Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Scientific Management’ for class 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Scientific Management’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Scientific Management

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on the Definition of Scientific Management
  2. Essay on the Founder of Scientific Management
  3. Essay on the Aims of Scientific Management
  4. Essay on the Benefits of Scientific Management
  5. Essay on the Elements of Scientific Management
  6. Essay on the Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management
  7. Essay on the Techniques of Scientific Management
  8. Essay on the Criticism of Scientific Management

Essay # 1. Definition of Scientific Management:

Scientific management implies the application of science to management. It means conduct of the business activities according to pattern through standardised tools, methods and trained personnel in order to increase the output, improve its quality, reduce the costs and wastes. A few definitions of the concept of scientific management are given here.


According to Kimbal and Kimbal, “It is an attitude that aims to replace ‘I think’ with ‘I know’. It points out the method of intelligently directing the construction and arrangement of factory buildings, the character of methods and processes, the organisation of departments, the elimination of wastes and increase of efficiency in all phases of industrial administration where data and experience are applicable.”

According to Harlow Pearson, “Scientific management characterises that form of organisation and procedure is purposive effort which rests on principles or laws derived by the process of scientific investigations and analysis instead of tradition or policies determined empirically and casually by the process of trial and error.”

According to Jones, “It is a body of rules together with their appropriate expression in physical and administrative mechanisms and specialised executives to be operated in co-ordination as a system for the achievement of a new strictness in the control and processes of production.”

According to Spriegel, “Scientific management when conceived as a body of knowledge is based upon the careful formulation of basic laws or procedures in such phases of human endeavour, processes and material. Scientific management viewed as a process or a method is concerned primarily with the discovery of casual relationships between the efforts expended for a given objective and the results of these efforts with special emphasis upon the discovery of the best method in the light of the available manpower, materials and technology.”


According to Peter Drucker. “Its cord is the operational study of work, the analysis of work into its simplest element and the systematic improvement of the worker’s performance of each element.”

Essay # 2. Founder of Scientific Management:

F.W. Taylor was the first person who insisted on the introduction of scientific methods in management and it was he who, along with his associates, made the first systematic study of management. He launched a new movement in the year 1910 which is called “Scientific Management”. That is why Taylor is known as the father of scientific management.

Frederic W. Taylor was a pioneer who propounded scientific principles of management as the result of his keen research in different areas of industrial activity. He was primarily concerned with efficiency of workers and optimum utilisation of machines and other resources in order to bring up a sound enterprise, consistent with the interests of entrepreneurs, the labourers, and the consumers at large.


Taylor, who worked in different capacities in steel industry saw the urgent necessity for elimination of wastes rampant in industrial organisations. The only way to avoid wastes and achieve efficiency was he felt, to apply methods of science to the fields of management.

He found by his observation and experiments in factories where he worked that methods of production lacked planning, tools and equipment’s were meagre and old, and working methods were haphazard.

Taylor published books and papers explaining his radical views on industrial organisation and management, ‘Shop Management’, ‘Piece Rate System’ Principles of Scientific Management’, were his major contributions to management thought. Taylor came to be recognised as the father of scientific management and was hailed as the “creator of new science.”

Obviously, Taylor’s primary emphasis was on adoption of scientific methods to the problems of management.


He said that his book, Principles of Scientific Management’ was written with the following purposes:

i. To point out through a series of simple illustrations the great loss which the country is suffering through inefficiency in almost all of our daily acts.

ii. To try to convince the reader that the remedy for this inefficiency lies in systematic management, rather than in searching for unusual or extra­ordinary man.

iii. To prove that the best management is a true science resting upon clearly defined laws, rules and principles as a foundation.


Essay # 3. Aims of Scientific Management:

The aims of scientific management may be summarised as under:

(i) Increased Production:

Increase in the rate of production by use of standardised tools, equipment and methods.


(ii) Quality Control:

Improvement in the quality of the output by research, quality control and inspection devices.

(iii) Cost Reduction:

Reduction in the costs of production by rational planning and regulation, and cost control techniques.


(iv) Elimination of Wastes:

Elimination of wastes in the use of resources and methods of production.

(v) Right Men for Right Work:

Placement of right person on the right job through scientific selection and training.

(vi) Incentive Wages:

Payment of wages to workers as per their efficiency.


Essay # 4. Benefits of Scientific Management:

Taylor observed that scientific management would “substitute exact knowledge for guess work and seek to establish a code of natural laws equally binding upon employers and workman,”

Gilbreths said that primary benefit of scientific management was “conservation and savings, making an adequate use of every ounce of energy of any type that is expended”.

