Cohesiveness refers to the degree of unity in a group. It shows the extent to which the members are attracted to each other while working towards the goal or to satisfy the social and emotional needs of its members.

Members of a highly cohesive group develop some common characters- they respect everyone, fully commit to group decisions, create accountability among the members and assume good motives. Positive norms can improve group cohesiveness and lead to increased group performance.

Learn about:

1. Introduction to Group Cohesion 2. Definitions of Group Cohesion 3. Features 4. Goals 5. Factors Affecting 6. Factors Determining the Degree of Cohesion 7. Positive Outcomes


8. Factors Increasing Cohesion 9. Factors Decreasing Cohesion 10. Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and Productivity 11. Guidelines for Better Use of Group Dynamics 12. Benefits and Disadvantages 13. Consequences.

What is Group Cohesion: Definitions, Features, Positive Outcomes, Guidelines, Benefits, Disadvantages and Consequences

What is Group CohesionIntroduction

Organizations are busy with routine matters and activities to meet the goals. Their main concern is what to do, rather than how to do. In the main pursuit of the goals they are primarily concerned with substantive aspects.

Organization seem to be so obsessed with their substantive area of work that they do not stop alone enough to focus on some other dimensions which may be equally important, and which may in the long run help organizations achieve the goals more effectively.

One such dimension which has been neglected is the group process dimension, i.e., Cohesiveness which leads ones organization climate to get involved in one’s job and also which is the vital aspect of any workplace for better productivity.


These Psychological concepts cohesiveness and Job engagement are interchangeably used as they all belong to the category of what forms an effective and productive environment at workplace today. Today organization look people as an asset and is dependent more and more on the people. They are increasingly made to get involved in more complex technologies and are functioning in extreme complex economic, social and political environments.

As a result organization is facing the problem of cohesiveness and engagement in the work. Humans have no time to interact with each other while performing work which results at increase in stress at workplace. Today people are performing more and more complex tasks for better productivity which is mostly an important goal due to which human touch is forgotten at workplace.

In Workplace it is necessary that whenever some task is performed, People in the organization needs to have some kind of emotional bonding, i.e., human touch, but as we see workplace environment is made up of the people who are altogether from different boundaries (culture, religion, beliefs etc…) they are in need to be combined or brought together so that company gets better benefits and productivity through it.

Because people gather in groups for reasons other than task accomplishment, group process occurs in other types of groups such as personal growth groups (e.g., encounter groups, study groups, prayer groups). In such cases, an individual with expertise in group process can be helpful in the role of facilitator. No doubt we have also seen the desire for cohesiveness is becoming an issue in companies and other organizations.


Group structure is a key differentiating factor between high- and low-success groups. “Working well together” in an interdependent team structure is a fundamental ingredient in effectively functioning Groups. Cohesion is the binding material of the groups. It makes people feel better and is a crucial ingredient for team viability.

What does a cohesive team look like? Members of cohesive Groups sit closer together, focus more attention on one another, show signs of mutual affection, and display coordinated patterns of behavior and also one which helps one another to engage and bring better output altogether.

Members of cohesive groups who have a close relationship are more likely to give due credit to their partners. In contrast, those who do not have a close relationship are more likely to take credit for successes and blame others for failure. Cohesion increases conformity to group norms.

Physical proximity and real or perceived similarity strengthen team cohesion. After such groups are formed they are bonded in a contract throughout the processes in which cohesion helps one to engage completely in the work without any hesitation.


Cohesive teams are more productive than are less cohesive teams and this could be because (1) more productive teams become more cohesive or (2) more cohesive teams become more productive. Groups preserve their cohesion when they succeed rather than fail. Therefore, it is important to promote three essential conditions for team performance: ability (knowledge and skills), motivation, and coordination strategy.

Team members need to have sufficient level of interpersonal and technical skills to perform their jobs and to attain team objectives. Team members must also be motivated to use their knowledge and skills to achieve shared goals. Team context (organizational context, team design, and team culture) must create conditions to avoid problems such as social loafing, free riding, diffusion of responsibility, reduced sense of self-efficacy, and sucker effects. These problems undermine team performance and have detrimental effects on team cohesion.

