those who are to be offered employment and those who are not.”

(2) According to Weihrich and Koontz, “Selecting manager is choosing from among the candidates the one who best meets the position requirements.”

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.81. What are the steps involved in employee grievance procedure?


(i) Identify grievances- Employee dissatisfaction should be identified by the managers if they are not expressed.

(ii) Define correctly- Management has to define the problem properly and accurately, after it is identified/acknowledged.

(iii) Collect data- Complete information should be collected from all the parties relating to the grievance. Information should be classified as facts, data, opinions etc.

(iv) Analyse and solve- Information should be analysed, alternative standard to the problem should be developed and best solution selected.

(v) Prompt redressal- The grievance should be redressed by implementing the solution.

(vi) Follow up- Implementation and follow-up of the solution must be followed up at every stage in order to ensure effective and speedy implementation.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.82. What do you mean by QWL?

Ans.The quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the favourableness or otherwise of the job environment to the people. Some definitions interpret it as the degree to which employees are able to meet their personal needs through their experience in the organization.

The improvements in QWL are aimed at the enhancement of human dignity and growth by creating appropriate processes in which all the stakeholders, that is, management, unions, and employees, collectively work together to decide upon the workable actions and changes/improvement for achieving the twin objectives of improving the living standards of employees and also the efficacy of the organization.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.83. What is the main difference between between wages and salary?



Wage represents hourly rates of pay which is given to workers for manual or physical work. Thus wage is given to compensate the unskilled workers for their services rendered to organisation. Wages may be based on hourly, daily, weekly or even monthly basis. Wages may be based on number of units produced (i.e. piece wage system) or time spent on job.


Salary refers to the monthly rate of pay, irrespective of the number of hours put in by an employee. Salary is given to office employees, foremen, managers, professional and technical staff. It is based on monthly and yearly basis. Thus time period for which salaries are paid is generally higher than in case of wage payments. Salary is always based on time spent on job.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.84. What is the role of HRM?


1. Advisory Role – HRM advises management on the solutions to any problems affecting people, personnel policies and procedures.

i. Personnel Policies – Organization Structure, Social Responsibility, Employment Terms & Conditions, Compensation, Career & Promotion, Training & Development and Industrial Relations.

ii. Personnel Procedures – Relating to manpower planning procedures, recruitment and selection procedures, and employment procedures, training procedures, management development procedures, performance appraisal procedures, compensation procedures, industrial relations procedures and health and safety procedures.

2. Functional Role – The personnel function interprets and helps to communicate personnel policies. It provides guidance to managers, which will ensure that agreed policies are implemented.

3. Service Role – Personnel function provides services that need to be carried out by full time specialists. These services constitute the main activities carried out by personnel departments and involve the implementation of the policies and procedures.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.85. What are the HRM models?

Ans. In recent years there has been relative agreement among HRM.

The model developed by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) identifies nine human resource areas:

1. Training and Development

2. Organization Development

3. Organization or Job Design

4. Planning

5. Selection and Staffing

6. Personnel Research and Information systems

7. Compensation or Benefits

8. Employee Assistance

9. Union or Labour Relations

HRM Question and Answers:- Q86. What are the benefits of training program?

Ans. They are:

1. Personal growth.

2. Development of new skills.

3. Higher earning capacity.

4. Helps to adjust with changing technology.

5. Increased safety.

6. Confidence building.

7. Improves morale of employees.

8. Less supervision.

9. Chances of promotion.

10. Increased productivity.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.87. Define the structure of HR department.

Ans. An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways.

First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions.

The structure of one industrial organization differs from that of another organization and it depends upon:

1. Size of the organization

2. Nature of the product being manufactured

3. Complexity of the problems being faced

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.88. Explain the importance of code of discipline in Indian industry.

Ans. This code was formulated after a great deal of discussion and on the recommendations of the Indian Labour Conference held in New Delhi in July 1957. The Conference discussed the question of discipline in Indian industries, and laid down certain principles governing it.

These were:

1. There should be no lockout or strike without due notice;

2. No unilateral action should be taken in connection with any industrial matter;

3. There should be no recourse to go-slow tactics;

4. No deliberate damage should be caused to plant or property;

5. The existing machinery for the settlement of disputes should be utilised;

6. Acts of violence, coercion, intimidation or incitement should not be indulged in;

7. Awards and agreements should be speedily implemented; and

8. Any agreement, which is likely to destroy cordial industrial relations, should be avoided.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.89. What is the scope of HRM?