Benefits of scientific management are as follows:

1. Evolution of scientific laws to regulate manufacturing, marketing and managerial activities and elimination of arbitrary decisions.

2. Standardisation of tools, equipment, materials and work methods.


3. Revolutionalisation of layout, scheduling, purchasing, storekeeping and accounting.

4. Elimination of wastes and rationalised system of cost-control.

5. Detailed instruction, guidance, prompt rewards for workers.

6. High standards of performance of work.

7. Avoidance of delays, mistakes, accidents and neglect in production and allied activities.

8. Sure supply of goods of standard quality to the customers.


9. Workers will be benefited by higher wages for higher work.

10. Due to reduced costs, prices of goods supplied to consumers would be relatively fair and cheaper.

Essay # 5. Elements of Scientific Management:

The elements or mechanisms of scientific management as suggested by F.W. Taylor are discussed in the following way:

(i) Scientific Task Setting:

Taylor felt that the workers restricted their output because of the major reason that there was no standard about a proper day’s work. Hence, it is essential to set the standard task which an average worker should do during a day. Taylor termed it “a fair day’s work.”


The standard task is to be set by the management scientifically so that it represents the amount of work which an average worker, working under average standardised conditions in an atmosphere of mutual trust and cooperation, will be able to do during a day.

It will act as a norm for the workers and will prevent them from doing work much below their capacity. It should be kept in mind that the standard task is neither too low nor too high. The average worker should be capable of doing the standard task. For the setting of standard task, scientific techniques should be used.

(ii) Work Study:

Work study implies an organised, objective, systematic, analytical and critical assessment of the efficiency of various operations in an enterprise. It is a generic term for those techniques which are used in the examination of human work in all its context and which lead systematically to the investigation of all factors which affect the efficiency and economy of operations.

(iii) Planning the Task:

Taylor emphasised the need for planning work. He advocated that planning function should be separated from the executive function. Workers should not be supposed to choose their own methods and decide what they have to do. The detailed planning should be done by the planning department.


The planning department should:

(a) Prepare detailed instructions for the workers as to the type, shape, quality and quantity of the products to be produced,

(b) Lay down the machines and equipment to be used,

(c) Determine the time required for completion of various operations,

(d) Make available the necessary materials and tools in carrying out the operations, and

(e) Receive feedback information for the modification of planning, if necessary.

(iv) Rate Setting:

Wage rates should be fixed in such a way that the average worker is induced to attain the standard. Taylor suggested the differential piece- wage system. Under this system, higher rates are offered to those workers who produce more than the standard quantity. Taylor was of the view that the efficient workers should be paid from 30 per cent to 100 per cent more than the average workers.

(v) Standardisation:

Taylor advocated the standardisation of materials, tools and equipment, cost system and several other items. Efforts should also be made to provide standardised working conditions and methods of production to the workers. Thus, standardisation is an important task for the introduction of scientific management in any enterprise.

Following are the advantages of standardisation:

(i) Operators can be trained easily,

(ii) It is economical to have standardised materials, tools and equipment, etc.

(iii) Standardisation helps in achieving various economies of large scale production,

(iv) Standardisation will improve the quality of production and reduce the cost of repairs and maintenance.

(vi) Scientific Selection and Training of Workers:

The selection procedure must be designed carefully because errors committed at the time of selection may prove to be very costly later on. If the selection process is faulty, there will not be right workers on the right jobs. Thus, the efficiency of the organisation will be reduced.

Taylor advocated the need for proper selection and training of workers. Only a worker who meets the requirements of his job can do it well and at the minimum cost. Training of workers is the other task of management after the appropriate placement of workers.

Training helps in changing the behaviour of the workers. It can be of great help in teaching them the best method of doing their job. Since the workers are trained, they will produce goods of high quality and incur less wastages.

(vii) Specialisation:

Taylor advocated that specialisation must be introduced in a factory. He advocated functional foremanship for this purpose. In his scheme planning was separated from executing. He recommended eight foremen in all to control the various aspects of production. Taylor advocated four foremen in the planning department, namely, route clerk, instruction card clerk, time and cost clerk, and shop disciplinarian.

The four foremen recommended for getting the required performance from the workers include gang boss, speed boss, repair boss and inspector. The detailed description of the responsibilities of these foremen is given later in the chapter.

