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5 Main Steps Involved in Organizing Process | Management

This article throws light upon the five main steps involved in organizing process. The steps are: 1. Consideration of Plans and Goals 2. Determining the Work Activities Necessary to Accomplish Objectives 3. Classifying and Grouping Activities 4. Assigning Work and Delegating Appropriate Authority 5. Designing a Hierarchy of Relationships. Step # 1. Consideration of Plans […]

Personnel Management Decisions: 4 Types | Staffing

This article throws light upon the four main types of personnel management decisions. The types are: 1. Promotions 2. Transfers 3. Demotions 4. Separations. Type # 1. Promotions: An important employment decision is promotion. On most occasions human resources are not brought in from the external labour market to fill a specific position, but are […]

Classification of Plans: 4 Types | Management

Plans can be classified in following categories: 1. Standing or Repeated Use Plans 2. Single-Use Plans 3. Enterprise Plans 4. Time Plans. Type # 1. Standing or Repeated-Use Plans: These plans are used again and again and repeti­tive in nature. These are formulated by managers at different levels meant for repeated use as and when […]

Morale: Meaning, Factors and Its Improvement

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Morale 2. Factors Affecting Morale 3. Forms 4. Measures. Meaning of Morale: Morale is a mental condition and attitude of employees, either individually or in a group which determines their willingness to cooperate. Morale can also be defined as the extent to which an […]

Top 8 Functions of Management

This article throws light upon the top eight functions of management. The functions are: 1. Planning 2. Organising 3. Staffing 4. Directing 5. Motivating 6. Controlling 7. Co-Ordination 8. Communication. Function # 1. Planning: When management is reviewed as a process, planning is the first function performed by a manager. The work of a manager […]

5 Main Steps Involved in the Planning Process

This article throws light upon the five main steps involved in the planning process in an organisation. The steps are: 1. Environment Analysis 2. Determination of Mission and Objectives 3. ‘Developing Strategies’ 4. Developing Programmes or Action Plans 5. Control Mechanism. Planning Process: Step # 1. Environment Analysis: The external environment covers uncontrollable and unpredictable […]

Span of Control: Importance, Principles and Factors

After reading this article you will learn about Span of Control:- 1. Importance of Span of Control or Supervision 2. Principle of span of control 3. Factors Determining. Importance of Span of Control or Supervision: How many subordinates can a manager supervise or control directly? What should be the span or range of control or […]

Departmentation: Meaning and Bases | Organisation Process

After reading this article you will learn about Departmentation:- 1. Meaning of Departmentation 2. Departmentation (Grouping into Sections, Departments and Higher Administrative Units) 3. Bases. Meaning of Departmentation: We have to divide the work to be performed. First we have to group tasks to form individual jobs. This is called arranging the manageable units for […]

Budgetary Control: Definition, Objectives and Benefits

Definition of Budgetary Control: Welsch has defined budgetary control as “the use of budgets and budgeting reports throughout the period to coordinate, evaluate and control day-to-day operations in accordance with the goals specified by the budget.” According to H.S. Wheldon, “By budgetary control, every items of actual cost is so controlled by vigilant supervision as […]

Control Techniques Used in an Organization

This article throws light upon the four modern control techniques used in an organisation. The modern control techniques are: 1. Network Techniques-PERT, CPM 2. Responsibility Accounting 3. Management Audit 4. Human Resources Accounting. Modern Control Technique # 1. Network Techniques-PERT, CPM: PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique) was developed by the social project office of […]

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