Employees are human. We are human. We look at the world through our own eyes. We look at where we work in terms of how appreciated we feel, how much our contributions are recognized, how our leaders acknowledge what we do. Engagement is not a mathematical process that can be managed by the book. It is a human experience that reacts to each interaction an employee may have. Our job as communicators is to lead and help our organizations create positive, engaging interactions.

Building great, cohesive teams is absolutely essential to high employee engagement levels and high performance. Employee engagement and performance can be adversely affected if the team is dysfunctional to any degree, due to conflict, ambiguity, or misunderstanding.


It is well known that new teams go through a natural process to start performing, which can take some time. There are various programs which are designed to accelerate this process and develop high levels of team engagement quickly, which is tremendously successful for existing teams as well as new teams and project teams.

In conclusion in order to make an individual perform, organization is in need to be cohesive altogether which will result in engagement at work which will result in better productivity.

What is Group CohesionDefinitions

It is defined as the degree to which members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goal. That is, the more the members are attracted to each other and the more the group’s goals align with their individual goals, the greater the group’s cohesiveness.

By Group Cohesiveness we mean the “degree of attachment of the members to their group. The greater the degree of attachment, the greater is the likelihood that all members will conform strictly to the group standards and greater the likelihood that its leader will represent the feelings of all members.”


Cohesive groups are more powerful and are more likely to act in unison when their expectations do not come to be realised.

Generally speaking, people join a group because they expect it to satisfy their needs. Cohesion develops if these hopes are realised. Group cohesiveness is an important indicator of how much influence the group as a whole has over the individual members. It can be thought of as the strength of the ‘glue’ which holds the group together. It is defined as the degree to which members are attracted to one another and share the group’s goals. Cohesiveness causes more harmonious behaviour in group members.

A cohesive group is able to act as one body to achieve its goals. According to Shaw, members of highly cohesive groups are more energetic in group activities, are less likely to be absent from group meetings and are happy when the group succeeds and sad when it fails, whereas members of less cohesive groups are less concerned about the group’s activities; the members are not dedicated to the group and its purposes; their loyalty and support are mediocre or variable.

Cohesiveness refers to the degree of unity in a group. It shows the extent to which the members are attracted to each other while working towards the goal or to satisfy the social and emotional needs of its members. Members of a highly cohesive group develop some common characters- they respect everyone, fully commit to group decisions, create accountability among the members and assume good motives. Positive norms can improve group cohesiveness and lead to increased group performance.

What is Group Cohesion – Various Features

i. Cohesive groups have relatively few members.


ii. Members have similar interests and backgrounds.

iii. They have a high degree of status within the organisation.

iv. Members have ready access to one another so that interpersonal communication is easy to maintain.

v. They are physically remote or isolated from other groups in the organisation.

vi. The leader of the group usually rewards cooperative behaviour.


vii. Cohesive groups are pressured or threatened by some common outside force and

viii. They have a history of past success.

Features of Group Cohesiveness:

Group cohesiveness is another important factor besides group norms which affects group behaviour. Group cohesiveness means the degree of attachment of the members to their group. If group cohesion is high, the interaction between members of the group is high and the degree of agreement in group opinion is high.

A cohesive group usually has the following features:

I. The members share the group goals and normal and have common interests and backgrounds.


II. The number of members is small.

III. The members interact among themselves quite frequently and interpersonal communication is very effective.

IV. Group loyalty among the members is high because the group enjoys high status.

V. The members stand united against any perceived external threats to the group.

VI. The members keep themselves glued to the group as they feel that their needs would be satisfied by the group.

VII. The group has a history of past success.

What is Group Cohesion – Top 8 Goals of a Cohesive Group

A cohesive group alone can achieve the desired goals. Everyone in the group knows his responsibility. Goal is not simply an outcome of the work, it has to be result oriented. This is made possible by a responsible cohesive group.


1. Personal Attractiveness:

Virtues and values of an individual are the basis of personal attraction between each other. These foster respect and mutual understanding. They also create confidence and trust in the members of a group, leading to personal growth and development.