Essay # 6. Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management:

The fundamental principles that Taylor saw underlying the scientific management are:

i. Replacing Rule of Thumb with Science:

Taylor has emphasized that in scientific management, organised knowledge should be applied which will replace rule of thumb. While the use of scientific method denotes precision in determining any aspect of work, rule of thumb emphasizes estimation.

Since exactness of various aspects of work like days fair work, standardization in work, differential piece rate of payment, etc. is the basic core of scientific management. It is essential that all these are measured precisely and should not be based on mere estimates.

ii. Harmony in Group Action:

Taylor has emphasised that attempts should be made to obtain harmony in group action rather than discord. Group harmony suggests that there should be mutual give and take situation and proper understanding so that group as a whole contributes to the maximum.

iii. Co-Operation:

Scientific management involves achieving co-operation rather than chaotic individualism. Scientific management is based on mutual confidence, co-operation and goodwill. Co-operation between management and workers can be developed through mutual understanding and a change in thinking.

Taylor has suggested “substitution of war for peace, heartily and brotherly co-operation for discontentment and strife, replacement of suspicious watchfulness with mutual confidence of becoming friends instead of enemies. It is along this line, I say, that scientific management must be developed.”

iv. Maximum Output:

Scientific management involves continuous increase in production and productivity instead of restricted production either by management or by worker. Taylor hated inefficiency and deliberate curtailment of production. His concern was with the large size of the cake.

In his opinion, “there is hardly any worse crime to my mind than that of deliberately restricting output.” He advised the management and workers to “turn their attention towards increasing the size of the surplus until the size of the surplus becomes so large that is necessary to quarrel over how it shall be divided.”

v. Development of Workers:

In scientific management, all workers should be developed to the fullest extent possible for their own and for the company’s highest prosperity. Development of workers requires their scientific selection and providing them training at the workplace. Training should be provided to workers to keep them fully fit according to the requirement of new methods of working which may be different from the non-scientific methods.

Essay # 7. Techniques of Scientific Management:

Following are the main techniques of scientific management:

i. Scientific Method:

Scientific method consists of proper identification of the problem and objectives, collection of data relating there to through observation and experimentation, formulation of hypothesis, testing their validity and framing of laws to guide planning and execution.

Scientific method in management is a systematize approach to conduct the affairs of the enterprise on the basis of observation, experimentation and rational decisions instead of methods based on guess-work, trial and error.

Frederic Taylor who worked as engineer in Midvale Steel Works and Bethlehem Steel Company, conducted a series of experiments in metal cutting, pig iron handling etc. He observed defects and wastages rampant in traditional processes and sought to devise new methods for improved operational efficiency.

The steps followed by Taylor in scientific analysis are given below:

1. To observe the facts carefully and to experiment under controlled conditions to secure the facts if the current operations do not provide the necessary information.

2. To classify the facts to facilitate the study and interpretation of data.

3. To analyse the classified data to discover a law or rule that explains the existing relationships.

4. To formulate a rule or law that explains the factual relationships that are found.

5. To adjust the procedures and practices to conform to the discovered law. This may involve teaching the workmen new method and the adjustment of equipment.

6. To check up to see if the discovered law worked out in practice and to modify, if necessary, in the light of new data or new situation.

ii. Standardisation and Simplification Standardisation:

By standardisation we mean the establishment of norms, sizes, types, qualities, weights, measures, etc. It is a process of fixing well-thought-out and tested criteria for laying down efficient methods of production and suitable tools and apparatus to handle with ease and convenience and determining the task to be performed and specifying the basis of comparison and classification of the products as per their degree-of quality and utility.

A standard is defined as carefully established norm or measure covering a method, material, product, procedure or any other phase of a business process.

The objectives of standardisation are as follows:

1. To reduce a given line of product to fixed types, sizes and characteristics.

2. To establish interchangeability of manufactured parts and products.

3. To establish standards of excellence and the quality in materials.

4. To establish standards of performance of men and machines.


Simplification refers to the elimination of superfluous varieties, sizes and dimensions, while standardisation implies devising of new varieties in the place of existing ones, simplification aims at eliminating unnecessary diversity of products. Simplification movement in the USA resulted in reduction of substantial number of superfluous varieties which were proving to be an economic drag.

Advantages of simplification are as follows:

1. Simplification leads to economy in the use of machines and tools needed;

2. It reduces labour costs through increased specialisation of task.

3. It also brings about reduction in the required raw materials and inventories of intermediate and finished goods.

4. It implies fuller utilisation of equipment through uninterrupted runs and fewer machine set-ups.

5. It helps in improving the quality, increasing the turnover at reduced costs and prices.

iii. Cost Accounting:

Costing means classifying, recording and allocating the appropriate expenditure for determining the costs of products or services and the presentation of suitably arranged data for the purpose of control and guidance of management.