Ans. Scope of HRM:

1. Human Resource Management embraces a very wide field of activities.

2. The HR manager plays multiple roles like a researcher, a counselor, a bargainer, a mediator, a peacemaker and a problem solver, etc.

3. Employee selection, employee remuneration, employee motivation, employee health and safety, industrial relations, employee education, etc.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.90. What is the performance appraisal?

Ans. Performance appraisal refers to knowing about the level of performance of the employees working in an organisation. This knowledge is obtained by comparing the actual performance of an employee with the expected performance or with standard performance. It informs about the skill of the employee in respect of his work. In order to make this appraisal comparative, similar standards are fixed for all those employees doing similar work.

Performance appraisal is done usually by immediate boss. It is from performance appraisal that one comes to know whether an employee needs training or not. Performance appraisal also serves as the basis of promotion and transfer. It is also referred to as Merit Rating.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q. 91. Discuss the role of HR department in evaluating human resources effectiveness.

Ans.The role of HR department are:

(1) Policy Formulation- Human resource department formulates new human resource policies and revises the existing policies. The department also prepares programmes which basically concerning recruitment, selection, training, etc.

(2) Advising- The duty of HRM department to advice all other departments in areas relating to the management of human resource, industrial relations, etc.

(3) Assistance and Service- HRM department provides information and infrastructure and it conducts human resource research and maintains HR records. It also help to develop collaboration between trade union and management.

(4) Monitoring and Control- HRM department conducts HR audit and helps other departments in proper implementation of human resource policies and programmes. As a controllers, the HR department also reviews the work of line department which concern accident, grievances, absenteeism, labour turnover, disciplinary actions, etc.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q. 92. What is management by objectives?

Ans. The concept of management by objectives (MBO) was developed by Peter Druker in the year of 1954. Peter Druker called it management by objectives and self-control. Generally, MBO has become an effective and operational techniques of performance appraisal and also a powerful philosophy of managing.

It is also known as work planning and review or goal setting approach to appraisal. Therefore, MBO deals appraisal of performance against clear, time bound and mutually agreed job goals. Performance Appraisal through MBO.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.93. What are the three different approaches of change management.

Ans. There are mainly three popular approaches to managing change:

(1) Lewin’s classic Three-step model of the change process,

(2) Action Research, and

(3) Organisational development.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.94. What are the basic features of stress?

Ans. Some main features of stress has been analyzed in the following:

i. Generally, stress has positive value and it also offers an opportunity for potential gain.

ii. It is also based on industrialism. It emerge from the capitalist class of people in the society.

iii. Stress is an additive phenomenon. It builds up overtime.

iv. Stress is a condition which is arising from the interaction of people.

v. Stress can be either a positive or a negative influence on employee performance.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.95. What are the main issues of industrial relation?

Ans. The main issues involved in the industrial relations are:

(a) Collective bargaining

(b) Workers’ participation in management

(c) Grievances and their redressal

(d) Standing orders

(e) Machinery for the settlement of industrial disputes

(f) Ethical code and discipline.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.96. What does a training policy incorporates?

Ans. A training policy must incorporate the following:

(i) It must clarify the approach of the organisation towards the development of employees.

(ii) It must serve as a guideline for framing and implementing training programme.

(iii) Providing information to all employees affected by training.

(iv) To fix the priorities of the organisation regarding main fields of training.

(v) To provide proper opportunities of advancement to the employees on the basis of training.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.97. What is meant by job enlargement?

Ans. Job enlargement involves adding more tasks to a job. It is a horizontal expansion and increases jobs scope and gives a variety of tasks to the jobholder. It is essentially adding more tasks to a single job. It definitely reduces boredom and monotony by providing the employee more variety of tasks in the job.

Thus, it helps to increase interest in work and efficiency. In one study it was found that by expanding the scope of job, workers got more satisfaction, committed less errors, and customer service improved. However, research has provided contrary evidence also in that enlargement sometimes may not motivate an individual in the desired direction.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.98. Mention the changing roles of the HR manager.