2. Independence for Cooperative Decisions:

Members of a group may have independence to perform their functions with other groups. In the modern management system, a cohesive group with a facility of cooperative decision at the work place need to be promoted.

Their performance being of a high standard is mainly due to employees’ commitment, achieved through empowerment devices like cooperative decision making, greater involvement and worker-management consultation. A cohesive work group only can fulfil such commitments in an organisation.


3. Management Behaviour:

Behaviour of management has a direct effect on the cohesion of work groups. A conflict is disgusting and is considered as something resulting from inter-personnel relations rather than structural contradictions. Management has a special responsibility to obtain the consent of workers to its programme of action to motivate them.

4. Group Provides Security:

Members are provided security by the group from all external threats and pressures from other groups. In a particular situation for safeguarding the individual’s interest, the group may forget their differences to meet the threats and pressures and protect the members.

5. Leadership Style:

Every leader has a style of his own to deal with interpersonal relations. An effective leader understands his subordinates as well as their needs. He integrates the individual with the organisation and leads them to achieve the goal. Thus, leadership influences group cohesiveness to a large extent.


Cohesiveness of a group can lead to the following outcome:

i. Increment in interaction of individuals,

ii. Cooperative behaviour,

iii. Satisfaction amongst the group members,

iv. Goal orientation and success,

v. Enhancement of productivity.

It is well-established that productivity depends upon the morale of the workers and leadership of the group.

What is Group Cohesion – Factors Affecting Cohesiveness

Cohesiveness can be affected by such factors as:

i. Time Spent Together:

If you rarely get an opportunity to see or interact with other people, you are unlikely to be attracted to them. The amount of time that people spend together, therefore, influences cohesiveness. The opportunity for group members to spend time together is dependent on their physical proximity. We would expect more close relationships among members who are located close to one another rather than far apart.

ii. Severity of Initiation:

The more difficult it is to get into a group, the more cohesive that group becomes. The hazing that fraternities typically put their pledges through it is meant to screen out those who do not want to “pay the price” and to intensify the desire of those who do to, become fraternity activities.

But, group initiation need not be as blatant as hazing. The competition to be accepted to a good medical school results in first year medical school classes that are highly cohesive. The common initiation rites – applications, test taking, interviews and the long wait for a final decision, all contribute to creating this cohesiveness.

iii. Group Size:

Cohesiveness will decrease as group size increases, since it becomes more difficult for a member to interact with all the members. As group size expands, interaction with all members becomes more difficult, as does the ability to maintain a common goal. As a single group’s size increases the likelihood of cliques forming also increases. The creation of groups within groups tends to decrease overall cohesiveness.

iv. External Threats:

A group’s cohesiveness will increase if the group comes under attack from external sources. Management threats frequently bring together an otherwise dismayed union. While a group generally moves towards greater cohesiveness when threatened by external agents, this does not occur under all conditions. If members believe the attack is directed at the group merely because of its existence and that it will cease if the group is abandoned or broken up, there is likely to be a decrease in cohesiveness.

v. Previous Successes:

If a group has a history of previous success, it builds an esprit dc crop’s that attracts and unites members. Successful firms find it easier to attract and hire new employees. The same holds true for successful research groups, well known and prestigious universities and winning athletic teams.

What is Group Cohesion – Factors Determining the Degree of Group Cohesiveness

Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members or unity, feelings of attraction for each other and desire to remain part of the group. Group cohesiveness implies degree of attachment of the members of a group. Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness – agreement on group goals, frequency of interaction, personal attractiveness, inter-group competition, favourable evaluation, etc. The more difficult it is to obtain group membership, the more cohesive the group will be.

Cohesiveness in work groups has many positive effects, including worker satisfaction, low turnover and absenteeism, and higher productivity. However, highly cohesive groups may be detrimental to organisational performance if their goals are misaligned with organisational goals. Evidence suggests that groups typically outperform individuals when the tasks involved require a variety of skills, experience and decision-making.