“Cost Accounting” is definitely a product of scientific management.

It is only a system of cost accounting that can focus its critical attention on the expenditure-pattern at each stage or process of production. By keen cost-analysis we can get precise idea about the efficacy and efficiency of an enterprise in all its operational and administrative activities.

In all undertakings where articles of diverse sizes and features are manufac­tured, it is essential to know which of the models is economical and profitable.

Costing enables the management to find out the viable lines of business and weed out the wasteful processes, materials and products. It is an important aid to business management in its decision making and executing functions. Financial accounts are a post-mortem of dealings.

Therefore remedial measures cannot be taken in time because of the non-­availability of information relating to cost-factors. “With a good cost system the manager can keep himself informed regarding the workshop operations as they progress and can often avert losses and difficulties instead of waiting until the work is finished”.

It consists of a series of accounts showing in the systematic manner the equitable apportionment of the materials and stores used in production, labour expended and the overhead charges defrayed in an undertaking. Its purpose is to fine out the accurate cost of each job, process or product per unit of the work turned out.

Aims or Objectives of Costing:

The aims or objectives of costing are as follows:

1. To calculate the unit-wise or process-wise costs of production and allied operations;

2. To evolve standard costs and compare the actual costs;

3. To compile the necessary data for periodical formulation of profit and loss accounts of each department or of each product;

4. To give a comparative idea about costs of different volumes of output for different periods;

5. To spot out wastes and deficiencies in operational methods and organisation; and

6. To fix the final selling price of a product at a precise rate on the basis of detailed cost analysis.

The aggregate cost of a product is the composite of three basic elements:

a) Material,

b) Labour, and

c) Expense.

iv. Time and Motion Studies:

The aim of scientific management is to maximise the output with least efforts and within minimum possible time. Time and motion studies standardise the operational series and schedule to achieve the objectives of scientific management.

Time and motion studies are intended to streamline the methodology of manufacturing to bring about economy and efficiency in each and every stage and process of production cycle. Workers must be educated and trained to follow the path of productive operations established by time and motion studies.

F.W. Taylor was one of the pioneers of time studies and work simplification experiments. He selected a first class workman who could work with fewer wasteful motions and timed that man as a basis for scheduling the work. He taught others to gravitate towards the best method evolved by time and motion studies. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbreth pursued these studies and arrived at laws of efficient and effortless motions.

Today, the industrial engineers have enlarged the scope and contents of the studies.

Aims or Objectives:

The aims of time and motion studies are listed below:

1. To find out the most efficient method of performing a given piece, unit or quantity of work.

2. To train the workers and supervisors to give instructions to the workers in the best method of performing the work.

3. To standardise tools, equipment, work place and materials so that the workers may operate consistently as per the established method.

4. To determine the time required for the average worker to perform the job according to the prescribed standards.

Definition of Motion Study:

According to Gilbreth, “Motion study is the science of eliminating wastefulness resulting from unnecessary, ill-directed and inefficient motions.”

According to Keith and Gubellini, “Motion study is the attempt to establish the best series of motions with which to accomplish a particular task.”

According to H.N.Broom, “Motion study is formal engineering analysis of motions performed to accomplish the work with the intent to eliminate waste motions and improve ill-directed and inefficient motions. Motion analysis properly culminates in developing a new and better motion sequence.”

The object of motion study is to evolve the best way of doing a job with less fatigue and greater ease and grace. Higher operating efficiency, reduced efforts, diminished fatigue are the objectives to motion study.

Motion study involves simplification of the job to be performed fixing the best method of doing it and thereby reducing the time and cost per unit of production.

Time Studies:

Time is a vital factor in production-planning and control. Wastage of time would cause damaging delay in production, selling cycles and would have demoralising effect on the firm’s goodwill, prospects and profits. Absence of time- consciousness in performance of job on the part of workers leads to show work and consequent payment of wages not linked with the .output turned out.

Time study aims at the rationalisation of time in mechanical and manual operations and ensuring regular timely supply to the market. Planning the schedule of production is proceeded by time-studies.

Time studies provide the data indicating the time required for each phase of the work and sum total of these phase-timings give the overall time for completion of the entire process of the job.