Ans. 1. Flatter organizations – The reducing levels of hierarchy mean that more people report to one manager.

2. Employee empowerment – Knowledge workers need to be provided with greater autonomy though information sharing and provision of control over factors that affect performance.

3. Team work – modern workers do not remain confined to a single function but can do more than one function. Employees contribute to organization are as members of the team.

4. Ethical management – Ethical issues pose fundamental questions about fairness, justice, truthfulness and social responsibility.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.99. Discuss the contribution of SHRM in an organisation.

Ans. Strategic management is that set of managerial decisions and actions that determine the long-term performance of the corporation.

Contribution of SHRM in an organisation has been discussed in the following activities:

1. HRM’s Role in Strategy Formulation:

HRM can play a vital role in environmental scanning so as to identify and analyse external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the company’s success. HRM is in a unique position to provide competitive intelligence that can be useful in the strategic planning process.

HRM also participates in strategy formulation process by supplying information. For example, the IT major, Infosys has developed unique human resource capabilities that provide the firm with a competitive advantage.

2. HR’s Role in Strategy Implementation:

Human resource management is actively involved in strategy implementation in the form of downsizing and restructuring, throughout placing employees, instituting performance based pay plans, reducing health care costs, and retraining employees. HR practices that build employee commitment can improve an organisation’s performance in an increasingly global marketplace.

3. Strategic HRM is Different from Traditional HRM:

Under traditional HRM, human resources are managed by specialists in line with the country’s law and the company’s rules and regulations. But in strategic HRM, the responsibility for managing human resources is placed mostly on line managers who basically manage people at work.

4. In the strategic human resource management, both public and private, organisations playing a significant role.

5. Strategic human resource management also involves in the management process of human capital.

6. The basic strategic HRM deals with the culture, style and structure of the organisation and the quality, commitment and motivation of employees.

7. Strategic HRM is also deals to improve business performance for achieving organizational goals.

On the whole, strategy is a unified, comprehensive and integrated plan. Strategic management deals with both aids and means. End gives a vision of how things are likely to shape up, whereas means shows the path of the vision’s realisation in practice. Therefore, strategic management is visionary management, which is concerned with the future of the organisation. It is also empirical management, as it decides how in practice it is going to get their objectives in the changing environment.

Some says, strategic management is a set of decision and actions, that formulates and implements the strategies designed to achieve the goals of an organisation. It is also concerned with policy-decision affecting the entire organisation.

Therefore, strategic human resource management deals with all those activities affecting the behaviour of individuals in their efforts to formulate and implement the strategic needs of the business.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.100. Mention the skills required by the manager.

Ans. While analyzing the skills of a manager, R.L. Katz speaks of following three types:

1. Technical Skills:

These enable a manager to use techniques, methods, processes and equipment effectively in performing specific jobs. These skills are developed through experience and education. These are most important for operating managers.

2. Human Skills:

These refer to the ability to work effectively with others on a person-to-person basis, and to build up cooperative group relations to accomplish the organizational goals. These include the ability to communicate, motivate and lead. These are also called human relations abilities, which enable a manager to handle human resources in such a way that personal satisfaction is achieved and organizational goals are attained.

3. Conceptual Skills:

These enable a manager to consider an enterprise as a whole and evaluate the relationships which exist between various parts or functions of a business. In long-range planning, top managers need these skills. The higher one rises in the management hierarchy, the greater the need of conceptual skills. For example, members of the Board of Directors have to rely heavily on their conceptual abilities in making decisions.

To sum up, while human skills are important at all levels of management, conceptual skill is essentially critical in top executive positions, and technical skill is an essential ingredient in low-level management.

HRM Question and Answers:- Q.101. Who are line managers?

Ans. Line Managers translate the objectives into action, they are responsible to develop and utilise the manpower. In all the components of HR i.e. career planning training, performances appraisal and organisational development, line-managers have specific responsibilities.

Since line-managers are in dose proximity with the operation people, it is their responsibility to create and develop such conditions. Creating such conditions in work place is a pre-condition in realizing the HR objective by line-managers. Line-managers need to define the capabilities of employee. By developing such capability profile of employees, they can facilitate skill and competency mapping for other strategic decisions.