Groups are often more flexible and can quickly assemble, achieve goals and disband or move on to another set of objectives. Many organisations have found that groups have many motivational aspects as well. Group members are more likely to participate in decision-making and problem-solving activities leading to empowerment and increased productivity.

The degree of group cohesiveness is determined by the following factors:

(a) Communication:

If the location of the members of groups is quite close and if the interaction can be done more frequently and easily, such groups would be possibly more cohesive and effective as compared to those who are at a greater distance. Their own language, symbol and codes are developed by such groups in order to communicate with group members.

Even if groups are scattered, they might be closely knitted if the technology of work needs or allows them to interact frequently with one another, e.g., maintenance crews. As a matter of feet the speed with which message can be transmitted through the group is one of the determinants of group cohesion.

(b) Location of the Group:

This factor has an important role to play to increase cohesiveness. When the members of a group are quite away from other groups of workers, there is a tendency to build greater cohesiveness because of constant face-to-face interaction. In such a case a chain of interaction does develop but there is little group solidarity. If there is no line of differentiation between one group and another, the cohesion is more difficult to achieve.

(c) Nature of the Group:

Many a times heterogeneous groups have a lower effect in promotion of their own interest as compared to groups which have homogeneous membership, i.e., they are similar in respect of age, education, status, experience, background, etc.

They are better placed when a task or an objective needs mutual cooperation and conflict free behaviour, e.g., if people with pointed variations in their pay rates and job responsibilities work near each another, the resultant informal group can rarely be a cohesive one.

(d) Status of the Group:

This is quite important for the determination of the degree of group cohesiveness. If the status group is high it receives greater loyalty from its members. This in turn makes the group stronger. Normally people are more loyal to high status groups on account of this.

(e) Leadership Style:

The different leadership styles influence the group cohesiveness differently. An effective leader is able to-keep the group members more closely as he is helpful to them for the satisfaction of their social needs.

(f) Size of the Groups:

Small groups are quite closely knitted as compared to large ones. When the group is small its members have face-to-face and hence more effective contacts. Thus in a small group, it is easier to have close relationship with all the members. But that is not the case with the members of a large one.

(g) Autonomy:

Just as the individual might have a dependent or independent function to other groups, the groups of individuals may also have a similar one. Thus they will have different activities than the cohesiveness among members of the group and will also be less in comparison with the group whose members carry-out functions which are dependent upon each other.

(h) Outside Pressure:

The individual members are provided security by the groups against the pressure from other groups, since the group members act together whenever there is a threat from a common danger, e.g., if the group of workers have any personnel differences they forget them and also their rank when they feel that a newly employed supervisor is a threat to the group. Sometimes the group may not be in a position to bear the excessive pressure and create cohesiveness to face the external pressure.

(i) Management Behaviour:

The approach and behaviour of the management directly influences the degree of cohesion existing within a group. A manager may create competition among workers and constantly compare one worker with another, to make closeness relatively difficult. Similarly, solidarity can also be built up by him by rewarding cooperative behaviour. He can also utilize the group cohesiveness to achieve the organisational objectives by providing good leadership to them.

What is Group Cohesion – 6 Positive Outcomes

1. The group’s capacity in retaining members increases.

2. The members conform to the norms.

3. Members communicate frequently take greatest participation in group activities and the rate of absences low.

4. High cohesiveness affect production in a positive way depending on the goals of the group.

Group cohesiveness has only positive consequences.

These positive outcomes are explained in detail as fol­lows:

Positive Outcome # 1. More Participation:

Higher the degree of group cohesiveness, closer will be the interpersonal relationship among the members. As a result members will participate actively in group affairs and activities. As the members consider the group as their own, just like a family, they will help other members of the group in times of need which will further strengthen their bonds.

The turnover of members will be very low. If possible, all the members attend the group meetings and group activities and take active part in discussions relating to preparing of strategies for achieving group goals.

Positive Outcome # 2. More Conformity:

One of the factors which influences cohesiveness is similarity of attitudes and value. As a result, members tend to like each other and perceive themselves as similar. These characteristics lead members to be relatively dependent on the group for satisfaction and thus, they are susceptible to being influenced.