Definition of Time Study:

According to Gilbreth, “It is the art of recording, analysing and synthesising the time of elements of any operation.”

According to Keith and Gubellini, “Time study is a procedure whereby a job is subjected to observation and recording of the time which is taken to do the job.”

According to Broom: “It is engineering analysis of unit jobs in industry intended to discover the time needed to perform those jobs.”

Aims or Objectives of Time Study:

1. To achieve a uniform flow of work by men and machines as per the standard sequence.

2. To avoid delay in manufacture and ensure steady flow of products into the market.

3. To, lay down rate of work to be performed that is machine-hour man- hour rate setting.

4. to aid the analysis of motions study of jobs for operational standardisation.

5. To estimate the time and cost involved in executing new production orders.

6. To eliminate delays, idle hours and thus minimise the overhead costs of operation.

7. To devise incentive-based wage policy for expeditious performance of the job.

Advantages of Motion Study:

They are as follows:

1. The standard method of performing the work is set by motion-analysis.

2. The motion economy reduces the strain on the workers and secures quicker rate of performance.

3. An avoidance of superfluous motion, machines and tools would result in reduced costs.

4. The scientific changes in method and equipment can be brought about. Benefits of Time Studies

They are as follows:

1. Time output standards serve as yard sticks for comparing actual hourly schedules of production for each operator.

2. Time studies enable the management to regulate the scheduling and flow of production.

3. Observations during time studies may lead to improvements in work- methods and plant and place layout.

4. Time studies facilitate evaluation of machine capacities and consequent shaping of replacement, maintenance policies.

5. Avoidance of delay, elimination of idle hours, removal of hesitation in the work-cycle would result in substantial saving of overhead costs

v. Planning and Control of Production:

Planning is said to be the soul of scientific management. The objectives of scientific management can be realised by detailed planning and control of manufacturing operations.

Before Taylor, production activity was largely left to the capability of foremen. There was considerable wastage of resources, spoilage of work, delay, uncertain quality etc. because of lack of prior specification of work.

Taylor advocated setting up of planning department to undertake advance planning of production in all its operational aspects. This department is to be distinct from the actual manufacturing sections.

The idea implied in planning is separation of intellectual analysis from operative activities or separation of mechanical and mental functions so that there will be pitch of specialisation born of research and experiment.

Production, planning and control consists of a series of related activities each pre-determined and timed to co-ordinate manufacturing programmes. The production, planning and control (PPC) department guides production by preparing and issuing manufacturing orders which direct the use of facilities and materials and allocate labour to the output of the required quantity of products.

Scientific management implies the centralised co-ordination and integration of the productive factors for attainment of optimum efficiency.

Planning is conscious and systematic direction of resources for realising the given objectives of planning.

The Objectives of Scientific Planning:

They are as follows:

1. To fix targets of output to be produced and ensure their production as per schedule.

2. To guarantee the standard quality of the product.

3. To give proper scope for specialisation as a factor in large-scale production.

4. To exercise strict control over production costs.

5. To make fuller utilisation of available resources.

6. To promote sales through maintenance of finished goods inventories adequate to meet the demand for standard products.

7. To provide information necessary for correct pricing of customers’ orders.

8. To reduce interruptions and idle periods of men and machines caused by non-availability of materials, tools etc.

9. To ensure steady production of high output levels.

vi. Labour Management:

Scientific management believes in placing the right man on the right job and making him fit for handling the job with all his ability and interest.

A separate section, ‘Personnel Department’ should be constituted to recruit, train, evaluate and regulate the personnel and decide about their compensation.

Trade tests are to be conducted to find out the talented personnel for the executive, supervisory and operational posts. The liking, attitude, ability of the workers are to be taken into account and are then compared with the nature and requirements of the jobs in question.

A task is defined, its best method of performance is found out, standard tools and equipment are installed. After this, workers with necessary educational qualifications, practical experience and competence are selected to man such jobs. Selection of the workers should not be left to the whims of foreman, but is to be based on scientific evaluation of the job-requirement by expert board of recruitment.

Taylor selected first-class workers to operate the jobs and found by experiments that there was considerable increase in the output. Job-analysis is essential to place the right person on the right job.

Selection made as per the criteria of job-analysis and specifications would avoid wastes, secure competent performance and create necessary goodwill for the firm, its products and policies.

Taylor, Emmerson, Gantt and others advocated piece-wage system of remune­ration to the labourers. Taylor’s differential piece wage plan, Gantt’s task and bonus plan and Emmerson’s efficiency plan aim at ensuring higher productivity through fair and attractive wages determined according to the standard work turned out.

Taylor’s plan envisaged payment at lower piece-rate for low production and higher piece-rate for higher production.

vii. Mental Revolution:

Workers feel that management extrapolates them, exacts heavy work and pays proportionately meagre wages, whereas the management has the misgiving that workers always grumble about the load of the work, purposely follow go-slow policy, damage the equipment, carelessly handle the machines and tools and show indifference towards the quality of the goods.

Management and labour suspect each other and seek to outwit the other. This feeling of suspicion or prejudice has to be rooted out to adopt systematic thinking on effective management, based on motivation consistent with efficiency and discipline.

The management should deem it its duty to provide suitable equipment, required tools, the needed training and stimulating remuneration to the workers in order to get the best from them.

The management has to create congenial working conditions for optimum efficiency in performance of the labourers. Workers and supervisory personnel at the production level should not be burdened with the responsibility of decision ­making.

Management has to give out detailed instructions of operation to each and every class of workers on method, time, quality and output of performing a given job. A spirit of co-operation should bind the management and workers in imple­menting the plans of the firm for higher, better and quicker production and profits.

Effects of Mental Revolution:

1. Burden of workers will be reduced by separation of planning and execution.

2. Ease and grace in the work is secured by standardisation and simplification, time motion and fatigue studies.

3. Control is exercised over workers not by bossism but by rational criteria evolved by time and motion studies and through careful routing and scheduling.

4. Scientific selection, training, placement and standardised working conditions are helpful in increasing labour efficiency.

5. Piece-wage system is introduced to provide higher incentives to meritorious workers.

Essay # 8. Criticism of Scientific Management:

Objection of workers to scientific management can be summarised as under:

1. It leads to loss of initiative, inventive skill and independent judgement on the part of workers and executive personnel since they are just to carry out the instructions imposed by planners.

2. Minute planning, standardisation and tight control reduce the workers to blind machine.

3. Workers are speeded up without fundamental improvements in factory- layout, production techniques, tool designs, training etc. This endangers the health of workers and creates harmful mental tensions in them.

4. It is apprehended that adoption of labour-saving techniques in management will lead to unemployment. Numerous workers will be rendered superfluous because of computerisation and mechanisation of managerial activities. Technological unemployment, as it may be called, would cause social imbalances.

5. It is alleged that scientific management would block the growth of trade unions.

6. Scientific management may bring in managerial dictatorship. It may become anti-democratic because it overshadows the workers’ independence. Decision-making powers will be concentrated heavily in management and experts. There is every likelihood of misuse of this authority and twisting of data to the detriment of workers.

7. Workers’ wages will not be increased in the same ratio as costs are reduced consequent to adoption of new methods, tools, trained labour, etc. Management will not give a fair share to the workers despite their contribution towards increased efficiency and productivity.

Employers’ Objections:

1. It involves additional heavy capital investment. Research, time and motion studies, standardisation and other programmes of scientific management would mean higher capital outlay.

2. Only large-scale enterprises with assured market can derive benefit of scientific management. Smaller enterprises cannot afford to adopt the newer techniques because of their prohibitive costs.

3. The response of the workers to the new systems may be uncertain and inadequate. If the workers do not show ‘due’ interest in implementing the reforms, the investments in machines, standard tools, training and guidance of work-people would be a waste, a burden on the management.

4. Management will be unwieldy and it may not be possible to maintain discipline and-morale in the administration of the enterprise.

5. Scientific management may lead to over-production or glut. Slight recession in the market would hit the firms heavily.

Psychologists’ Objections:

1. Standardisation, time and motion studies and functional foremanship would reduce the workers to mere tools in the hands of management and its experts. Workers feel a sense of inferiority complex when they are asked to follow mechanically the instructions of the planners and executives without thinking on their own.

2. Evolving the uniform and the superior method for all workers is against the tenets of psychology. The ‘best’ can be obtained if workers are given scope to shape their careers according to their aptitudes.

3. The role of worker under scientific management in the scheme of production is minor though minute. Repetitive performance of the same job would create monotony, the perverse effect to excess-specialisation Monotony is a mental sate of slack efficiency.

4. Payment of wages on piece-rate basis will dishearten workers particularly the new ones.

5. Scientific management often has resulted in ‘intensification’ or ‘speeding up’ of the workers. This would cause tension and mental uneasiness in them.

6. Absence of non-financial incentives is also a drawback of scientific management.