For example, if any member is getting involved in organizational politics for enhancing his personal goals, the group might put social pressure on him and make him comply with the group norms.

Positive Outcome # 3. More Success:

Cohesiveness and success are mutually dependent upon each other. Cohesiveness makes the goal achievement easier and goal achievement adds to success.

The reason for this relationship is that higher degree of cohesiveness leads to high degree of communication, participation and conformity to group norms. Such co-ordinated efforts result in agreement about the goals to be achieved, the methods of achieving them and finally achieving the final goals.

Positive Outcome # 4. More Communication:

Members of cohe­sive groups communicate with each other more than the members of non-cohesive groups. Be­cause the members share common ideologies, goals, backgrounds or attitudes, they are inclined to greater communicativeness. Such communi­cation is reinforcing as it tends to foster and cement positive social relation as well as depth in personal relationships.

Positive Outcome # 5. More Personal Satisfaction:

Members of cohesive groups are more satisfied as compared to members of non-cohesive groups. This is understandable because if members are not satisfied they will leave the group and join some other group. Members are more satisfied due to so many factors which include friendliness, respect, support, achievement, protection and a feeling of security.

Positive Outcome # 6. High Productivity:

Cohesiveness may contribute to increased productivity because (i) people in cohesive groups experience fewer work related anxieties and tensions (ii) highly cohesive groups tend to have lower absenteeism and turnover and (iii) cohesiveness decreases productivity differences among groups.

Studies consistently show that the relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance related norms established by the group. If performance related norms are high, a cohesive group will be more productive than with a less cohesive group. But if cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low, productivity will be low.

If cohesiveness is low and performance norms are high, productivity increases but less than in high cohesiveness-high norms situation. Where cohesiveness and performance related norms are both low, productivity will tend to fall into the low to moderate range.

The worst situation for the manager is a highly cohesive group with low performance norms. Here members are highly motivated to work for their personal satisfaction only not for the organizational goals. Here the success of the management will depend upon how to direct the activities of highly cohesive group towards the successful attainment of organizational goals.

What is Group Cohesion – Factors Increasing Cohesion

1. Inducing Agreement on Group Goals:

Management can increase cohesiveness in the group by inducing an agree­ment on group goals for the group. Groups are given time limits to wind up things or to achieve the goals. By this it becomes necessary for the group members to be collective in order to achieve the objectives.

2. Increasing Membership Homogeneity:

Homogeneity in terms of common goals, benefits, thinking styles etc. must be increased. Higher the homogeneity among the group members higher will be the cohesiveness among the group.

3. Dependency of People on Group:

Higher the dependency of the persons on the group higher will be the cohesiveness. If tasks are interdependent, people interact with each other which brings them together more easily.

4. Size:

Cohesiveness is the result of interaction between the group members. More frequently they interact with each other more will be their closeness. Small groups provides better and more opportunities to the members for interaction.

5. Seating Plans:

Seating plan of the individuals also plays an important role in forming the cohesiveness in the group. The more closer the people will sit, the higher will be their inter­action and vice-versa.

6. Group Status:

Because of the success stories and high status, group members are much more attracted towards a group. This is the result of solidarity shown by the group members towards the group.

7. Leadership:

A leader can change the direction of the whole group in a right direction or even in a wrong direction. Through his leadership qualities he can motivate the entire group to work collectively in one direction for the attainment of orga­nizational goals. He can unite the whole group and increase cohesiveness.

8. Pressure:

Outside pressure always increases group co­hesiveness. It induces the members of the group to face challenges together, to help each other to distribute and share the pressure to create a stress free environment.

9. Competition:

Competition with the outsiders and intergroup competitions always increases group cohesiveness. It acts as the basis for cohesiveness. Whereas the competition between the members of the group decreases cohesive­ness, competition with outside increases cohesiveness.

10. Success:

Success of goals increases the morals of the group members which results in cohesiveness.

What is Group Cohesion – Factors Decreasing Cohesion

1. Heterogeneous Composition:

Dissimilarities among the group members in terms of thinking, goals, benefits, religion etc. decreases cohesiveness.

2. Recent Formation:

Recently formed groups or less stable groups have less cohesiveness as compared to stable groups.

3. Large Size:

Large size of groups decreases the opportuni­ties for the interaction between the group members which is an important requirement for cohesiveness. So large group decreases the group cohesiveness.

4. Physical Dispersion:

Seating arrangement plays an im­portant role in cohesiveness. If people sit at distances then there will be less interaction between them which results in less cohesiveness.

5. Diversified Goals:

People working with different objectives decreases cohesiveness among the group members be­cause every individual will think of achieving his own objec­tives instead of group goals. This will result in non-coopera­tion and no coordination among the group members.

6. Failure:

As and when a group meets any failure, people start blaming each other. Everyone starts making other per­son responsible for the failure. This is an important cause for less or decreasing cohesiveness.

What is Group Cohesion – Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and Productivity

It will be interesting to look into how group cohesiveness affects the productivity of group members. Evidences such as Hawthorne studies; indicate that highly cohesive groups are more effective than those with less cohesiveness. It is also reported that a high degree of cohesiveness is both a cause and effect of high productivity.

However, the relationship between the two is moderated by the degree to which the group attitudes are aligned with the organizational goals. This can be understood with an example of a hockey team. Here, the successful performance of the players depends upon both cohesiveness among them and their attitudinal alignment with their organizational goal.

Given the favourable group attitude or norms, the productivity of a cohesive group tends to be higher than a less cohesive group. But, if group cohesiveness is high and group norms are not favourable, the group productivity will be lower. If group cohesiveness is less, on the one hand and group norms are not favourable, on the other, there seems to be no significant effect of group cohesiveness upon productivity.

Lastly, high group cohesiveness also offers job satisfaction to its members. Job satisfaction helps reduce absenteeism, tardiness and turnover among the group members. As regards its effect upon productivity, it depends upon reconciliation between the group goals and the organizational goals.

The cohesive groups have important implications for managers mainly for two reasons. First, a cohesive group being united commands control over its members. It enables the group to command a powerful bargaining power. Second, if the cohesive groups are not managed and motivated effectively, its productivity is sure to be low. Therefore, it is imperative for the management to work in close co-operation with the cohesive groups to attain higher productivity.

Group cohesiveness taken together with group norms for productivity, affects productivity. This relationship was established by Hawthorne experiments long back. During the experiments, it was found that the workers tended to set their own norms of production for the group as a whole and because of group cohesiveness, they used to stick to those norms.

Group cohesiveness and productivity shows two types of characteristics:

1. The productivity of members of a cohesive group tends to be more uniform. This is so because high group cohesiveness promotes high control over the level of production of the individual members and this reduces variation among those members.

2. In the group with low cohesiveness, productivity tends to show wide variation among members reflecting that the group has lower social control over its members.

There may be a perception that highly cohesive group produces better results. However, this relationship is much more complex than what it appears to be, because the relationship is moderated by the degree to which the group’s attitudes align with its own goals or those of the organization of which it is a part.

Thus, the relationship of cohesiveness and productivity of the group depends on the alignment of the group’s attitudes towards the organizational goals (setting performance norms).

Thus, we may see that for high productivity, both group cohesiveness and performance norms should be high. If the performance norms are low, the group’s productivity will be low inspite of high group cohesiveness. Even in the case of high performance norms. Less cohesive group may produce more as compared to highly cohesive group because of lower impact of group on its individual members.

The above relationship between group cohesiveness, group norms and productivity has important implications for management. If management simply focuses its attention to have better cohesive groups. It may not be able to achieve high productivity unless it focuses its attention on group norms and their alignment with organizational goals.

What is Group Cohesion – Guidelines for Better Use of Group Dynamics

Group cohesiveness or solidarity may produce resistance to change or acceptance of it. It is the responsibility of a manager to use group dynamics in such a way that the solidarity of the group contributes to a favourable attitude towards high standards and acceptance of necessary changes.

In order to achieve this, the following principles of group dynamics laid down by Dorwin Cartwright should be followed:

1. If the group is to be used effectively as a medium of change, those people who are to be changed and those who are to exert influence for change must have a strong sense of belongingness to the same group.

2. The more attractive the group is to its member, the greater is the influence that the group can exert on its members.

3. In attempts to change attitudes, values or behaviour, the more relevant they are to the basis of attraction to the group, the greater will be the influence that the group can exert upon the members.

4. The greater the prestige of a group member in the eyes of the other members, the greater the influence he can exert.

5. Efforts to change individuals or subparts of a group, which if successful, would have the effect of making them deviate from the norms of the group will encounter strong resistance.

6. Strong pressure for change in the group can be established by creating a shared perception by the members of the need for change, thus making the source of pressure for change lie within the group.

7. Information relating to the need for change, plans for change, and consequences of change must be shared by all relevant people in the group.

8. Changes in one part of a group produce strains in related parts which can be reduced only by eliminating the change or by bringing about readjustment in related parts.

What is Group Cohesion – Benefits and Disadvantages

Benefits of High Cohesiveness:

1. Goal Achievement:

Better coordination and cohesiveness in the group helps in achieving the goals of the organization. Here people work together as a team to achieve the group goals.

2. Satisfaction:

Cohesiveness in the group gives satisfaction to its members. People feel secure because of the surround­ings, peoples attachment etc. Achievement of goals also gives satisfaction to the members of the groups.

3. Quantity and Quality of Interaction:

Cohesiveness in the group can increase the quality and quantity of interaction between the group members. People interact with each other and more frequently in case of cohesive groups.

4. Group Think:

Cohesiveness in the group gives rise to ‘group think’ which ultimately results in the achievement of the group goals in the efficient and effective manner.

Disadvantages of Low Cohesiveness:

1. Difficulty in Achieving Goals:

The major problem of low cohesiveness is the difficulty in achieving the organizational goals. Efforts are not coordinated in one direction which takes individuals away from the organizational goals.

2. Less Interaction:

As there is lack of mutual understanding among the members of the group it leads to low interaction among the members, which is a negative sign from the or­ganizational point of view.

3. ‘I’ Approach:

Because of low cohesiveness people tends to use T approach instead of ‘We’ approach. This T approach is not favourable for the organizations goals.

4. Less Commitment to Group Goals:

People are self-en­gaged, less coordinated, very low mutual understanding, T approach etc. All these things leads to very less commit­ment to group goals. People think of their own goals, and benefits instead of group goals.

What is Group CohesionConsequences

Group Cohesiveness means the extent to which the members are attached towards each other. It response to the amount of motivation to remain the group.

Cohesiveness reflects upon the strengthening of the group members. There should be lot of cohesiveness among the team or group members in order that the group norms and conformity do exist in the groups.

In case of absence of the group cohesiveness let us see and understand what would be the consequences of lack of cohesiveness in the group.

Group cohesiveness has positive consequences. First, there is increased morale in cohesive groups. Each member of cohesive group likes the other members, there is increased morale reduced conflict and better communication among the team members.

The most important benefit of cohesiveness, is its effect on productivity. Cohesiveness may contribute to increased productivity because of at least three reasons – (i) people in cohesive groups experience fewer work-related anxieties, (ii) highly cohesive groups tend to have lower absenteeism and turnover, and (iii) cohesiveness decreases productivity differences among groups.

Members of cohesive groups communicate with each other more than members of non- cohesive groups do. Sharing common ideologies, goals, backgrounds, or attitudes gives cohesive groups a lot to talk about, and such discussion is usually reinforcing. Effective Communication emerges from group cohesiveness.

The three points mentioned above speak about the benefits of groups to members generally. But the critical remaining question is whether or not cohesive work groups are good for their host organisations. Effect of cohesiveness depends on performance norms. A basic rule of group dynamics is that, the more cohesive the group, the greater the conformity of members to group norms. When the performance norm is positive, high conformity has a very beneficial effect. However, substantial undesirable result can occur when conformity is high.